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By Alejandro Herrera Trujillo Neurosurgeon epilepsy surgery,
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397967/the-association-between-dementia-and-epilepsy-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#1
Ann Subota, Tram Pham, Nathalie Jetté, Khara Sauro, Diane Lorenzetti, Jayna Holroyd-Leduc
OBJECTIVE: Dementia is among the top 15 conditions with the most substantial increase in burden of disease in the past decade, and along with epilepsy, among the top 25 causes of years lived with disability worldwide. The epidemiology of dementia in persons with epilepsy, and vice versa, is not well characterized. The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the prevalence, incidence, and reported risk factors for dementia in epilepsy and epilepsy in dementia. METHODS: Embase, PsycINFO, MEDLINE, and the Cochrane databases were searched from inception...
April 11, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195555/blood-brain-barrier-supported-neurogenesis-in-healthy-and-diseased-brain
#2
Elena A Pozhilenkova, Olga L Lopatina, Yulia K Komleva, Vladimir V Salmin, Alla B Salmina
Adult neurogenesis is one of the most important mechanisms contributing to brain development, learning, and memory. Alterations in neurogenesis underlie a wide spectrum of brain diseases. Neurogenesis takes place in highly specialized neurogenic niches. The concept of neurogenic niches is becoming widely accepted due to growing evidence of the important role of the microenvironment established in the close vicinity to stem cells in order to provide adequate control of cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis...
February 14, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334998/spatiotemporal-mapping-of-epileptic-spikes-using-simultaneous-eeg-functional-mri
#3
Jennifer M Walz, Mangor Pedersen, Amir Omidvarnia, Mira Semmelroch, Graeme D Jackson
Epileptic spikes occur on the sub-second timescale and are known to involve not only epileptic foci but also large-scale distributed brain networks. There is likely to be a sequence of neural activity in multiple brain regions that occurs within the duration of a single spike, but standard electroencephalography-functional magnetic resonance imaging analyses, which use only the timing of the spikes to model the functional magnetic resonance imaging data, cannot determine the sequence of these activations. Our aim in this study is to temporally resolve these spatial activations to observe the spatiotemporal dynamics of the spike-related neural activity at a sub-second timescale...
April 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365755/through-thick-and-thin-a-need-to-reconcile-contradictory-results-on-trajectories-in-human-cortical-development
#4
Kristine B Walhovd, Anders M Fjell, Jay Giedd, Anders M Dale, Timothy T Brown
Understanding how brain development normally proceeds is a premise of understanding neurodevelopmental disorders. This has sparked a wealth of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies. Unfortunately, they are in marked disagreement on how the cerebral cortex matures. While cortical thickness increases for the first 8-9 years of life have repeatedly been reported, others find continuous cortical thinning from early childhood, at least from age 3 or 4 years. We review these inconsistencies, and discuss possible reasons, including the use of different scanners, recording parameters and analysis tools, and possible effects of variables such as head motion...
February 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287068/temporal-lobe-epilepsy-things-are-not-always-what-they-seem
#5
Irena Doležalová, Milan Brázdil, Philippe Kahane
Temporal lobe epilepsy is the most frequent form of drug-resistant epilepsy referred to epilepsy surgery centres. The vast majority of lesional cases can be operated on without invasive investigation which is often not the case for non-lesional cases. Invasive investigation in non-lesional cases, however, may lead to unexpected results, as illustrated in the following case report. [Published with video sequence on www.epilepticdisorders.com].
March 8, 2017: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322853/the-role-of-histopathologic-subtype-in-the-setting-of-hippocampal-sclerosis-associated-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#6
Jordan M Gales, Lara Jehi, Amy Nowacki, Richard A Prayson
Hippocampal sclerosis (HS) and focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) are among the most common neuropathological findings in those undergoing surgery for refractory mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). Existing data regarding differences among the most recent International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) HS subtypes remains limited. This study sought to characterize the roles of HS subtype and coexistent FCD. Epilepsy surgery pathologic specimens in 307 cases of temporal lobe epilepsy with HS were reviewed (mean age ± SD, 37 ± 15 years, 56% women)...
