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Drugs in anesthesia

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65 papers 25 to 100 followers Anesthetic drug-related articles of interest
Xian Su, Zhao-Ting Meng, Xin-Hai Wu, Fan Cui, Hong-Liang Li, Dong-Xin Wang, Xi Zhu, Sai-Nan Zhu, Mervyn Maze, Daqing Ma
BACKGROUND: Delirium is a postoperative complication that occurs frequently in patients older than 65 years, and presages adverse outcomes. We investigated whether prophylactic low-dose dexmedetomidine, a highly selective α2 adrenoceptor agonist, could safely decrease the incidence of delirium in elderly patients after non-cardiac surgery. METHODS: We did this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in two tertiary-care hospitals in Beijing, China. We enrolled patients aged 65 years or older, who were admitted to intensive care units after non-cardiac surgery, with informed consent...
October 15, 2016: Lancet
Saad A Sheta, Maha A Al-Sarheed, Ashraf A Abdelhalim
BACKGROUND: This prospective, randomized, double-blind study was designed to evaluate the use of intranasally administered dexmedetomidine vs intranasal midazolam as a premedication in children undergoing complete dental rehabilitation. METHODS: Seventy-two children of American Society of Anesthesiology classification (ASA) physical status (I & II), aged 3-6 years, were randomly assigned to one of two equal groups. Group M received intranasal midazolam (0.2 mg·kg(-1)), and group D received intranasal dexmedetomidine (1 μg·kg(-1))...
February 2014: Paediatric Anaesthesia
Sang Hun Kim, Nicoleta Stoicea, Suren Soghomonyan, Sergio D Bergese
The use of opioids may seem to be a double-edged sword; they provide straight analgesic and antihyperalgesic effects initially, but subsequently are associated with the expression of acute opioid tolerance (AOT) and opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH) that have been reported in experimental studies and clinical observations. It has been suggested that opioids can induce an acute tolerance and hyperalgesia in dose- and/or time-dependent manners even when used within the clinically accepted doses. Recently, remifentanil has been used for pain management in clinical anesthesia and in the intensive care units because of its rapid onset and offset...
May 2015: American Journal of Therapeutics
Nadia Elia, Martin R Tramèr
Ketamine, an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, is known to be analgesic and to induce psychomimetic effects. Benefits and risks of ketamine for the control of postoperative pain are not well understood. We systematically searched for randomised comparisons of ketamine with inactive controls in surgical patients, reporting on pain outcomes, opioid sparing, and adverse effects. Data were combined using a fixed effect model. Fifty-three trials (2839 patients) from 25 countries reported on a large variety of different ketamine regimens and surgical settings...
January 2005: Pain
Simon G Frank, Donald H Lalonde
BACKGROUND: The infiltration of local anesthetics can be painful, which is likely due, in part, to their acidity. In spite of a Cochrane study that recommended neutralizing lidocaine with bicarbonate to decrease the pain of injection, not many surgeons have adopted the practice, and there are many 'recipes' for how much bicarbonate one should add. OBJECTIVE: To determine the acidity of lidocaine and the correct ratio of bicarbonate that should be added to neutralize lidocaine to achieve body pH...
2012: Canadian Journal of Plastic Surgery, Journal Canadien de Chirurgie Plastique
Dusanka Zaric, Christian Christiansen, Nathan L Pace, Yodying Punjasawadwong
Lidocaine has been used for spinal anesthesia since 1948, seemingly without causing concern. However, during the last 10 years, a number of reports have appeared implicating lidocaine as a possible cause of neurologic complications after spinal anesthesia. Follow-up of patients who received uncomplicated spinal anesthesia revealed that some of them developed pain in the lower extremities--transient neurologic symptoms (TNS). In this study, we sought to compare the frequency of 1) TNS and 2) neurologic complications after spinal anesthesia with lidocaine with that after other local anesthetics...
