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Omega 3

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18 papers 0 to 25 followers
Swapnil V Shewale, Amanda L Brown, Xin Bi, Elena Boudyguina, Janet K Sawyer, Martha A Alexander-Miller, John S Parks
G protein-coupled receptor (GPR)120/FFA receptor (FFAR)4 (GPR120/FFAR4) activation by n-3 PUFAs attenuates inflammation, but its impact on atherosclerosis is unknown. We determined whether in vivo activation of leukocyte GPR120/FFAR4 by n-3 versus n-6 PUFAs is atheroprotective. Leukocyte GPR120/FFAR4 WT or KO mice in the LDL receptor KO background were generated by bone marrow transplantation. Mice were fed one of the four atherogenic diets containing 0.2% cholesterol and 10% calories as palm oil (PO) + 10% calories as: 1) PO, 2) fish oil (FO; 20:5 n-3 and 22:6 n-3 enriched), 3) echium oil (EO; 18:4 n-3 enriched), or 4) borage oil (BO; 18:3 n-6 enriched) for 16 weeks...
January 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
Huixia Ren, Chuanming Luo, Yanqing Feng, Xiaoli Yao, Zhe Shi, Fengyin Liang, Jing X Kang, Jian-Bo Wan, Zhong Pei, Huanxing Su
Impairment of amyloid-β (Aβ) clearance leads to Aβ accumulation in the brain during the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Strategies that can restore or improve the clearance function hold great promise in delaying or preventing the onset of AD. Here, we show that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), by use of fat-1 transgenic mice and oral administration of fish oil, significantly promote interstitial Aβ clearance from the brain and resist Aβ injury. Such beneficial effects were abolished in Aqp4-knockout mice, suggesting that the AQP4-dependent glymphatic system is actively involved in the promoting the effects of n-3 PUFAs on the clearance of extracellular Aβ...
January 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Bobak Heydari, Shuaib Abdullah, James V Pottala, Ravi Shah, Siddique Abbasi, Damien Mandry, Sanjeev A Francis, Heidi Lumish, Brian B Ghoshhajra, Udo Hoffmann, Evan Appelbaum, Jiazhuo H Feng, Ron Blankstein, Michael Steigner, Joseph P McConnell, William Harris, Elliott M Antman, Michael Jerosch-Herold, Raymond Y Kwong
BACKGROUND: Omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil have been associated with beneficial cardiovascular effects, but their role in modifying cardiac structures and tissue characteristics in patients who have had an acute myocardial infarction while receiving current guideline-based therapy remains unknown. METHODS: In a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, participants presenting with an acute myocardial infarction were randomly assigned 1:1 to 6 months of high-dose omega-3 fatty acids (n=180) or placebo (n=178)...
August 2, 2016: Circulation
James Backes, Deborah Anzalone, Daniel Hilleman, Julia Catini
Hypertriglyceridemia (triglycerides > 150 mg/dL) affects ~25 % of the United States (US) population and is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Severe hypertriglyceridemia (≥ 500 mg/dL) is also a risk factor for pancreatitis. Three omega-3 fatty acid (OM3FA) prescription formulations are approved in the US for the treatment of adults with severe hypertriglyceridemia: (1) OM3FA ethyl esters (OM3EE), a mixture of OM3FA ethyl esters, primarily eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (Lovaza®, Omtryg™, and generics); (2) icosapent ethyl (IPE), EPA ethyl esters (Vascepa®); and (3) omega-3 carboxylic acids (OM3CA), a mixture of OM3FAs in free fatty acid form, primarily EPA, DHA, and docosapentaenoic acid (Epanova®)...
July 22, 2016: Lipids in Health and Disease
Young-Min Han, Jong-Min Park, Ji-Young Cha, Migyeong Jeong, Eun-Jin Go, Ki Baik Hahm
Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3PUFAs) have inhibitory effects in various preclinical cancer models, but their effects in intestinal polyposis have never been examined. As attempts have been made to use nutritional intervention to counteract colon cancer development, in this study we evaluated the effects of ω-3 PUFAs on intestinal polyposis in the Apc(Min/+) mouse model. The experimental groups included wild-type C56BL/6 mice, Apc(Min/+) mice, fat-1 transgenic mice expressing an n-3 desaturase to enable ω-3 PUFA synthesis, and Apc(Min/+) × fat-1 double-transgenic mice; all mice were 20 weeks of age...