March 17, 2017: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263047/mapping-the-connectome-in-awake-surgery-for-gliomas-an-update
#7
Hugues Duffau
The traditional principle underlying oncological neurosurgery is to remove a tumor mass displacing the brain in order to increase survival. Recently, advances in connectomics enabled an improved understanding of cerebral processing, and led to a paradigmatic shift in tumor surgery based upon interactions between neurooncology and cognitive neurosciences. First, glioma is not a focal tumor invaginated within the parenchyma but a diffuse neoplastic disease migrating in the brain. This concept resulted in a new surgical ideology, i...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242442/genetic-biomarkers-of-posttraumatic-epilepsy-a-systematic-review
#8
REVIEW
Devyn Cotter, Andrew Kelso, Aidan Neligan
INTRODUCTION: Posttraumatic epilepsy (PTE) is caused by traumatic brain injury (TBI) and is an important contributor to the overall social and economic burden of epilepsy. Epidemiological studies suggest that there is a genetic contribution to the development of PTE. Identification of clinically useful genetic biomarkers is important for advancements in diagnosis and treatment of PTE. METHODS: A systematic review was performed on the existing literature of genetic biomarkers of posttraumatic epilepsy (PTE)...
March 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223921/epigenetic-modulation-of-stem-cells-in-neurodevelopment-the-role-of-methylation-and-acetylation
#9
REVIEW
Martyna Podobinska, Ilona Szablowska-Gadomska, Justyna Augustyniak, Ioanna Sandvig, Axel Sandvig, Leonora Buzanska
The coordinated development of the nervous system requires fidelity in the expression of specific genes determining the different neural cell phenotypes. Stem cell fate decisions during neurodevelopment are strictly correlated with their epigenetic status. The epigenetic regulatory processes, such as DNA methylation and histone modifications discussed in this review article, may impact both neural stem cell (NSC) self-renewal and differentiation and thus play an important role in neurodevelopment. At the same time, stem cell decisions regarding fate commitment and differentiation are highly dependent on the temporospatial expression of specific genes contingent on the developmental stage of the nervous system...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137956/doppelg%C3%A3-ngers-and-dissociations-lesion-network-mapping-illuminates-misidentification-delusions
#10
Ryan McKay, Nicholas Furl
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965183/dosing-strategies-for-antiepileptic-drugs-from-a-standard-dose-for-all-to-individualised-treatment-by-implementation-of-therapeutic-drug-monitoring
#11
REVIEW
Cecilie Johannessen Landmark, Svein I Johannessen, Torbjörn Tomson
This review focuses on the evolution of approaches to dosing of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in clinical practice through history. There has been a shift in the view of treatment of epilepsy, from "one dose fits all patients" in the early days to individualisation of treatment. Over the past 50 years, our knowledge of pharmacological variability of AEDs has markedly increased through implementation of therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM). The use of TDM has demonstrated extensive pharmacokinetic variability for AEDs and a need to individualise the treatment for an optimal outcome...
December 1, 2016: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143732/microglia-in-cns-development-shaping-the-brain-for-the-future
#12
REVIEW
Coralie-Anne Mosser, Sofia Baptista, Isabelle Arnoux, Etienne Audinat
Microglial cells are the resident macrophages of the central nervous system (CNS) and are mainly known for their roles in neuropathologies. However, major recent developments have revealed that these immune cells actively interact with neurons in physiological conditions and can modulate the fate and functions of synapses. Originating from myeloid precursors born in the yolk sac, microglial cells invade the CNS during early embryonic development. As a consequence they can potentially influence neuronal proliferation, migration and differentiation as well as the formation and maturation of neuronal networks, thereby contributing to the entire shaping of the CNS...
January 28, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101478/focal-epileptogenic-lesions-in-adult-patients-with-epilepsy-and-generalized-epileptiform-discharges
#13
Dong Wook Kim, Seo-Young Lee, Sang Kun Lee
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: There are reports of successful resective epilepsy surgery for pediatric patients with epilepsy and generalized epileptiform discharges when they had focal epileptogenic lesions identified by MRI. However, there is limited information regarding adult patients with epilepsy who have both generalized epileptiform discharges and focal epileptogenic lesions. METHODS: To investigate the incidence and characteristics of adult patients who have both generalized epileptiform discharges and potentially epileptogenic lesions, we retrospectively analyzed data of clinical features and results of EEG and MRI of all patients with adult-onset epilepsy in a tertiary referral hospital...
December 2016: Journal of Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090678/the-epileptic-and-nonepileptic-spectrum-of-paroxysmal-dyskinesias-channelopathies-synaptopathies-and-transportopathies
#14
REVIEW
Roberto Erro, Kailash P Bhatia, Alberto J Espay, Pasquale Striano
Historically, the syndrome of primary paroxysmal dyskinesias was considered a group of disorders as a result of ion channel dysfunction. This proposition was primarily based on the discovery of mutations in ion channels, which caused other episodic neurological disorders such as epilepsy and migraine and also supported by the frequent association between paroxysmal dyskinesias and epilepsy. However, the discovery of the genes responsible for the 3 classic forms of paroxysmal dyskinesias disproved this ion channel theory...
