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By Alejandro Herrera Trujillo Neurosurgeon epilepsy surgery,
Shery Jacob, Anroop B Nair
Given the distinctive characteristics of both epilepsy and antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) can make a significant contribution to the field of epilepsy. The measurement and interpretation of serum drug concentrations can be of benefit in the treatment of uncontrollable seizures and in cases of clinical toxicity; it can aid in the individualization of therapy and in adjusting for variable or nonlinear pharmacokinetics; and can be useful in special populations such as pregnancy. This review examines the potential for TDM of newer AEDs such as eslicarbazepine acetate, felbamate, gabapentin, lacosamide, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, perampanel, pregabalin, rufinamide, retigabine, stiripentol, tiagabine, topiramate, vigabatrin, and zonisamide...
December 2016: Drugs in R&D
Matthew T Brown, Frederick A Boop
INTRODUCTION: Pediatric low-grade tumors are found in roughly 1-3 % of patients with childhood epilepsy; seizures associated with these tumors are often medically refractory and often present a significant morbidity, greater than the presence of the tumor itself. DISCUSSION: The unique morbidity of the seizures often requires an epilepsy surgical approach over a standard oncologic resection to achieve a reduction in morbidity for the child. Multiple quality-of-life studies have shown that unless a patient is seizure-free, they remain disabled throughout their life; the best way to achieve this in our patient population is with a multidisciplinary team approach with treatment goals focusing primarily on the epilepsy...
October 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Thomas Sauvigny, Katja Brückner, Lasse Dührsen, Oliver Heese, Manfred Westphal, Stefan R G Stodieck, Tobias Martens
OBJECTIVE: Selective amygdalohippocampectomy (sAHE) is a well-established treatment for temporal lobe epilepsy, commonly with favorable neuropsychological outcome. Yet, it is still unknown if subsequent resection of the anteromesial temporal lobe (AMTLR), when necessary, deteriorates neuropsychological performance in this selected group of patients. Thus, we evaluated the clinical and neuropsychological data of patients who, due to insufficient seizure control after sAHE, received a subsequent ipsilateral AMTLR and compared these findings with patients who did not receive a second resection (control group)...
November 2016: Epilepsia
Sabine Hoja, Markus Schulze, Michael Rehli, Martin Proescholdt, Christel Herold-Mende, Peter Hau, Markus J Riemenschneider
Many glioblastoma patients suffer from seizures why they are treated with antiepileptic agents. Valproic acid (VPA) is a histone deacetylase inhibitor that apart from its anticonvulsive effects in some retrospective studies has been suggested to lead to a superior outcome of glioblastoma patients. However, the exact molecular effects of VPA treatment on glioblastoma cells have not yet been deciphered. We treated glioblastoma cells with VPA, recorded the functional effects of this treatment and performed a global and unbiased next generation sequencing study on the chromatin (ChIP) and RNA level...
August 18, 2016: Oncotarget
Gregory L Holmes
Epilepsy is a complex disorder, which involves much more than seizures, encompassing a range of associated comorbid health conditions that can have significant health and quality-of-life implications. Of these comorbidities, cognitive impairment is one of the most common and distressing aspects of epilepsy. Clinical studies have demonstrated that refractory seizures, resistant to antiepileptic drugs, and occurring early in life have significant adverse effects on cognitive function. Much of what has been learned about the neurobiological underpinnings of cognitive impairment following early-life seizures has come from animal models...
May 2016: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
Basanagoud Mudigoudar, Sarah Weatherspoon, James W Wheless
The medical management of the epilepsy syndromes of early childhood (eg, infantile spasms, Dravet syndrome, and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome) is challenging; and requires careful evaluation, classification, and treatment. Pharmacologic therapy continues to be the mainstay of management for these children, and as such it is important for the clinician to be familiar with the role of new antiepileptic drugs. This article reports the clinical trial data and personal experience in treating the severe epilepsies of childhood with the recently Food and Drug Administration-approved new antiepileptic drugs (vigabatrin, rufinamide, perampanel, and clobazam) and those in clinical trials (cannabidiol, stiripentol, and fenfluramine)...
