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epilepsy Immune

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16 papers 0 to 25 followers
Nina Dupuis, Niccolo Curatolo, Jean-François Benoist, Stéphane Auvin
The ketogenic diet (KD) is an established treatment for refractory epilepsy, including some inflammation-induced epileptic encephalopathies. In a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced fever model in rats, we found that animals given the KD for 14 days showed less fever and lower proinflammatory cytokine levels than control animals. However, KD rats exhibited a decrease in circulating levels of arachidonic acid and long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), suggesting that the anti-inflammatory effect of KD was probably not due to an increase in anti-inflammatory n-3 PUFA derivatives...
July 2015: Epilepsia
Frank L Heppner, Richard M Ransohoff, Burkhard Becher
The past two decades of research into the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD) have been driven largely by the amyloid hypothesis; the neuroinflammation that is associated with AD has been assumed to be merely a response to pathophysiological events. However, new data from preclinical and clinical studies have established that immune system-mediated actions in fact contribute to and drive AD pathogenesis. These insights have suggested both novel and well-defined potential therapeutic targets for AD, including microglia and several cytokines...
June 2015: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
Emilia Kosonowska, Krzysztof Janeczko, Zuzanna Setkowicz
BACKGROUND: In the brain, inflammation occurs following a variety of types of brain damage, including epileptic seizures. Proinflammatory cytokines, like IL-1β or TNFα, can increase neuronal excitability and initiate spontaneous seizures or epileptogenesis. Recent studies indicate that the effects can be attenuated or even abolished in animals subjected to inflammation-inducing treatments at earlier developmental stages, termed "preconditioning". Immunocompetent microglial cells display particular sensitivity to subtle brain pathologies showing a morphological continuum from resting to reactive forms...
August 2015: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Jan A Gorter, Erwin A van Vliet, Eleonora Aronica
Over the last 15 years, attention has been focused on dysfunction of the cerebral vasculature and inflammation as important players in epileptogenic processes, with a specific emphasis on failure of the blood-brain barrier (BBB; Fig. 1) (Seiffert et al., 2004; Marchi et al., 2007; Oby and Janigro, 2006; van Vliet et al., 2014; Vezzani et al., 2011) [3-7]. Here, we discuss how the BBB is disrupted as a consequence of SE and how this BBB breakdown may be involved in epileptogenesis. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Status Epilepticus"...
August 2015: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Melissa J Benson, Silvia Manzanero, Karin Borges
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the changes in microglial proinflammatory M1 and antiinflammatory M2 marker expression during epileptogenesis in the chronic pilocarpine and intrahippocampal kainate models. METHODS: M1-activated microglia express proinflammatory cytokines driving infiltration of cells, whereas M2-activated microglia are more reparative, promoting phagocytosis of debris and expression of proteins associated with cellular stability and repair. Microglial markers were characterized as acute (3 days after status epilepticus [SE]), early chronic (21 days post-SE), and late chronic epileptic (5-12 months post-SE) time points...
June 2015: Epilepsia
David C Henshall, Tobias Engel
There remains a need for more efficacious treatments for status epilepticus. Prolonged seizures result in the release of ATP from cells which activates the P2 class of ionotropic and metabotropic purinoceptors. The P2X receptors gate depolarizing sodium and calcium entry and are expressed by both neurons and glia throughout the brain, and a number of subtypes are upregulated after status epilepticus. Recent studies have explored the in vivo effects of targeting ATP-gated P2X receptors in preclinical models of status epilepticus, with particular focus on the P2X7 receptor (P2X7R)...
August 2015: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Stefanie Robel, Susan C Buckingham, Jessica L Boni, Susan L Campbell, Niels C Danbolt, Therese Riedemann, Bernd Sutor, Harald Sontheimer
Epilepsy is one of the most common chronic neurologic diseases, yet approximately one-third of affected patients do not respond to anticonvulsive drugs that target neurons or neuronal circuits. Reactive astrocytes are commonly found in putative epileptic foci and have been hypothesized to be disease contributors because they lose essential homeostatic capabilities. However, since brain pathology induces astrocytes to become reactive, it is difficult to distinguish whether astrogliosis is a cause or a consequence of epileptogenesis...
February 25, 2015: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Elizabeta Gjoneska, Andreas R Pfenning, Hansruedi Mathys, Gerald Quon, Anshul Kundaje, Li-Huei Tsai, Manolis Kellis
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a severe age-related neurodegenerative disorder characterized by accumulation of amyloid-β plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, synaptic and neuronal loss, and cognitive decline. Several genes have been implicated in AD, but chromatin state alterations during neurodegeneration remain uncharacterized. Here we profile transcriptional and chromatin state dynamics across early and late pathology in the hippocampus of an inducible mouse model of AD-like neurodegeneration. We find a coordinated downregulation of synaptic plasticity genes and regulatory regions, and upregulation of immune response genes and regulatory regions, which are targeted by factors that belong to the ETS family of transcriptional regulators, including PU...
