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Outstanding Clinical Review

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15 papers 0 to 25 followers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27353574/a-neural-model-of-mind-wandering
#1
REVIEW
Matthias Mittner, Guy E Hawkins, Wouter Boekel, Birte U Forstmann
The role of the default-mode network (DMN) in the emergence of mind wandering and task-unrelated thought has been studied extensively. In parallel work, mind wandering has been associated with neuromodulation via the locus coeruleus (LC) norepinephrine (LC-NE) system. Here we propose a neural model that links the two systems in an integrative framework. The model attempts to explain how dynamic changes in brain systems give rise to the subjective experience of mind wandering. The model implies a neural and conceptual distinction between an off-focus state and an active mind-wandering state and provides a potential neural grounding for well-known cognitive theories of mind wandering...
August 2016: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27251046/posterior-fossa-decompression-with-and-without-duraplasty-for-the-treatment-of-chiari-malformation-type-i-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#2
Hao Xu, LinYang Chu, Rui He, Chang Ge, Ting Lei
The treatment of Chiari malformation type 1 (CM-I) with posterior fossa decompression without (PFD) or with duraplasty (PFDD) is controversial. Our aim is to compare the clinical outcome between the two methods for the treatment of CM-I. In this paper, the authors report a systematic review and meta-analysis of operation time, clinical improvement, and complications of PFD compared with PFDD for the treatment of CM-I. Randomized or non-randomized controlled trials of PFD and PFDD were considered for inclusion...
June 1, 2016: Neurosurgical Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27199637/deep-brain-stimulation-a-paradigm-shifting-approach-to-treat-parkinson-s-disease
#3
REVIEW
Patrick Hickey, Mark Stacy
Parkinson disease (PD) is a chronic and progressive movement disorder classically characterized by slowed voluntary movements, resting tremor, muscle rigidity, and impaired gait and balance. Medical treatment is highly successful early on, though the majority of people experience significant complications in later stages. In advanced PD, when medications no longer adequately control motor symptoms, deep brain stimulation (DBS) offers a powerful therapeutic alternative. DBS involves the surgical implantation of one or more electrodes into specific areas of the brain, which modulate or disrupt abnormal patterns of neural signaling within the targeted region...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27025652/the-amyloid-hypothesis-of-alzheimer-s-disease-at-25%C3%A2-years
#4
REVIEW
Dennis J Selkoe, John Hardy
Despite continuing debate about the amyloid β-protein (or Aβ hypothesis, new lines of evidence from laboratories and clinics worldwide support the concept that an imbalance between production and clearance of Aβ42 and related Aβ peptides is a very early, often initiating factor in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Confirmation that presenilin is the catalytic site of γ-secretase has provided a linchpin: all dominant mutations causing early-onset AD occur either in the substrate (amyloid precursor protein, APP) or the protease (presenilin) of the reaction that generates Aβ...
June 1, 2016: EMBO Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27041631/shunt-devices-for-the-treatment-of-adult-hydrocephalus-recent-progress-and-characteristics
#5
Hiroji Miyake
Various types of shunt valves have been developed during the past 50 years, most of which can be classified into the following categories: (1) fixed differential pressure valves; (2) fixed differential pressure (DP) valves with an antisiphon mechanism; (3) programmable DP valves; (4) programmable DP valves with an antisiphon mechanism; and (5) programmable antisiphon valves. When considering the myriad of possible postoperative condition changes, such as the onset of accidental non-related diseases or trauma in adults, and changes in normal physiological development or anticipation of future shunt removal in children, it has become standard to use the programmable valve as a first choice for cerebrospinal fluid shunting...
May 15, 2016: Neurologia Medico-chirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26985048/unusual-tremor-syndromes-know-in-order-to-recognise
#6
Robert J Ure, Sanveer Dhanju, Anthony E Lang, Alfonso Fasano
Tremor is a common neurological condition in clinical practice; yet, few syndromes are widely recognised and discussed in the literature. As a result, there is an overdiagnosis of well-known causes, such as essential tremor. Many important unusual syndromes should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with tremor. The objective of this review is to provide broad clinical information to aid in the recognition and treatment of various unusual tremor syndromes in the adult and paediatric populations...
November 2016: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25959660/database-integration-of-protocol-specific-neurological-imaging-datasets
#7
Emil E Pacurar, Sean K Sethi, Charbel Habib, Marius O Laze, Rachel Martis-Laze, E Mark Haacke
For many years now, Magnetic Resonance Innovations (MR Innovations), a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) software development, technology, and research company, has been aggregating a multitude of MRI data from different scanning sites through its collaborations and research contracts. The majority of the data has adhered to neuroimaging protocols developed by our group which has helped ensure its quality and consistency. The protocols involved include the study of: traumatic brain injury, extracranial venous imaging for multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's disease, and stroke...
