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Outstanding Clinical Review

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28 papers 25 to 100 followers
By Andreas Tarnaris Consultant Neurosurgeon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196247/early-and-late-posttraumatic-epilepsy-in-the-setting-of-traumatic-brain-injury-a-meta-analysis-and-review-of-antiepileptic-management
#1
Christopher D Wilson, Josh D Burks, Richard B Rodgers, Robert M Evans, Adewale A Bakare, Sam Safavi-Abbasi
BACKGROUND: Moderate to severe traumatic brain injury confers increased risk of posttraumatic seizures (PTSs). Early PTSs are diagnosed when seizures develop within 7 days after injury, whereas seizures diagnosed as late PTSs occur later. Patients have been treated with phenytoin (PHT) to prevent early PTSs and more recently with levetiracetam (LEV). Various regimens have been tried in patients to prevent late PTSs with variable success. We assessed and compared effectiveness of these drugs on early and late PTS prevention...
February 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122652/how-can-we-best-reduce-pain-catastrophizing-in-adults-with-chronic-noncancer-pain-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#2
REVIEW
Robert Schütze, Clare Rees, Anne Smith, Helen Slater, Jared M Campbell, Peter O'Sullivan
Pain catastrophizing (PC), defined as an exaggerated negative cognitive-affective orientation toward pain, is one of the strongest psychological predictors of pain outcomes. Although regularly included as a process variable in clinical trials, there have been no comprehensive reviews of how it can be modified. Using a registered protocol (PROSPERO 2016 CRD42016042761), we searched MEDLINE, PsychINFO, EMBASE, CINAHL, and CENTRAL up to November 2016 for all randomized controlled trials measuring PC in adults with chronic noncancer pain...
March 2018: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155209/altered-primary-motor-cortex-structure-organization-and-function-in-chronic-pain-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
REVIEW
Wei-Ju Chang, Neil E O'Connell, Paula R Beckenkamp, Ghufran Alhassani, Matthew B Liston, Siobhan M Schabrun
Chronic pain can be associated with movement abnormalities. The primary motor cortex (M1) has an essential role in the formulation and execution of movement. A number of changes in M1 function have been reported in studies of people with chronic pain. This review systematically evaluated the evidence for altered M1 structure, organization, and function in people with chronic pain of neuropathic and non-neuropathic origin. Database searches were conducted and a modified STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology checklist was used to assess the methodological quality of included studies...
April 2018: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026048/spinal-cord-stimulation-for-chronic-non-cancer-pain-a-review-of-current-evidence-and-practice
#4
S Sc Wong, C W Chan, C W Cheung
Spinal cord stimulation provides analgesia through electrical stimulation of the dorsal column of the spinal cord via electrode leads placed into the epidural space. In traditional tonic stimulation, a painful sensation is replaced with paraesthesia. Spinal cord stimulation is effective in reducing neuropathic pain, enhancing function, and improving quality of life in different chronic pain conditions. Currently, there is most evidence to support its use for failed back surgery syndrome when multidisciplinary conventional management is unsuccessful...
October 2017: Hong Kong Medical Journal, Xianggang Yi Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951797/earlier-intervention-with-deep-brain-stimulation-for-parkinson-s-disease
#5
REVIEW
Gerson Suarez-Cedeno, Jessika Suescun, Mya C Schiess
Neuromodulation of subcortical areas of the brain as therapy to reduce Parkinsonian motor symptoms was developed in the mid-twentieth century and went through many technical and scientific advances that established specific targets and stimulation parameters. Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) was approved by the FDA in 2002 as neuromodulation therapy for advanced Parkinson's disease, prompting several randomized controlled trials that confirmed its safety and effectiveness. The implantation of tens of thousands of patients in North America and Europe ignited research into its potential role in early disease stages and the therapeutic benefit of DBS compared to best medical therapy...
2017: Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966051/deep-brain-stimulation-for-disorders-of-consciousness-systematic-review-of-cases-and-ethics
#6
REVIEW
Jonathan Vanhoecke, Marwan Hariz
BACKGROUND: A treatment for patients suffering from prolonged severely altered consciousness is not available. The success of Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) in diseases such as Parkinson's, dystonia and essential tremor provided a renewed impetus for its application in Disorders of Consciousness (DoC). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the rationale for DBS in patients with DoC, through systematic review of literature containing clinical data and ethical considerations. METHODS: Articles from PubMed, Embase, Medline and Web of Science were systematically reviewed...
August 24, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920448/assessing-the-impact-of-headaches-and-the-outcomes-of-treatment-a-systematic-review-of-patient-reported-outcome-measures-proms
#7
Kirstie L Haywood, Tom S Mars, Rachel Potter, Shilpa Patel, Manjit Matharu, Martin Underwood
Aims To critically appraise, compare and synthesise the quality and acceptability of multi-item patient reported outcome measures for adults with chronic or episodic headache. Methods Systematic literature searches of major databases (1980-2016) to identify published evidence of PROM measurement and practical properties. Data on study quality (COSMIN), measurement and practical properties per measure were extracted and assessed against accepted standards to inform an evidence synthesis. Results From 10,903 reviewed abstracts, 103 articles were assessed in full; 46 provided evidence for 23 PROMs: Eleven specific to the health-related impact of migraine (n = 5) or headache (n = 6); six assessed migraine-specific treatment response/satisfaction; six were generic measures...
