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By Edwin Kim Resident Physician, Aspiring Addiction Psychiatrist
Patrick G O'Malley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 15, 2015: Annals of Internal Medicine
Judith D Bentkover, Clayton Aldern, Debra Lerner, Ellen Richardson, Amrita Bhawani Chadha, Cory Jacques, Sheyda Bautista-Saeyan
In the context of multiple treatment options for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and a large, growing need for consumer information regarding accessible and effective treatments, this article identifies and reviews available information and treatment resources. Multiple search strategies identified a suite of information sources, including meta-analyses and systematic reviews of PTSD treatments, the program evaluation and implementation literature, the economics literature, Internet sites, and other resources for veteran and civilian consumers...
November 2015: Harvard Review of Psychiatry
Daryl Shorter, John Hsieh, Thomas R Kosten
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorders (SUD) frequently co-occur, and their combination can increase poor health outcomes as well as mortality. METHODS: Using PUBMED and the list of references from key publications, this review article covered the epidemiology, neurobiology and pharmacotherapy of PTSD with comorbid alcohol, opiate, and cannabis use disorders. These SUD represent two with and one without FDA approved pharmacotherapies...
December 2015: American Journal on Addictions
Richard A Bryant
There is much interest in identifying people shortly after trauma exposure who will subsequently develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This review outlines recent developments in early identification of trauma-exposed people who are at high risk for PTSD development, including the rationale, evidence, and limitations of the acute stress diagnosis as a predictor of chronic PTSD. The potential role of acute dissociative responses mediating development of PTSD is also reviewed. The available evidence suggests that whereas acute dissociation is an important factor in the acute stress response, many people develop PTSD in the absence of dissociative symptoms...
2005: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
Richard A Bryant, Robert Brooks, Derrick Silove, Mark Creamer, Meaghan O'Donnell, Alexander C McFarlane
Although peritraumatic dissociation predicts subsequent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), little is understood about the mechanism of this relationship. This study examines the role of panic during trauma in the relationship between peritraumatic dissociation and subsequent PTSD. Randomized eligible admissions to 4 major trauma hospitals across Australia (n=244) were assessed during hospital admission and within one month of trauma exposure for panic, peritraumatic dissociation and PTSD symptoms, and subsequently re-assessed for PTSD three months after the initial assessment (n=208)...
May 2011: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Kathryn Ponniah, Steven D Hollon
BACKGROUND: Acute stress disorder (ASD) predicts the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which in some sufferers can persist for years and lead to significant disability. We carried out a review of randomized controlled trials to give an update on which psychological treatments are empirically supported for these disorders, and used the criteria set out by Chambless and Hollon [1998: J Consult Clin Psychol 66:7-18] to draw conclusions about efficacy, first irrespective of trauma type and second with regard to particular populations...
2009: Depression and Anxiety
Richard A Bryant, Meaghan L O'Donnell, Mark Creamer, Alexander C McFarlane, Derrick Silove
IMPORTANCE: Delayed-onset posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) accounts for approximately 25% of PTSD cases. Current models do not adequately explain the delayed increases in PTSD symptoms after trauma exposure. OBJECTIVE: To test the roles of initial psychiatric reactions, mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI), and ongoing stressors on delayed-onset PTSD. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: In this prospective cohort study, patients were selected from recent admissions to 4 major trauma hospitals across Australia...
August 2013: JAMA Psychiatry
Willie Langeland, Miranda Olff
Research suggests that about a quarter to a third of children with traffic-related injuries develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Early symptoms of PTSD have been found to predict poor mental and physical outcome in studies of medically injured children. However, these symptoms are rarely recognized by physicians who provide emergency care for these children. In addition, there is insufficient knowledge about predictors of posttraumatic stress symptoms in this specific pediatric population. Early identification of those children at particular risk is needed to target preventive interventions appropriately...
2008: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Richard A Bryant, Mark Creamer, Meaghan O'Donnell, Derrick Silove, Alexander C McFarlane
BACKGROUND: One rationale for establishing the acute stress disorder diagnosis was to identify recently trauma-exposed people who may develop later posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This study conducted a multi-site assessment of the extent to which ASD predicts subsequent PTSD, and also major depressive disorder, panic disorder, agoraphobia, social phobia, specific phobia, generalized anxiety disorder, and substance use disorder, 12 months after trauma. METHOD: Consecutive admissions to 5 major trauma hospitals across Australia (N = 1084) were assessed during hospital admission and within one month of trauma exposure and subsequently re-assessed for psychiatric disorder 12 months after the initial assessment (N = 859)...
February 2012: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Richard A Bryant, Mark Creamer, Meaghan L O'Donnell, Derrick Silove, Alexander C McFarlane
OBJECTIVE: Previous studies investigating the relationship between acute stress disorder (ASD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have reported mixed findings and have been flawed by small sample sizes and single sites. This study addresses these limitations by conducting a large-scale and multisite study to evaluate the extent to which ASD predicts subsequent PTSD. METHOD: Between April 2004 and April 2005, patients admitted consecutively to 4 major trauma hospitals across Australia (N = 597) were randomly selected and assessed for ASD (DSM-IV criteria) during hospital admission (within 1 month of trauma exposure) and were subsequently reassessed for PTSD 3 months after the initial assessment (N = 507)...