June 2005: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Geoff Frawley, Adam Skinner, Jason Thomas, Sarah Smith
BACKGROUND: Our primary aim was to determine the minimum local anaesthetic dose (MLAD) defined as the median effective local anesthetic dose for spinal anesthesia in neonates. Secondary aims were to determine the dose-response curve for spinal anesthesia including the clinically relevant ED95 dose and to describe the duration of motor block following ropivacaine spinal anesthesia. METHODS: Fifty neonates less than 55 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA) having inguinal hernia repair were enrolled...
February 2007: Paediatric Anaesthesia
Xin-zhong Chen, Hong Chen, Ai-fei Lou, Chang-cheng Lü
BACKGROUND: Spinal hyperbaric ropivacaine may produce more predictable and reliable anesthesia than plain ropivacaine for cesarean section. The dose-response relation for spinal hyperbaric ropivacaine is undetermined. This double-blind, randomized, dose-response study determined the ED50 (50% effective dose) and ED95 (95% effective dose) of spinal hyperbaric ropivacaine for cesarean section anesthesia. METHODS: Sixty parturients undergoing elective cesarean section delivery with use of combined spinal-epidural anesthesia were enrolled in this study...
December 2006: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B
O Mathiesen, J Wetterslev, V K Kontinen, H-C Pommergaard, L Nikolajsen, J Rosenberg, M S Hansen, K Hamunen, J J Kjer, J B Dahl
Post-operative pain affects millions of patients worldwide and the post-operative period has high rates of morbidity and mortality. Some of this morbidity may be related to analgesics. The aim of this review was to provide an update of current knowledge of adverse events (AE) associated with the most common perioperative non-opioid analgesics: paracetamol, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), glucocorticoids (GCCs), gabapentinoids and their combinations. The review is based on data from systematic reviews with meta-analyses of analgesic efficacy and/or adverse effects of perioperative non-opioid analgesics, and randomised trials and cohort/retrospective studies...
November 2014: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Sebnem Eren Cevik, Tanju Tasyurek, Ozlem Guneysel
Intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) is a lifesaving treatment of lipophilic drug intoxications. Not only does ILE have demonstrable efficacy as an antidote to local anesthetic toxicity, it is also effective in lipophilic drug intoxications. Our case series involved 10 patients with ingestion of different types of lipophilic drugs. Intravenous lipid emulsion treatment improved Glasgow Coma Scale or blood pressure and pulse rate or both according to the drug type. Complications were observed in 2 patients (minimal change pancreatitis and probable ILE treatment-related fat infiltration in lungs)...
September 2014: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Pierre Beaulieu, Aline Boulanger, Julie Desroches, Alexander J Clark
PURPOSE: New regulations are in place at the federal and provincial levels in Canada regarding the way medical cannabis is to be controlled. We present them together with guidance for the safe use of medical cannabis and recent clinical trials on cannabis and pain. SOURCE: The new Canadian regulations on the use of medical cannabis, the provincial regulations, and the various cannabis products available from the Canadian Licensed Producers were reviewed from Health Canada, provincial licensing authorities, and the licensed producers website, respectively...
May 2016: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Journal Canadien D'anesthésie
Mohamed Naguib, Lara Brewer, Cristen LaPierre, Aaron F Kopman, Ken B Johnson
BACKGROUND: An unanticipated difficult airway during induction of anesthesia can be a vexing problem. In the setting of can't intubate, can't ventilate (CICV), rapid recovery of spontaneous ventilation is a reasonable goal. The urgency of restoring ventilation is a function of how quickly a patient's hemoglobin oxygen saturation decreases versus how much time is required for the effects of induction drugs to dissipate, namely the duration of unresponsiveness, ventilatory depression, and neuromuscular blockade...
July 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Sophia L van Hoff, Elizabeth S O'Neill, Lianna C Cohen, Brian A Collins
INTRODUCTION: Emergence agitation (EA) is common after sevoflurane anesthesia in children, and can lead to distressing inconsolability, agitation, crying, and injury. Use of a single dose of the short-acting sedative-hypnotic agent propofol at the end of a procedure has shown promise for preventing EA, but evidence evaluating the efficacy and safety of this approach has not been formally summarized. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this review was to assess the effects of a prophylactic dose of propofol vs placebo on the incidence and severity of EA in children age 0-13 years receiving general inhalational anesthesia...