February 19, 2015: Nature
Ruben G F Hendriksen, Govert Hoogland, Sandra Schipper, Jos G M Hendriksen, Johan S H Vles, Marlien W Aalbers
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a recessive hereditary form of muscular dystrophy caused by a mutation in the dystrophin gene on the X chromosome. Clinical observations show that in addition to progressive muscular degeneration, DMD is more often accompanied by neurocognitive symptoms and learning disabilities, especially in automatisation of reading, attention processes, and expressive language skills. Additionally, three studies reported a higher prevalence of epilepsy in DMD, suggesting that the absence of dystrophin might be related to increased CNS excitability...
April 2015: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Alessandra Borsini, Patricia A Zunszain, Sandrine Thuret, Carmine M Pariante
Neurogenesis is an important process in the regulation of brain function and behaviour, highly active in early development and continuing throughout life. Recent studies have shown that neurogenesis is modulated by inflammatory cytokines in response to an activated immune system. To disentangle the effects of the different cytokines on neurogenesis, here we summarise and discuss in vitro studies on individual cytokines. We show that inflammatory cytokines have both a positive and negative role on proliferation and neuronal differentiation...
March 2015: Trends in Neurosciences
Meredith B Gibbons, Karen S Wilcox
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2014: Epilepsy Currents
Noël C Derecki, Natalie Katzmarski, Jonathan Kipnis, Melanie Meyer-Luehmann
Microglia, the tissue-resident macrophages of the brain, are attracting increasing attention as key players in brain homeostasis from development through aging. Recent works have highlighted new and unexpected roles for these once-enigmatic cells in both healthy central nervous system function and in diverse pathologies long thought to be primarily the result of neuronal malfunction. In this review, we have chosen to focus on Rett syndrome, which features early neurodevelopmental pathology, and Alzheimer's disease, a disorder associated predominantly with aging...
September 2014: Acta Neuropathologica
Olaf Stüve, Clemens Warnke, Krystin Deason, Martin Stangel, Bernd C Kieseier, Hans-Peter Hartung, Hans-Christian von Büdingen, Diego Centonze, Thomas G Forsthuber, Volker Knappertz
Multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica (NMO) are the most prevalent neuroinflammatory diseases of the central nervous system (CNS). The immunological cascade of these disorders is complex, and the exact spatial and temporal role of different immune cells is not fully understood. Although MS has been considered for many years to be primarily T cell driven, it is well established that B cells and the humoral immune response play an important role in its pathogenesis. This has long been evident from laboratory findings that include the presence of oligoclonal bands in the CSF...
August 2014: Acta Neuropathologica
ManKin Choy, Céline M Dubé, Markus Ehrengruber, Tallie Z Baram
Febrile seizures (FS) are the most common type of seizures in infants and preschool children. Inflammatory mediators, which are known triggers of fever, have also been implicated as contributors to the onset of these seizures. Evidence that inflammation is present following FS and during established epilepsy suggests that it could also influence epileptogenesis. However, the potential involvement of inflammatory mediators to the epileptogenic process that may follow prolonged FS has yet to be fully determined...
January 2014: Epilepsy Currents
Annamaria Vezzani
The possibility that inflammatory processes in the brain contribute to the etiopathogenesis of seizures and the establishment of a chronic epileptic focus is increasingly recognized as a result of supportive evidence in experimental models and in the clinical setting. Prototypical inflammatory cytokines (such as IL-1beta) and "danger signals" (such as HMGB1 and S100beta) are overexpressed in human and experimental epileptogenic tissue, prominently by glia. Neurons and endothelial cells of the blood-brain barrier contribute to inflammatory processes...
January 2014: Epilepsy Currents
Nicola Marchi, Tiziana Granata, Damir Janigro
Epilepsy refers to a cluster of neurological diseases characterized by seizures. Although many forms of epilepsy have a well-defined immune etiology, in other forms of epilepsy an altered immune response is only suspected. In general, the hypothesis that inflammation contributes to seizures is supported by experimental results. Additionally, antiepileptic maneuvers may act as immunomodulators and anti-inflammatory therapies can treat seizures. Triggers of seizure include a bidirectional communication between the nervous system and organs of immunity...
February 2014: Trends in Neurosciences
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