March 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092837/differential-diagnosis-of-a-paroxysmal-neurological-event-do-neurologists-know-how-to-clinically-recognize-it
#15
Aleksandar J Ristić, Ksenija Mijović, Zoran Bukumirić, Nikola Vojvodić, Slavko Janković, Vladimir Baščarević, Tijana Đukić, Dragoslav Sokić
PURPOSE: To investigate ability to recognize paroxysmal neurological events (PNE) based on video-recorded events alone in a group of physicians treating prevalent neurological conditions. METHODS: Total of 12 patients' videos (6 epileptic seizures (ES), 4 psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES), 2 other nonepileptic seizures (oNES)) were selected. Videos were displayed once to physicians blind to clinical data and final diagnosis. Physicians determined their clinical choice: ES, PNES, oNES, and I don't know (IDK)...
February 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096104/recent-developments-in-the-surgical-management-of-paediatric-epilepsy
#16
REVIEW
Vijay M Ravindra, Matthew T Sweney, Robert J Bollo
Among the 1% of children affected by epilepsy, failure of pharmacological therapy and early age of seizure onset can lead to worse long-term cognitive outcomes, mental health disorders and impaired functional status. Surgical management often improves functional and cognitive outcomes in children with medically refractory epilepsy, especially when seizure remission is achieved. However, surgery remains underused in children with drug-resistant epilepsy, creating a large treatment gap. Several recent innovations have led to considerable improvement in surgical technique, including the recent development of minimally invasive diagnostic and therapeutic techniques such as stereotactic EEG, transcranial magnetic stimulation, MRI-guided laser ablation, as well as novel paradigms of neurostimulation...
January 17, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098939/a-systematic-review-of-economic-evaluations-of-treatments-for-patients-with-epilepsy
#17
REVIEW
Ben F M Wijnen, Ghislaine A P G van Mastrigt, Silvia M A A Evers, Olga Gershuni, Danielle A J E Lambrechts, Marian H J M Majoie, Debby Postulart, Bert A P Aldenkamp, Reina J A de Kinderen
The increasing number of treatment options and the high costs associated with epilepsy have fostered the development of economic evaluations in epilepsy. It is important to examine the availability and quality of these economic evaluations and to identify potential research gaps. As well as looking at both pharmacologic (antiepileptic drugs [AEDs]) and nonpharmacologic (e.g., epilepsy surgery, ketogenic diet, vagus nerve stimulation) therapies, this review examines the methodologic quality of the full economic evaluations included...
January 18, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101765/tolerability-and-safety-of-commonly-used-antiepileptic-drugs-in-adolescents-and-adults-a-clinician-s-overview
#18
REVIEW
Martin J Brodie
This paper discusses the issues surrounding the tolerability and safety of the commonly used antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in adolescents and adults. The content includes dose-related adverse effects, idiosyncratic reactions, behavioural and psychiatric comorbidities, chronic problems, enzyme induction and teratogenesis. Twenty-one AEDs are discussed in chronological order of their introduction into the UK, starting with phenobarbital and ending with brivaracetam. Wherever possible, advice is given on anticipating, recognising and managing these issues and thereby improving the lives of people with epilepsy, most of whom will need to take one or more of these agents for life...
February 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109984/the-long-term-course-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-from-unilateral-to-bilateral-interictal-epileptiform-discharges-in-repeated-video-eeg-monitorings
#19
Stephanie Gollwitzer, Catherine A Scott, Fiona Farrell, Gail S Bell, Jane de Tisi, Matthew C Walker, Tim Wehner, Josemir W Sander, Hajo M Hamer, Beate Diehl
INTRODUCTION: Bilateral interictal epileptiform discharges (IED) and ictal patterns are common in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and have been associated with decreased chances of seizure freedom after epilepsy surgery. It is unclear whether secondary epileptogenesis, although demonstrated in experimental models, exists in humans and may account for progression of epilepsy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We reviewed consecutive video-EEG recordings from 1992 to 2014 repeated at least two years apart (mean interval 6...
January 18, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110204/new-classification-of-epilepsy-related-neoplasms-the-clinical-perspective
#20
REVIEW
Burkhard S Kasper, Ekkehard M Kasper
Neoplastic CNS lesions are a common cause of focal epilepsy refractory to anticonvulsant treatment, i.e. long-term epilepsy-associated tumors (LEATs). Epileptogenic tumors encompass a variety of intriguing lesions, e.g. dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors or gangliogliomas, which differ from more common CNS neoplasms in their clinical context as well as on histopathology. Long-term epilepsy-associated tumor classification is a rapidly evolving issue in surgical neuropathology, with new entities still being elucidated...
February 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
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