May 2016: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
Amy Loughman, Udaya Seneviratne, Stephen C Bowden, Wendyl J D'Souza
Reduced cognitive functioning has been documented in the genetic generalized epilepsies (GGE). Among a number of hypothesized causal mechanisms, some evidence from other epilepsy syndromes suggests the impact of epileptiform discharges. This study investigates the relationship between cognitive function in GGE and burden of epileptiform discharges within a 24-hour EEG recording, controlling for variables relevant to cognitive function in epilepsy. As part of a larger prospective cohort study, 69 patients with EEG-confirmed GGE (11-58years) underwent 24-hour EEG and detailed neuropsychological assessment using the Woodcock Johnson III Tests...
September 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Baran Bozkurt, Ricardo da Silva Centeno, Feres Chaddad-Neto, Marcos Devanir Silva da Costa, Marcelo Augusto Acosta Goiri, Ali Karadag, Bekir Tugcu, Talat Cem Ovalioglu, Necmettin Tanriover, Serdar Kaya, Kaan Yagmurlu, Andrew Grande
The anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) and selective amygdalohippocampectomy (SelAH) have been used for surgical treatment of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. We examined the comprehensive white matter tract anatomy of the temporal lobe to gain an insight into the trans-middle temporal gyrus, a lateral approach which has been commonly used. The transmiddle temporal gyrus approach was performed in a stepwise manner on cadaveric human heads to examine the traversing white matter pathways through it and the structures located in the temporal horn...
August 4, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Barret Rush, Katie Wiskar, Clark Fruhstorfer, Paul Hertz
PURPOSE: The impact of seizures on outcomes in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is not well understood, with conflicting results published in the literature. METHOD: For this retrospective cohort analysis, data from the Nationwide Inpatient Samples (NIS) for 2006-2011 were utilized. All patients aged ≥18 years with a primary admitting diagnosis of subarachnoid hemorrhage were included. Patients with a diagnosis of seizure were segregated from the initial cohort...
October 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Barbara L Kroner, Mansour Fahimi, William D Gaillard, Anne Kenyon, David J Thurman
Self-reported epilepsy may be influenced by culture, knowledge, and beliefs. We screened 6420 residents of the District of Columbia (DC) for epilepsy to investigate whether socio-demographics were associated with whether they reported their diagnosis as epilepsy or as seizure disorder. Lifetime and active prevalence rates were 0.54% and 0.21%, respectively for 'epilepsy' and 1.30% and 0.70%, respectively for 'seizure disorder'. Seizure disorder was reported significantly more often than epilepsy among blacks, females, respondents≥50years, those with lower level education, respondents who lived alone and in low income neighborhoods, and those who resided in DC for at least five years...
September 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Christian Dorfer, Georgi Minchev, Thomas Czech, Harald Stefanits, Martha Feucht, Ekaterina Pataraia, Christoph Baumgartner, Gernot Kronreif, Stefan Wolfsberger
OBJECTIVE The authors' group recently published a novel technique for a navigation-guided frameless stereotactic approach for the placement of depth electrodes in epilepsy patients. To improve the accuracy of the trajectory and enhance the procedural workflow, the authors implemented the iSys1 miniature robotic device in the present study into this routine. METHODS As a first step, a preclinical phantom study was performed using a human skull model, and the accuracy and timing between 5 electrodes implanted with the manual technique and 5 with the aid of the robot were compared...
August 5, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
Kari Modalsli Aaberg, Inger Johanne Bakken, Morten I Lossius, Camilla Lund Søraas, Siri Eldevik Håberg, Camilla Stoltenberg, Pål Surén, Richard Chin
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Children with epilepsy are at increased risk of other disorders and difficulties, preceding, cooccurring with, or after the diagnosis of epilepsy. Risk estimates vary, few studies are population-based, and few provide comprehensive assessments of comorbidities. We used nationwide registry data to describe frequencies of medical, neurologic, developmental, and psychiatric conditions occurring before and after children are diagnosed with childhood epilepsy. METHODS: Data were obtained from the Norwegian Patient Registry, which is an administrative database recording International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision diagnoses from all government-funded specialist health services in Norway (outpatient consultations and hospitalizations)...
