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By Matt Zimmerman Medical resident
Vatsal M Kothari, Dilip R Karnad
Fever is defined as a core body temperature of >38.3 degrees C or 101 degrees F. About 50% of fevers in the ICU are due to infectious causes. Absence of fever in patients with infection heralds a poor prognosis. Temperatures between 102 degrees F-106 degrees F are more likely to be due to infection. The common infectious causes of fever are pneumonia, urosepsis, line infections and intraabdominal infections. Temperatures <102 degrees F or >106 degrees F are usually due to non-infectious causes like deep venous thrombosis, infusion reactions, aspiration, drug fever and the neuroleptic malignant syndrome...
November 2005: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 15, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Gordon R Bernard, Antonio Artigas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Intensive Care Medicine
Julia Mayerle, Verena Hlouschek, Markus M Lerch
The incidence of acute pancreatitis varies considerably between regions and is estimated at 5-80 per 100,000 population. The mortality rate of acute edematous-interstitial pancreatitis is below 1%, whereas 10-24% of patients with severe acute pancreatitis die. The early prognostic factors that can be used to determine whether the clinical course is likely to be severe are three or more signs of organ failure according to the Ranson or Imrie scores, the presence of nonpancreatic complications, and the detection of pancreatic necrosis by imaging techniques...
October 2005: Nature Clinical Practice. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Elena Csernok, Julia U Holle
Wegener's granulomatosis, microscopic polyangiitis, Churg-Strauss syndrome, and primary pauci-immune crescentic glomerulonephritis are associated with circulating antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies (ANCA) (collectively called ANCA-associated vasculitides, AAV). Two types of ANCA, one with a cytoplasmic fluorescence pattern (C-ANCA) and specificity for proteinase 3 (PR3-ANCA) and the other with a perinuclear pattern (P-ANCA) and specificity for myeloperoxidase (MPO-ANCA), account for this association and are highly specific markers for these vasculitides...
May 2010: Auto- Immunity Highlights
Jennifer G Wilson, Michael A Matthay
BACKGROUND: The goal of mechanical ventilation in acute hypoxemic respiratory failure is to support adequate gas exchange without harming the lungs. How patients are mechanically ventilated can significantly impact their ultimate outcomes. METHODS: This review focuses on emerging evidence regarding strategies for mechanical ventilation in patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure including: low tidal volume ventilation in the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), novel ventilator modes as alternatives to low tidal volume ventilation, adjunctive strategies that may enhance recovery in ARDS, the use of lung-protective strategies in patients without ARDS, rescue therapies in refractory hypoxemia, and an evidence-based approach to weaning from mechanical ventilation...
July 2014: Journal of Hospital Medicine: An Official Publication of the Society of Hospital Medicine
Sarah L Greig, Lesley J Scott, Greg L Plosker
A bioequivalent formulation of intravenous epoprostenol containing the excipients arginine and sucrose (epoprostenol AS) (Veletri®, Caripul®) is approved in the USA, UK, and other countries for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), and has improved thermal stability compared with epoprostenol containing glycine and mannitol (epoprostenol GM) (Flolan®). Epoprostenol, a synthetic prostacyclin, is a potent pulmonary vasodilator. Epoprostenol GM was originally approved for use as a long-term continuous infusion in patients with PAH nearly 20 years ago in the USA; however, this formulation has limited stability at room temperature, and requires the use of cooling or frequent medication changes during administration...
December 2014: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs: Drugs, Devices, and Other Interventions
Greg L Plosker
Tolvaptan is an orally administered, nonpeptide, selective arginine vasopressin V(2) receptor antagonist that increases free water clearance, thereby correcting low serum sodium levels. SALT-1 and -2, two identical, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre trials, included patients with hypervolaemic or euvolaemic hyponatraemia (serum sodium <135 mmol/L) associated with heart failure, cirrhosis or the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion. In both trials, patients receiving (in addition to standard medical treatment) tolvaptan 15-60 mg once daily (titrated according to response) for up to 30 days (n = 95 and 118) experienced significantly greater improvements than those receiving placebo (n = 89 and 114) for the co-primary endpoints of the change in average daily area under the curve for the serum sodium level from baseline to day 4 and from baseline to day 30...
March 5, 2010: Drugs
Ravi G Gupta, Sarah M Hartigan, Markos G Kashiouris, Curtis N Sessler, Gonzalo M L Bearman
Severe sepsis and septic shock are among the leading causes of mortality in the intensive care unit. Over a decade ago, early goal-directed therapy (EGDT) emerged as a novel approach for reducing sepsis mortality and was incorporated into guidelines published by the international Surviving Sepsis Campaign. In addition to requiring early detection of sepsis and prompt initiation of antibiotics, the EGDT protocol requires invasive patient monitoring to guide resuscitation with intravenous fluids, vasopressors, red cell transfusions, and inotropes...
August 28, 2015: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
E Rivers, B Nguyen, S Havstad, J Ressler, A Muzzin, B Knoblich, E Peterson, M Tomlanovich
BACKGROUND: Goal-directed therapy has been used for severe sepsis and septic shock in the intensive care unit. This approach involves adjustments of cardiac preload, afterload, and contractility to balance oxygen delivery with oxygen demand. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of early goal-directed therapy before admission to the intensive care unit. METHODS: We randomly assigned patients who arrived at an urban emergency department with severe sepsis or septic shock to receive either six hours of early goal-directed therapy or standard therapy (as a control) before admission to the intensive care unit...