June 2008: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Laura Rosenberg, Marta Rosenberg, Rhonda Robert, Lisa Richardson, Sherri Sharp, Charles E Holzer, Christopher Thomas, Walter J Meyer
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in pediatric burn survivors who had been treated for acute stress disorder (ASD) symptoms during their initial hospitalization and compared them to patients who had been asymptomatic for ASD symptoms. METHOD: Participants were identified from electronic medical records from 1995 to 2008 and data were collected from 2006 to 2008. Participants were primarily matched on total body surface area burned and gender, and as close as possible on age at time of burn and number of years postburn...
November 2015: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Richard A Bryant, Mark Creamer, Meaghan O'Donnell, Derrick Silove, Alexander C McFarlane, David Forbes
OBJECTIVE: This study addresses the extent to which DSM-IV and DSM-5 definitions of acute stress disorder (ASD) predict subsequent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and related psychiatric disorders following trauma. METHOD: Patients with randomized admissions to 5 hospitals across Australia (N = 596) were assessed in hospital and reassessed for PTSD at 3 (n = 508), 12 (n = 426), 24 (n = 439), and 72 (n = 314) months using the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale; DSM-IV definition of PTSD was used at each assessment, and DSM-5 definition was used at 72 months...
April 2015: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Martha Kent, Crystal T Rivers, Glenda Wrenn
This paper presents a biopsychosocial model of self-regulation, executive functions, and personal growth that we have applied to Goal-Directed Resilience in Training (GRIT) interventions for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), obesity, and chronic pain. Implications of the training for the prevention of maladaptation, including psychological distress and health declines, and for promoting healthy development are addressed. Existing models of attention, cognition, and physiology were sourced in combination with qualitative study findings in developing this resilience skills intervention...
June 1, 2015: Behavioral Sciences
Martha Kent, Mary C Davis, Shannon L Stark, Laura A Stewart
This preliminary randomized trial examined the effect of a resilience-oriented intervention for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) versus a waitlist control on anxiety and depressive symptoms, positive emotional health, and cognitive performance in 39 veterans with a variety of traumatic exposures. From pre- to posttreatment, the intervention but not the control group showed improvements that were large in magnitude for affective symptoms and positive emotional health (ds = 0.73-1.18), moderate in magnitude for memory (ds = 0...
October 2011: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Joanne Mouthaan, Marit Sijbrandij, Jan S K Luitse, J Carel Goslings, Berthold P R Gersons, Miranda Olff
BACKGROUND: Decreased activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in response to stress is suspected to be a vulnerability factor for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Previous studies showed inconsistent findings regarding the role of cortisol in predicting PTSD. In addition, no prospective studies have examined the role of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), or its sulfate form DHEAS, and the cortisol-to-DHEA(S) ratio in predicting PTSD. In this study, we tested whether acute plasma cortisol, DHEAS and the cortisol-to-DHEAS ratio predicted PTSD symptoms at 6 weeks and 6 months post-trauma...
July 2014: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Sang Hwan Kim, Suzanne M Schneider, Margaret Bevans, Len Kravitz, Christine Mermier, Clifford Qualls, Mark R Burge
CONTEXT: Abnormal cortisol levels are a key pathophysiological indicator of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Endogenous normalization of cortisol concentration through exercise may be associated with PTSD symptom reduction. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to determine whether mindfulness-based stretching and deep breathing exercise (MBX) normalizes cortisol levels and reduces PTSD symptom severity among individuals with subclinical features of PTSD. DESIGN AND SETTING: A randomized controlled trial was conducted at the University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center...
July 2013: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
John C Markowitz, Eva Petkova, Yuval Neria, Page E Van Meter, Yihong Zhao, Elizabeth Hembree, Karina Lovell, Tatyana Biyanova, Randall D Marshall
OBJECTIVE: Exposure to trauma reminders has been considered imperative in psychotherapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The authors tested interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), which has demonstrated antidepressant efficacy and shown promise in pilot PTSD research as a non-exposure-based non-cognitive-behavioral PTSD treatment. METHOD: The authors conducted a randomized 14-week trial comparing IPT, prolonged exposure (an exposure-based exemplar), and relaxation therapy (an active control psychotherapy) in 110 unmedicated patients who had chronic PTSD and a score >50 on the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS)...
May 2015: American Journal of Psychiatry
Anke Ehlers, Ann Hackmann, Nick Grey, Jennifer Wild, Sheena Liness, Idit Albert, Alicia Deale, Richard Stott, David M Clark
OBJECTIVE: Psychological treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are usually delivered once or twice a week over several months. It is unclear whether they can be successfully delivered over a shorter period of time. This clinical trial had two goals: to investigate the acceptability and efficacy of a 7-day intensive version of cognitive therapy for PTSD and to investigate whether cognitive therapy has specific treatment effects by comparing intensive and standard weekly cognitive therapy with an equally credible alternative treatment...
March 2014: American Journal of Psychiatry
Bing Han, Eunice C Wong, Zhimin Mao, Lisa S Meredith, Andrea Cassells, Jonathan N Tobin
OBJECTIVE: The objective was to validate the reliability and efficiency of alternative cutoff values on the abbreviated six-item Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Checklist (PCL-6) [1] for underserved, largely minority patients in primary care settings of Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs). METHOD: Using a sample of 760 patients recruited from six FQHCs in the New York City and New Jersey metropolitan area from June 2010 to April 2013, we compared the PCL-6 with the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition...
January 2016: General Hospital Psychiatry
Amit Shah, Viola Vaccarino
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2015: JAMA Psychiatry
2015-10-20 04:01:47
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