May 1, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
M C Kruger, Y Tousen, S Katsumata, M Tadaishi, A E Kasonga, V Deepak, M Coetzee, Y Ishimi
New Zealand is a rich source of food components that may have bioactivity on bone. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) from fish oil has been shown to maintain bone in ovariectomised (OVX) rats. Kiwifruit, a source of fibre and carotenoids, may also affect bone via a prebiotic as well as direct cell-based mechanisms. We aimed to 1) ascertain the effects of DHA on two cell models, including interactions with soy isoflavones; 2) and investigate the specific effects of carotenoids from kiwifruit as well as whole kiwifruit in cell-based and rodent models as well as in a human study...
2015: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Katherine M Appleton, Hannah M Sallis, Rachel Perry, Andrew R Ness, Rachel Churchill
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is highly debilitating, difficult to treat, has a high rate of recurrence, and negatively impacts the individual and society as a whole. One emerging potential treatment for MDD is n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3PUFAs), also known as omega-3 oils, naturally found in fatty fish, some other seafood, and some nuts and seeds. Various lines of evidence suggest a role for n-3PUFAs in MDD, but the evidence is far from conclusive. Reviews and meta-analyses clearly demonstrate heterogeneity between studies...
November 5, 2015: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Shichun Du, Jie Jin, Wenjun Fang, Qing Su
CONTEXT: Accumulating evidence has suggested favorable effects of fish oil on weight loss in animal experiments; however, findings remain inconsistent in humans. OBJECTS: The meta-analysis was performed to investigate the influence of fish oil on some parameters of body composition in overweight/obese adults. DESIGN: Human randomized, placebo-controlled trials were identified by a systematic search of Embase, PubMed, the Cochrane Library, web of science and reference lists of related reviews and articles...
2015: PloS One
Michihiro Suwa, Shigeru Yamaguchi, Tsuyoshi Komori, Sachiko Kajimoto, Masaya Kino
OBJECTIVE: Cerebral white matter hyperintensity (WMH) with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has a potential for predicting cognitive impairment. Serum polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels are important for evaluating the extent of atherosclerosis. We investigated whether abnormal PUFA levels affected WMH grading and cognitive function in patients without significant cognitive impairment. METHODS: Atherosclerotic risk factors, the internal carotid artery (ICA) plaque, and serum ratios of eicosapentaenoic to arachidonic acids (EPA/AA) and docosahexaenoic to arachidonic acids (DHA/AA) were assessed in 286 patients...
2015: BioMed Research International
Karsten-H Weylandt
Recent years have seen the description and elucidation of a new class of anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving lipid mediators. The arachidonic acid (AA)-derived compounds in this class are called lipoxins and have been described in great detail since their discovery thirty years ago. The new players are mediators derived from fish oil omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), called resolvins, protectins and maresins. Taken together, these mediators are also called specialized pro-resolution mediators (SPMs)...
August 15, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
Leyre Martínez-Fernández, Laura M Laiglesia, Ana E Huerta, J Alfredo Martínez, María J Moreno-Aliaga
The n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) such as eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) have been reported to improve obesity-associated metabolic disorders including chronic inflammation, insulin resistance and dyslipidaemia. Growing evidence exits about adipose tissue as a target in mediating the beneficial effects of these marine n-3 PUFAs in adverse metabolic syndrome manifestations. Therefore, in this manuscript we focus in reviewing the current knowledge about effects of marine n-3 PUFAs on adipose tissue metabolism and secretory functions...
September 2015: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
Samaneh Ghasemifard, Andrew J Sinclair, Gunveen Kaur, Paul Lewandowski, Giovanni M Turchini
The recommendations on the intake of long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA) vary from eating oily fish ("once to twice per week") to consuming specified daily amounts of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) ("250-500 mg per day"). It is not known if there is a difference in the uptake/bioavailability between regular daily consumption of supplementsvs. consuming fish once or twice per week. In this study, the bioavailability of a daily dose of n-3 LC-PUFA (Constant treatment), representing supplements, vs...
