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By Alejandro Herrera Trujillo Neurosurgeon epilepsy surgery,
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430869/inhibition-of-the-p2x7-panx1-complex-suppresses-spreading-depolarization-and-neuroinflammation
#1
Shih-Pin Chen, Tao Qin, Jessica L Seidel, Yi Zheng, Matthias Eikermann, Michel D Ferrari, Arn M J M van den Maagdenberg, Michael A Moskowitz, Cenk Ayata, Katharina Eikermann-Haerter
Spreading depolarization is a wave of neuronal and glial depolarization. Within minutes after spreading depolarization, the neuronal hemichannel pannexin 1 (PANX1) opens and forms a pore complex with the ligand-gated cation channel P2X7, allowing the release of excitatory neurotransmitters to sustain spreading depolarization and activate neuroinflammation. Here, we explore the hypothesis that the P2X7-PANX1 pore complex is a critical determinant of spreading depolarization susceptibility with important consequences for neuroinflammation and trigeminovascular activation...
April 20, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460007/consciousness-post-corpus-callosotomy
#2
Kimford J Meador, David W Loring, K Sathian
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 28, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468530/the-epigenetics-of-epilepsy-and-its-progression
#3
Rebecca M Hauser, David C Henshall, Farah D Lubin
Epilepsy is a common and devastating neurological disorder characterized by recurrent and unprovoked spontaneous seizures. One leading hypothesis for the development and progression of epilepsy is that large-scale changes in gene transcription and protein expression contribute to aberrant network restructuring and hyperexcitability, resulting in the genesis of repeated seizures. Current research shows that epigenetic mechanisms, including posttranslational alterations to the proteins around which DNA is coiled, chemical modifications to DNA, and the activity of various noncoding RNA molecules exert important influences on these gene networks in experimental epilepsy...
May 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474565/drug-resistant-epilepsy-and-surgery
#4
Jiyao Sheng, Shui Liu, Hanjiao Qin, Bingjin Li, Xuewen Zhang
Epilepsy is a chronic brain disease that is caused by various factors and characterized by recurrent, episodic and temporary central nervous system dysfunction which results due to excessive discharge of brain neurons. In the past decades, despite the continuous development of antiepileptic drugs, there are still many patients with epilepsy progressing to drug-resistant epilepsy. Currently, surgical treatment is the only possible way to cure drug-resistant epilepsy. However, surgical treatment alone often results in postoperative recurrence of epilepsy...
May 4, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444141/imaging-blood-brain-barrier-dysfunction-as-a-biomarker-for-epileptogenesis
#5
Guy Bar-Klein, Svetlana Lublinsky, Lyn Kamintsky, Iris Noyman, Ronel Veksler, Hotjensa Dalipaj, Vladimir V Senatorov, Evyatar Swissa, Dror Rosenbach, Netta Elazary, Dan Z Milikovsky, Nadav Milk, Michael Kassirer, Yossi Rosman, Yonatan Serlin, Arik Eisenkraft, Yoash Chassidim, Yisrael Parmet, Daniela Kaufer, Alon Friedman
A biomarker that will enable the identification of patients at high-risk for developing post-injury epilepsy is critically required. Microvascular pathology and related blood-brain barrier dysfunction and neuroinflammation were shown to be associated with epileptogenesis after injury. Here we used prospective, longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging to quantitatively follow blood-brain barrier pathology in rats following status epilepticus, late electrocorticography to identify epileptic animals and post-mortem immunohistochemistry to confirm blood-brain barrier dysfunction and neuroinflammation...
April 23, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457582/clinical-and-sociodemographic-profile-of-epilepsy-in-adults-from-a-reference-centre-in-colombia
#6
J P Orozco-Hernández, J F Quintero-Moreno, D S Marín-Medina, J P Castaño-Montoya, P Hernández-Coral, M Pineda, J D Vélez, H C Villada, J W Martínez, A Lizcano
OBJECTIVES: To describe the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of a cohort of patients with epilepsy from a reference centre in Colombia. METHODS: Cross-sectional study including patients diagnosed with epilepsy who attended our epilepsy centre (Neurocentro) between 2013 and 2016. Data were gathered from patients' medical histories. RESULTS: We gathered data from a total of 354 patients diagnosed with epilepsy. Median age was 37 years; 52% were men...