January 1, 2017: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546769/treatment-of-chronic-low-back-pain-new-approaches-on-the-horizon
#8
REVIEW
Nebojsa Nick Knezevic, Shane Mandalia, Jennifer Raasch, Ivana Knezevic, Kenneth D Candido
Back pain is the second leading cause of disability among American adults and is currently treated either with conservative therapy or interventional pain procedures. However, the question that remains is whether we, as physicians, have adequate therapeutic options to offer to the patients who suffer from chronic low back pain but fail both conservative therapy and interventional pain procedures before they consider surgical options such as discectomy, disc arthroplasty, or spinal fusion. The purpose of this article is to review the potential novel therapies that are on the horizon for the treatment of chronic low back pain...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432601/neuropathic-pain-central-vs-peripheral-mechanisms
#9
REVIEW
Kathleen Meacham, Andrew Shepherd, Durga P Mohapatra, Simon Haroutounian
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Our goal is to examine the processes-both central and peripheral-that underlie the development of peripherally-induced neuropathic pain (pNP) and to highlight recent evidence for mechanisms contributing to its maintenance. While many pNP conditions are initiated by damage to the peripheral nervous system (PNS), their persistence appears to rely on maladaptive processes within the central nervous system (CNS). The potential existence of an autonomous pain-generating mechanism in the CNS creates significant implications for the development of new neuropathic pain treatments; thus, work towards its resolution is crucial...
June 2017: Current Pain and Headache Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430535/transcranial-focused-ultrasound-a-new-tool-for-non-invasive-neuromodulation
#10
Maria Fini, William J Tyler
Ultrasound (US) is widely known for its utility as a biomedical imaging modality. An abundance of evidence has recently accumulated showing that US is also useful for non-invasively modulating brain circuit activity. Through a series of studies discussed in this short review, it has recently become recognized that transcranial focused ultrasound can exert mechanical (non-thermal) bioeffects on neurons and cells to produce focal changes in the activity of brain circuits. In addition to highlighting scientific breakthroughs and observations that have driven the development of the field of ultrasonic neuromodulation, this study also provides a discussion of mechanisms of action underlying the ability of ultrasound to physically stimulate and modulate brain circuit activity...
April 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220607/neurological-and-spinal-manifestations-of-the-ehlers-danlos-syndromes
#11
REVIEW
Fraser C Henderson, Claudiu Austin, Edward Benzel, Paolo Bolognese, Richard Ellenbogen, Clair A Francomano, Candace Ireton, Petra Klinge, Myles Koby, Donlin Long, Sunil Patel, Eric L Singman, Nicol C Voermans
The Ehlers-Danlos syndromes (EDS) are a heterogeneous group of heritable connective tissue disorders characterized by joint hypermobility, skin extensibility, and tissue fragility. This communication briefly reports upon the neurological manifestations that arise including the weakness of the ligaments of the craniocervical junction and spine, early disc degeneration, and the weakness of the epineurium and perineurium surrounding peripheral nerves. Entrapment, deformation, and biophysical deformative stresses exerted upon the nervous system may alter gene expression, neuronal function and phenotypic expression...
March 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part C, Seminars in Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042918/the-neurostimulation-appropriateness-consensus-committee-nacc-safety-guidelines-for-the-reduction-of-severe-neurological-injury
#12
Timothy R Deer, Tim J Lamer, Jason E Pope, Steven M Falowski, David A Provenzano, Konstantin Slavin, Stanley Golovac, Jeffrey Arle, Joshua M Rosenow, Kayode Williams, Porter McRoberts, Samer Narouze, Sam Eldabe, Shivanand P Lad, Jose A De Andrés, Eric Buchser, Philippe Rigoard, Robert M Levy, Brian Simpson, Nagy Mekhail
INTRODUCTION: Neurostimulation involves the implantation of devices to stimulate the brain, spinal cord, or peripheral or cranial nerves for the purpose of modulating the neural activity of the targeted structures to achieve specific therapeutic effects. Surgical placement of neurostimulation devices is associated with risks of neurologic injury, as well as possible sequelae from the local or systemic effects of the intervention. The goal of the Neurostimulation Appropriateness Consensus Committee (NACC) is to improve the safety of neurostimulation...
January 2017: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003344/differentiating-lower-motor-neuron-syndromes
#13
REVIEW
Nidhi Garg, Susanna B Park, Steve Vucic, Con Yiannikas, Judy Spies, James Howells, William Huynh, José M Matamala, Arun V Krishnan, John D Pollard, David R Cornblath, Mary M Reilly, Matthew C Kiernan
Lower motor neuron (LMN) syndromes typically present with muscle wasting and weakness and may arise from pathology affecting the distal motor nerve up to the level of the anterior horn cell. A variety of hereditary causes are recognised, including spinal muscular atrophy, distal hereditary motor neuropathy and LMN variants of familial motor neuron disease. Recent genetic advances have resulted in the identification of a variety of disease-causing mutations. Immune-mediated disorders, including multifocal motor neuropathy and variants of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, account for a proportion of LMN presentations and are important to recognise, as effective treatments are available...