November 8, 2001: New England Journal of Medicine
Laurent Papazian, Jean-Marie Forel, Arnaud Gacouin, Christine Penot-Ragon, Gilles Perrin, Anderson Loundou, Samir Jaber, Jean-Michel Arnal, Didier Perez, Jean-Marie Seghboyan, Jean-Michel Constantin, Pierre Courant, Jean-Yves Lefrant, Claude Guérin, Gwenaël Prat, Sophie Morange, Antoine Roch
BACKGROUND: In patients undergoing mechanical ventilation for the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), neuromuscular blocking agents may improve oxygenation and decrease ventilator-induced lung injury but may also cause muscle weakness. We evaluated clinical outcomes after 2 days of therapy with neuromuscular blocking agents in patients with early, severe ARDS. METHODS: In this multicenter, double-blind trial, 340 patients presenting to the intensive care unit (ICU) with an onset of severe ARDS within the previous 48 hours were randomly assigned to receive, for 48 hours, either cisatracurium besylate (178 patients) or placebo (162 patients)...
September 16, 2010: New England Journal of Medicine
Beverley J Hunt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 27, 2014: New England Journal of Medicine
Ryoichi Ochiai
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) has been intensively and continuously studied in various settings, but its mortality is still as high as 30-40 %. For the last 20 years, lung protective strategy has become a standard care for ARDS, but we still do not know the best way to ventilate patients with ARDS. Tidal volume itself does not seem to have an important role to develop ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI), but the driving pressure, which is inspiratory plateau pressure-PEEP, is the most important to predict and affect the outcome of ARDS, though there is no safe limit for the driving pressure...
2015: Journal of Intensive Care
William Bernal, Julia Wendon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 26, 2013: New England Journal of Medicine
Jean-Louis Vincent, Daniel De Backer
New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 369, Issue 18, Page 1726-1734, October 2013.
October 31, 2013: New England Journal of Medicine
Claude Guérin, Jean Reignier, Jean-Christophe Richard, Pascal Beuret, Arnaud Gacouin, Thierry Boulain, Emmanuelle Mercier, Michel Badet, Alain Mercat, Olivier Baudin, Marc Clavel, Delphine Chatellier, Samir Jaber, Sylvène Rosselli, Jordi Mancebo, Michel Sirodot, Gilles Hilbert, Christian Bengler, Jack Richecoeur, Marc Gainnier, Frédérique Bayle, Gael Bourdin, Véronique Leray, Raphaele Girard, Loredana Baboi, Louis Ayzac
BACKGROUND: Previous trials involving patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) have failed to show a beneficial effect of prone positioning during mechanical ventilatory support on outcomes. We evaluated the effect of early application of prone positioning on outcomes in patients with severe ARDS. METHODS: In this multicenter, prospective, randomized, controlled trial, we randomly assigned 466 patients with severe ARDS to undergo prone-positioning sessions of at least 16 hours or to be left in the supine position...
June 6, 2013: New England Journal of Medicine
R Phillip Dellinger, Mitchell M Levy, Andrew Rhodes, Djillali Annane, Herwig Gerlach, Steven M Opal, Jonathan E Sevransky, Charles L Sprung, Ivor S Douglas, Roman Jaeschke, Tiffany M Osborn, Mark E Nunnally, Sean R Townsend, Konrad Reinhart, Ruth M Kleinpell, Derek C Angus, Clifford S Deutschman, Flavia R Machado, Gordon D Rubenfeld, Steven A Webb, Richard J Beale, Jean-Louis Vincent, Rui Moreno
OBJECTIVE: To provide an update to the "Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines for Management of Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock," last published in 2008. DESIGN: A consensus committee of 68 international experts representing 30 international organizations was convened. Nominal groups were assembled at key international meetings (for those committee members attending the conference). A formal conflict of interest policy was developed at the onset of the process and enforced throughout...
February 2013: Critical Care Medicine
Vincent Cottin, Jean-François Cordier
Organizing pneumonia (OP) is a pathological pattern defined by the characteristic presence of buds of granulation tissue within the lumen of distal pulmonary airspaces consisting of fibroblasts and myofibroblasts intermixed with loose connective matrix. This pattern is the hallmark of a clinical pathological entity, namely cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP) when no cause or etiologic context is found. The process of intraalveolar organization results from a sequence of alveolar injury, alveolar deposition of fibrin, and colonization of fibrin with proliferating fibroblasts...
October 2012: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Todd W Rice, Arthur P Wheeler, B Taylor Thompson, Jay Steingrub, R Duncan Hite, Marc Moss, Alan Morris, Ning Dong, Peter Rock
CONTEXT: The amount of enteral nutrition patients with acute lung injury need is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine if initial lower-volume trophic enteral feeding would increase ventilator-free days and decrease gastrointestinal intolerances compared with initial full enteral feeding. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: The EDEN study, a randomized, open-label, multicenter trial conducted from January 2, 2008, through April 12, 2011. Participants were 1000 adults within 48 hours of developing acute lung injury requiring mechanical ventilation whose physicians intended to start enteral nutrition at 44 hospitals in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute ARDS Clinical Trials Network...
February 22, 2012: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
2015-10-26 21:57:51
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