April 27, 2017: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464309/psychiatric-and-behavioral-comorbidities-in-epilepsy-a-critical-reappraisal
#7
REVIEW
Anne T Berg, Hamada H Altalib, Orrin Devinsky
Psychiatric and behavioral disorders are important aspects of epilepsy and have received increasing attention in the last several years. The literature upon which most of the field relies contains some biases that must be carefully examined and resolved in future studies. First, in the pediatric epilepsy literature, many reports find that children with epilepsy have high levels of behavioral and psychiatric disorders when compared to appropriate controls. Most of these studies rely on parent-proxy completed instruments to assess these behavioral endpoints...
May 2, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465556/control-of-in-vivo-ictogenesis-via-endogenous-synaptic-pathways
#8
Hiram Luna-Munguia, Philip Starski, Wu Chen, Stephen Gliske, William C Stacey
The random nature of seizures poses difficult challenges for epilepsy research. There is great need for a reliable method to control the pathway to seizure onset, which would allow investigation of the mechanisms of ictogenesis and optimization of treatments. Our hypothesis is that increased random afferent synaptic activity (i.e. synaptic noise) within the epileptic focus is one endogenous method of ictogenesis. Building upon previous theoretical and in vitro work showing that synaptic noise can induce seizures, we developed a novel in vivo model of ictogenesis...
May 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470748/anxiety-and-depressive-disorders-in-people-with-epilepsy-a-meta-analysis
#9
Amelia J Scott, Louise Sharpe, Caroline Hunt, Milena Gandy
OBJECTIVE: Comorbid anxiety and depressive disorders in people with epilepsy (PWE) are highly prevalent and associated with various adverse outcomes. However, the prevalence of anxiety disorders in PWE across studies is highly variable. Our aim was to estimate the prevalence and moderating factors of anxiety and depressive disorders in PWE. METHODS: Following prospective registration (PROSPERO; CRD42015027101), electronic databases were searched for studies that reported the prevalence of both anxiety and depressive disorders in samples of PWE up until July 2016...
May 3, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397967/the-association-between-dementia-and-epilepsy-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
Ann Subota, Tram Pham, Nathalie Jetté, Khara Sauro, Diane Lorenzetti, Jayna Holroyd-Leduc
OBJECTIVE: Dementia is among the top 15 conditions with the most substantial increase in burden of disease in the past decade, and along with epilepsy, among the top 25 causes of years lived with disability worldwide. The epidemiology of dementia in persons with epilepsy, and vice versa, is not well characterized. The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the prevalence, incidence, and reported risk factors for dementia in epilepsy and epilepsy in dementia. METHODS: Embase, PsycINFO, MEDLINE, and the Cochrane databases were searched from inception...
April 11, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195555/blood-brain-barrier-supported-neurogenesis-in-healthy-and-diseased-brain
#11
Elena A Pozhilenkova, Olga L Lopatina, Yulia K Komleva, Vladimir V Salmin, Alla B Salmina
Adult neurogenesis is one of the most important mechanisms contributing to brain development, learning, and memory. Alterations in neurogenesis underlie a wide spectrum of brain diseases. Neurogenesis takes place in highly specialized neurogenic niches. The concept of neurogenic niches is becoming widely accepted due to growing evidence of the important role of the microenvironment established in the close vicinity to stem cells in order to provide adequate control of cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis...
February 14, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334998/spatiotemporal-mapping-of-epileptic-spikes-using-simultaneous-eeg-functional-mri
#12
Jennifer M Walz, Mangor Pedersen, Amir Omidvarnia, Mira Semmelroch, Graeme D Jackson
Epileptic spikes occur on the sub-second timescale and are known to involve not only epileptic foci but also large-scale distributed brain networks. There is likely to be a sequence of neural activity in multiple brain regions that occurs within the duration of a single spike, but standard electroencephalography-functional magnetic resonance imaging analyses, which use only the timing of the spikes to model the functional magnetic resonance imaging data, cannot determine the sequence of these activations. Our aim in this study is to temporally resolve these spatial activations to observe the spatiotemporal dynamics of the spike-related neural activity at a sub-second timescale...
April 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365755/through-thick-and-thin-a-need-to-reconcile-contradictory-results-on-trajectories-in-human-cortical-development
#13
Kristine B Walhovd, Anders M Fjell, Jay Giedd, Anders M Dale, Timothy T Brown
Understanding how brain development normally proceeds is a premise of understanding neurodevelopmental disorders. This has sparked a wealth of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies. Unfortunately, they are in marked disagreement on how the cerebral cortex matures. While cortical thickness increases for the first 8-9 years of life have repeatedly been reported, others find continuous cortical thinning from early childhood, at least from age 3 or 4 years. We review these inconsistencies, and discuss possible reasons, including the use of different scanners, recording parameters and analysis tools, and possible effects of variables such as head motion...