July 2015: Nutrients
Oleksandr A Byelashov, Andrew J Sinclair, Gunveen Kaur
Fish oils and long-chain omega-3 fatty acids are well recognized for their critical role in human diets. Docosapentaenoic acid (DPA, 22 : 5n-3) has always been a part of healthy nutrition, since infants obtain almost as much DPA as DHA from human milk. Fish oil supplements and ingredients, oily fish, and grass-fed beef can serve as the primary DPA sources for the general population. Although the DPA levels in fish oils are substantially lower than those of EPA and DHA, concentrated DPA products are now becoming commercially available, and DPA-based drugs are under development...
April 2015: Lipid Technology
Evan J H Lewis, Peter W Radonic, Thomas M S Wolever, Greg D Wells
BACKGROUND: Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (N-3) are essential nutrients for human health and integral components of neural tissues. There is evidence that N-3 supplementation may benefit exercise performance, however, no study has investigated the ergogenic potential of N-3 supplementation. Our objective was to determine the effect of short-term N-3 supplementation on neuromuscular-function and physical-performance in well-trained athletes. METHODS: Male athletes (n = 30), 25 years (SD 4...
2015: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
Naroa Kajarabille, Javier Díaz-Castro, Silvia Hijano, Magdalena López-Frías, Inmaculada López-Aliaga, Julio J Ochoa
Background. Evidence has shown that long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA), especially the ω -3 fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are beneficial for bone health and turnover. Objectives. This review summarizes findings from both in vivo and in vitro studies and the effects of LC PUFA on bone metabolism, as well as the relationship with the oxidative stress, the inflammatory process, and obesity. Results. Some studies in humans indicate that LCPUFA can increase bone formation, affect peak bone mass in adolescents, and reduce bone loss...
2013: TheScientificWorldJournal
Eliza Miller, Gunveen Kaur, Amy Larsen, Su Peng Loh, Kaisa Linderborg, Harrison S Weisinger, Giovanni M Turchini, David Cameron-Smith, Andrew J Sinclair
PURPOSE: Despite the detailed knowledge of the absorption and incorporation of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) into plasma lipids and red blood cells (RBC) in humans, very little is known about docosapentaenoic acid (DPA, 22:5 n-3). The aim of this study was to investigate the uptake and incorporation of pure DPA and EPA into human plasma and RBC lipids. METHODS: Ten female participants received 8 g of pure DPA or pure EPA in randomized crossover double-blinded manner over a 7-day period...
April 2013: European Journal of Nutrition
Annie M Behrend, Cary O Harding, James D Shoemaker, Dietrich Matern, David J Sahn, Diane L Elliot, Melanie B Gillingham
BACKGROUND: The use of long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) for energy is inhibited in inherited disorders of long-chain fatty acid oxidation (FAO). Increased energy demands during exercise can lead to cardiomyopathy and rhabdomyolysis. Medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) bypass the block in long-chain FAO and may provide an alternative energy substrate to exercising muscle. OBJECTIVES: To determine the influence of isocaloric MCT versus carbohydrate (CHO) supplementation prior to exercise on substrate oxidation and cardiac workload in participants with carnitine palmitoyltransferase 2 (CPT2), very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) and long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase (LCHAD) deficiencies...
January 2012: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
Yuanlong Pan, Brian Larson, Joseph A Araujo, Winnie Lau, Christina de Rivera, Ruben Santana, Asa Gore, Norton W Milgram
The present study focused on the hypothesis that dietary supplementation with medium-chain TAG (MCT) will improve cognitive function in aged dogs by providing the brain with energy in the form of ketones. Aged Beagle dogs were subjected to a baseline battery of cognitive tests, which were used to establish cognitively equivalent control or treatment groups. The dogs in the treatment group were maintained on a diet supplemented with 5.5 % MCT. After an initial wash-in period, all the dogs were tested with a battery of cognitive test protocols, which assessed sequentially landmark discrimination learning ability, egocentric visuospatial function and attention...
June 2010: British Journal of Nutrition
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