July 2015: Paediatric Anaesthesia
Eun Jung Cho, Seung Zhoo Yoon, Jang Eun Cho, Hye Won Lee
BACKGROUND: Midazolam has been widely studied for preventing emergence agitation. The authors previously reported that in children with sevoflurane anesthesia, intravenous administration of midazolam (0.05 mg/kg) before the end of surgery reduced the incidence of emergence agitation but prolonged the emergence time. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that a lower midazolam dose could suppress emergence agitation with minimal disturbance of the emergence time in children with sevoflurane anesthesia...
June 2014: Anesthesiology
Michael C Reade, Glenn M Eastwood, Rinaldo Bellomo, Michael Bailey, Andrew Bersten, Benjamin Cheung, Andrew Davies, Anthony Delaney, Angaj Ghosh, Frank van Haren, Nerina Harley, David Knight, Shay McGuiness, John Mulder, Steve O'Donoghue, Nicholas Simpson, Paul Young
IMPORTANCE: Effective therapy has not been established for patients with agitated delirium receiving mechanical ventilation. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness of dexmedetomidine when added to standard care in patients with agitated delirium receiving mechanical ventilation. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: The Dexmedetomidine to Lessen ICU Agitation (DahLIA) study was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group randomized clinical trial involving 74 adult patients in whom extubation was considered inappropriate because of the severity of agitation and delirium...
April 12, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Wen-fei Tan, Er-ya Miao, Feng Jin, Hong Ma, Huang-wei Lu
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Supplementation of spinal anesthesia with various sedatives is a standard protocol to alleviate patient anxiety associated with the surgical procedure. We hypothesized that, compared with dexmedetomidine, midazolam might have a subtle influence on sleep quality after surgery following elective transurethral prostatic resection (TURP) in elderly male patients. METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, controlled trial was conducted at the First Hospital of China Medical University from July 2014 to January 2015...
May 2016: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
E S Choi, A Y Oh, K S Seo, J W Hwang, J H Ryu, B W Koo, B G Kim
We examined the use of neostigmine for reversing shallow (defined as train-of-four ratio of 0.5), cisatracurium- and rocuronium-induced neuromuscular block in 112 patients, by use of 0 μ , 10 μ , 20 μ or 40 μ dose of neostigmine for reversal. The times from neostigmine administration to train-of-four ratios of 0.7, 0.9 and 1.0 were evaluated. Analysis of variance showed that the duration of action was significantly longer after cisatracurium compared with rocuronium. The time to reach a train-of-four ratio of 1...
April 2016: Anaesthesia
M A Hughes, P S Glass, J R Jacobs
Elimination half-life is the pharmacokinetic parameter used most commonly to describe duration of pharmacologic action, including that expected of intravenous anesthetic drugs administered by continuous infusion. Little consideration has been given, however, to the relevance of elimination half-life in describing plasma (central compartment) drug concentrations in the context of relevant infusion durations. Therefore, simulations were performed with multicompartment pharmacokinetic models for six intravenous anesthetic drugs...
March 1992: Anesthesiology
Michael H Andreae, George M Carter, Naum Shaparin, Kathryn Suslov, Ronald J Ellis, Mark A Ware, Donald I Abrams, Hannah Prasad, Barth Wilsey, Debbie Indyk, Matthew Johnson, Henry S Sacks
UNLABELLED: Chronic neuropathic pain, the most frequent condition affecting the peripheral nervous system, remains underdiagnosed and difficult to treat. Inhaled cannabis may alleviate chronic neuropathic pain. Our objective was to synthesize the evidence on the use of inhaled cannabis for chronic neuropathic pain. We performed a systematic review and a meta-analysis of individual patient data. We registered our protocol with PROSPERO CRD42011001182. We searched in Cochrane Central, PubMed, EMBASE, and AMED...
December 2015: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
Mohamad Ahmad, David Sommerfreund
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2016: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Journal Canadien D'anesthésie
2015-12-25 16:54:00
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