February 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287068/temporal-lobe-epilepsy-things-are-not-always-what-they-seem
#14
Irena Doležalová, Milan Brázdil, Philippe Kahane
Temporal lobe epilepsy is the most frequent form of drug-resistant epilepsy referred to epilepsy surgery centres. The vast majority of lesional cases can be operated on without invasive investigation which is often not the case for non-lesional cases. Invasive investigation in non-lesional cases, however, may lead to unexpected results, as illustrated in the following case report. [Published with video sequence on www.epilepticdisorders.com].
March 8, 2017: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322853/the-role-of-histopathologic-subtype-in-the-setting-of-hippocampal-sclerosis-associated-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#15
Jordan M Gales, Lara Jehi, Amy Nowacki, Richard A Prayson
Hippocampal sclerosis (HS) and focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) are among the most common neuropathological findings in those undergoing surgery for refractory mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). Existing data regarding differences among the most recent International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) HS subtypes remains limited. This study sought to characterize the roles of HS subtype and coexistent FCD. Epilepsy surgery pathologic specimens in 307 cases of temporal lobe epilepsy with HS were reviewed (mean age ± SD, 37 ± 15 years, 56% women)...
March 17, 2017: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263047/mapping-the-connectome-in-awake-surgery-for-gliomas-an-update
#16
Hugues Duffau
The traditional principle underlying oncological neurosurgery is to remove a tumor mass displacing the brain in order to increase survival. Recently, advances in connectomics enabled an improved understanding of cerebral processing, and led to a paradigmatic shift in tumor surgery based upon interactions between neurooncology and cognitive neurosciences. First, glioma is not a focal tumor invaginated within the parenchyma but a diffuse neoplastic disease migrating in the brain. This concept resulted in a new surgical ideology, i...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242442/genetic-biomarkers-of-posttraumatic-epilepsy-a-systematic-review
#17
REVIEW
Devyn Cotter, Andrew Kelso, Aidan Neligan
INTRODUCTION: Posttraumatic epilepsy (PTE) is caused by traumatic brain injury (TBI) and is an important contributor to the overall social and economic burden of epilepsy. Epidemiological studies suggest that there is a genetic contribution to the development of PTE. Identification of clinically useful genetic biomarkers is important for advancements in diagnosis and treatment of PTE. METHODS: A systematic review was performed on the existing literature of genetic biomarkers of posttraumatic epilepsy (PTE)...
March 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223921/epigenetic-modulation-of-stem-cells-in-neurodevelopment-the-role-of-methylation-and-acetylation
#18
REVIEW
Martyna Podobinska, Ilona Szablowska-Gadomska, Justyna Augustyniak, Ioanna Sandvig, Axel Sandvig, Leonora Buzanska
The coordinated development of the nervous system requires fidelity in the expression of specific genes determining the different neural cell phenotypes. Stem cell fate decisions during neurodevelopment are strictly correlated with their epigenetic status. The epigenetic regulatory processes, such as DNA methylation and histone modifications discussed in this review article, may impact both neural stem cell (NSC) self-renewal and differentiation and thus play an important role in neurodevelopment. At the same time, stem cell decisions regarding fate commitment and differentiation are highly dependent on the temporospatial expression of specific genes contingent on the developmental stage of the nervous system...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137956/doppelg%C3%A3-ngers-and-dissociations-lesion-network-mapping-illuminates-misidentification-delusions
#19
Ryan McKay, Nicholas Furl
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965183/dosing-strategies-for-antiepileptic-drugs-from-a-standard-dose-for-all-to-individualised-treatment-by-implementation-of-therapeutic-drug-monitoring
#20
REVIEW
Cecilie Johannessen Landmark, Svein I Johannessen, Torbjörn Tomson
This review focuses on the evolution of approaches to dosing of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in clinical practice through history. There has been a shift in the view of treatment of epilepsy, from "one dose fits all patients" in the early days to individualisation of treatment. Over the past 50 years, our knowledge of pharmacological variability of AEDs has markedly increased through implementation of therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM). The use of TDM has demonstrated extensive pharmacokinetic variability for AEDs and a need to individualise the treatment for an optimal outcome...
December 1, 2016: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
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