September 2016: Pediatrics
Nathalie Jetté, Josemir W Sander, Mark R Keezer
Findings from randomised controlled trials, along with more than 100 case series and observational studies, support the efficacy and safety of resective surgery and, more recently, non-resective surgical interventions for the treatment of drug-resistant epilepsy in appropriately selected individuals. There is an argument that epilepsy surgery remains underused, but the evidence to support this assertion is at times unclear. Results from longitudinal studies show a stagnant or declining rate of epilepsy surgery over time, despite the evidence and guidelines supporting its use...
August 2016: Lancet Neurology
Dieter Schmidt
BACKGROUND: A major concern over the development of new antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) is that the new AEDs have not added substantial clinical benefit over available antiseizure treatment. Additionally, current AEDs have neither improved the health of epilepsy patients nor been shown to prevent epilepsy or to improve the disease. SUMMARY: This chapter reviews new data on patterns of epilepsy with remission and relapse, prognostic factors for seizure outcome, and innovative patient-related outcome measures...
2016: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
Joon Y Kang, Scott Mintzer
Driving restrictions in people with epilepsy (PWE) is a highly contentious topic. The fundamental difficulty lies in achieving a balance between safety and practicality. The aim of this review is to provide an overview, history, and rationale behind current laws regarding driving restriction in PWE. We also discuss recent findings that may be helpful to practitioners during individual discussions with PWE including seizure recurrence risk after first seizure, recurrent seizure, and anticonvulsant with drawl and driving restrictions in patients with psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES)...
September 2016: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
Shuli Liang, Junchen Zhang, Shaohui Zhang, Xiangping Fu
AIM: To analyze the incidence of epilepsy in adult patients with supratentorial glioblastoma, assess the factors influencing the development of epilepsy in these cases, and evaluate patients' response to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in a series of 184 patients. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the 184 adult patients diagnosed with supratentorial glioblastoma. All subjects were treated within our hospital and subsequently died between 2003 and 2013. The incidence of epilepsy was assessed before and after initial resection and reexamined every 2 months thereafter...
2016: PloS One
Gulam Khandaker, Jenny Jung, Philip N Britton, Catherine King, J Kevin Yin, Cheryl A Jones
AIM: The long-term outcomes of childhood infective encephalitis are variable and not well quantified. We aimed to systematically review the literature and undertake meta-analyses on predetermined outcomes to address this knowledge gap and identify areas for future research. METHOD: We searched electronic databases, performed complementary reviews of references of fully extracted articles, and made contact with experts on infective encephalitis. Articles published up until April 2016 were selected for screening...
November 2016: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
Zsófia Richter, József Janszky, György Sétáló, Réka Horváth, Zsolt Horváth, Tamás Dóczi, László Seress, Hajnalka Ábrahám
The aim of the present work was to characterize neurons in the archi- and neocortical white matter, and to investigate their distribution in mesial temporal sclerosis. Immunohistochemistry and quantification of neurons were performed on surgically resected tissue sections of patients with therapy-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy. Temporal lobe tissues of patients with tumor but without epilepsy and that from autopsy were used as controls. Neurons were identified with immunohistochemistry using antibodies against NeuN, calcium-binding proteins, transcription factor Tbr1 and neurofilaments...
October 1, 2016: Neuroscience
S Ali Nabavizadeh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2016: JAMA Neurology
Sridhar B Kadiyala, Joshua Q Yannix, Julia W Nalwalk, Dominick Papandrea, Barbara S Beyer, Bruce J Herron, Russell J Ferland
UNLABELLED: The occurrence of recurrent, unprovoked seizures is the hallmark of human epilepsy. Currently, only two-thirds of this patient population has adequate seizure control. New epilepsy models provide the potential for not only understanding the development of spontaneous seizures, but also for testing new strategies to treat this disorder. Here, we characterize a primary generalized seizure model of epilepsy following repeated exposure to the GABAA receptor antagonist, flurothyl, in which mice develop spontaneous seizures that remit within 1 month...
July 13, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
2016-07-17 16:15:55
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