June 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27353574/a-neural-model-of-mind-wandering
#14
REVIEW
Matthias Mittner, Guy E Hawkins, Wouter Boekel, Birte U Forstmann
The role of the default-mode network (DMN) in the emergence of mind wandering and task-unrelated thought has been studied extensively. In parallel work, mind wandering has been associated with neuromodulation via the locus coeruleus (LC) norepinephrine (LC-NE) system. Here we propose a neural model that links the two systems in an integrative framework. The model attempts to explain how dynamic changes in brain systems give rise to the subjective experience of mind wandering. The model implies a neural and conceptual distinction between an off-focus state and an active mind-wandering state and provides a potential neural grounding for well-known cognitive theories of mind wandering...
August 2016: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27251046/posterior-fossa-decompression-with-and-without-duraplasty-for-the-treatment-of-chiari-malformation-type-i-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
REVIEW
Hao Xu, LinYang Chu, Rui He, Chang Ge, Ting Lei
The treatment of Chiari malformation type 1 (CM-I) with posterior fossa decompression without (PFD) or with duraplasty (PFDD) is controversial. Our aim is to compare the clinical outcome between the two methods for the treatment of CM-I. In this paper, the authors report a systematic review and meta-analysis of operation time, clinical improvement, and complications of PFD compared with PFDD for the treatment of CM-I. Randomized or non-randomized controlled trials of PFD and PFDD were considered for inclusion...
April 2017: Neurosurgical Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27199637/deep-brain-stimulation-a-paradigm-shifting-approach-to-treat-parkinson-s-disease
#16
REVIEW
Patrick Hickey, Mark Stacy
Parkinson disease (PD) is a chronic and progressive movement disorder classically characterized by slowed voluntary movements, resting tremor, muscle rigidity, and impaired gait and balance. Medical treatment is highly successful early on, though the majority of people experience significant complications in later stages. In advanced PD, when medications no longer adequately control motor symptoms, deep brain stimulation (DBS) offers a powerful therapeutic alternative. DBS involves the surgical implantation of one or more electrodes into specific areas of the brain, which modulate or disrupt abnormal patterns of neural signaling within the targeted region...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27025652/the-amyloid-hypothesis-of-alzheimer-s-disease-at-25-years
#17
REVIEW
Dennis J Selkoe, John Hardy
Despite continuing debate about the amyloid β-protein (or Aβ hypothesis, new lines of evidence from laboratories and clinics worldwide support the concept that an imbalance between production and clearance of Aβ42 and related Aβ peptides is a very early, often initiating factor in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Confirmation that presenilin is the catalytic site of γ-secretase has provided a linchpin: all dominant mutations causing early-onset AD occur either in the substrate (amyloid precursor protein, APP) or the protease (presenilin) of the reaction that generates Aβ...
June 2016: EMBO Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27041631/shunt-devices-for-the-treatment-of-adult-hydrocephalus-recent-progress-and-characteristics
#18
REVIEW
Hiroji Miyake
Various types of shunt valves have been developed during the past 50 years, most of which can be classified into the following categories: (1) fixed differential pressure valves; (2) fixed differential pressure (DP) valves with an antisiphon mechanism; (3) programmable DP valves; (4) programmable DP valves with an antisiphon mechanism; and (5) programmable antisiphon valves. When considering the myriad of possible postoperative condition changes, such as the onset of accidental non-related diseases or trauma in adults, and changes in normal physiological development or anticipation of future shunt removal in children, it has become standard to use the programmable valve as a first choice for cerebrospinal fluid shunting...
May 15, 2016: Neurologia Medico-chirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26985048/unusual-tremor-syndromes-know-in-order-to-recognise
#19
REVIEW
Robert J Ure, Sanveer Dhanju, Anthony E Lang, Alfonso Fasano
Tremor is a common neurological condition in clinical practice; yet, few syndromes are widely recognised and discussed in the literature. As a result, there is an overdiagnosis of well-known causes, such as essential tremor. Many important unusual syndromes should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with tremor. The objective of this review is to provide broad clinical information to aid in the recognition and treatment of various unusual tremor syndromes in the adult and paediatric populations...
November 2016: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25959660/database-integration-of-protocol-specific-neurological-imaging-datasets
#20
Emil E Pacurar, Sean K Sethi, Charbel Habib, Marius O Laze, Rachel Martis-Laze, E Mark Haacke
For many years now, Magnetic Resonance Innovations (MR Innovations), a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) software development, technology, and research company, has been aggregating a multitude of MRI data from different scanning sites through its collaborations and research contracts. The majority of the data has adhered to neuroimaging protocols developed by our group which has helped ensure its quality and consistency. The protocols involved include the study of: traumatic brain injury, extracranial venous imaging for multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's disease, and stroke...
January 1, 2016: NeuroImage
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