January 1, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26687219/architectonic-mapping-of-the-human-brain-beyond-brodmann
#8
REVIEW
Katrin Amunts, Karl Zilles
Brodmann has pioneered structural brain mapping. He considered functional and pathological criteria for defining cortical areas in addition to cytoarchitecture. Starting from this idea of structural-functional relationships at the level of cortical areas, we will argue that the cortical architecture is more heterogeneous than Brodmann's map suggests. A triple-scale concept is proposed that includes repetitive modular-like structures and micro- and meso-maps. Criteria for defining a cortical area will be discussed, considering novel preparations, imaging and optical methods, 2D and 3D quantitative architectonics, as well as high-performance computing including analyses of big data...
December 16, 2015: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26655849/valproic-acid-after-five-decades-of-use-in-epilepsy-time-to-reconsider-the-indications-of-a-time-honoured-drug
#9
Torbjörn Tomson, Dina Battino, Emilio Perucca
Since the serendipitous discovery of its anticonvulsant properties more than 50 years ago, valproic acid has become established as an effective broad-spectrum antiepileptic drug that is particularly useful for the management of generalised epilepsies, for which treatment alternatives are few. However, during the past few years increasing evidence has accumulated that intake of valproic acid during pregnancy is associated with a significant risk of dose-dependent teratogenic effects and impaired postnatal cognitive development in children...
December 3, 2015: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26408066/craniovertebral-junction-instability-in-the-setting-of-chiari-i-malformation
#10
REVIEW
Hannah E Goldstein, Richard C E Anderson
This article addresses the key features, clinical presentation, and radiographic findings associated with craniovertebral junction instability in the setting of Chiari I malformation. It further discusses surgical technique for treating patients with Chiari I malformation with concomitant craniovertebral junction instability, focusing on modern posterior rigid instrumentation and fusion techniques.
October 2015: Neurosurgery Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26408069/chiari-i-malformation-adult-and-pediatric-considerations
#11
EDITORIAL
Jeffrey Russell Leonard, David D Limbrick
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2015: Neurosurgery Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26152865/from-the-neuron-doctrine-to-neural-networks
#12
REVIEW
Rafael Yuste
For over a century, the neuron doctrine--which states that the neuron is the structural and functional unit of the nervous system--has provided a conceptual foundation for neuroscience. This viewpoint reflects its origins in a time when the use of single-neuron anatomical and physiological techniques was prominent. However, newer multineuronal recording methods have revealed that ensembles of neurons, rather than individual cells, can form physiological units and generate emergent functional properties and states...
August 2015: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26409114/basal-ganglia-circuits-as-targets-for-neuromodulation-in-parkinson-disease
#13
REVIEW
Mahlon R DeLong, Thomas Wichmann
IMPORTANCE: The revival of stereotactic surgery for Parkinson disease (PD) in the 1990s, with pallidotomy and then with high-frequency deep brain stimulation (DBS), has led to a renaissance in functional surgery for movement and other neuropsychiatric disorders. OBJECTIVE: To examine the scientific foundations and rationale for the use of ablation and DBS for treatment of neurologic and psychiatric diseases, using PD as the primary example. EVIDENCE REVIEW: A summary of the large body of relevant literature is presented on anatomy, physiology, pathophysiology, and functional surgery for PD and other basal ganglia disorders...
November 2015: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26334607/guidelines-for-the-management-of-a-pregnant-trauma-patient
#14
Venu Jain, Radha Chari, Sharon Maslovitz, Dan Farine, Emmanuel Bujold, Robert Gagnon, Melanie Basso, Hayley Bos, Richard Brown, Stephanie Cooper, Katy Gouin, N Lynne McLeod, Savas Menticoglou, William Mundle, Christy Pylypjuk, Anne Roggensack, Frank Sanderson
OBJECTIVE: Physical trauma affects 1 in 12 pregnant women and has a major impact on maternal mortality and morbidity and on pregnancy outcome. A multidisciplinary approach is warranted to optimize outcome for both the mother and her fetus. The aim of this document is to provide the obstetric care provider with an evidence-based systematic approach to the pregnant trauma patient. OUTCOMES: Significant health and economic outcomes considered in comparing alternative practices...
June 2015: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26022637/guidelines-for-the-management-of-spontaneous-intracerebral-hemorrhage-a-guideline-for-healthcare-professionals-from-the-american-heart-association-american-stroke-association
#15
J Claude Hemphill, Steven M Greenberg, Craig S Anderson, Kyra Becker, Bernard R Bendok, Mary Cushman, Gordon L Fung, Joshua N Goldstein, R Loch Macdonald, Pamela H Mitchell, Phillip A Scott, Magdy H Selim, Daniel Woo
PURPOSE: The aim of this guideline is to present current and comprehensive recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage. METHODS: A formal literature search of PubMed was performed through the end of August 2013. The writing committee met by teleconference to discuss narrative text and recommendations. Recommendations follow the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association methods of classifying the level of certainty of the treatment effect and the class of evidence...
July 2015: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
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