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Federica Montagnese, Simona Portaro, Olimpia Musumeci, Alba Migliorato, Maurizio Moggio, Gigliola Fagiolari, Carmelo Rodolico
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2015: Muscle & Nerve
Hugh J Willison, Bart C Jacobs, Pieter A van Doorn
Guillain-Barré syndrome is the most common and most severe acute paralytic neuropathy, with about 100,000 people developing the disorder every year worldwide. Under the umbrella term of Guillain-Barré syndrome are several recognisable variants with distinct clinical and pathological features. The severe, generalised manifestation of Guillain-Barré syndrome with respiratory failure affects 20-30% of cases. Treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin or plasma exchange is the optimal management approach, alongside supportive care...
August 13, 2016: Lancet
Nico Melzer, Tobias Ruck, Peter Fuhr, Ralf Gold, Reinhard Hohlfeld, Alexander Marx, Arthur Melms, Björn Tackenberg, Berthold Schalke, Christiane Schneider-Gold, Fritz Zimprich, Sven G Meuth, Heinz Wiendl
Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune antibody-mediated disorder of neuromuscular synaptic transmission. The clinical hallmark of MG consists of fluctuating fatigability and weakness affecting ocular, bulbar and (proximal) limb skeletal muscle groups. MG may either occur as an autoimmune disease with distinct immunogenetic characteristics or as a paraneoplastic syndrome associated with tumors of the thymus. Impairment of central thymic and peripheral self-tolerance mechanisms in both cases is thought to favor an autoimmune CD4(+) T cell-mediated B cell activation and synthesis of pathogenic high-affinity autoantibodies of either the IgG1 and 3 or IgG4 subclass...
August 2016: Journal of Neurology
Guillaume Carteaux, Marianne Maquart, Alexandre Bedet, Damien Contou, Pierre Brugières, Slim Fourati, Laurent Cleret de Langavant, Thomas de Broucker, Christian Brun-Buisson, Isabelle Leparc-Goffart, Armand Mekontso Dessap
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 21, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
Nathalie Broutet, Fabienne Krauer, Maurane Riesen, Asheena Khalakdina, Maria Almiron, Sylvain Aldighieri, Marcos Espinal, Nicola Low, Christopher Dye
Zika virus infections have been known in Africa and Asia since the 1940s, but the virus’s geographic range has expanded dramatically since 2007. Between January 1, 2007, and March 1, 2016, local transmission was reported in an additional 52 countries and territories, mainly in the Americas and the..
April 21, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
Paulo Victor Sgobbi de Souza, Gabriel Novaes de Rezende Batistella, Wladimir Bocca Vieira de Rezende Pinto, Acary Souza Bulle Oliveira
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 9, 2016: Neurology
Bernadette M Monaghan, Shane Smyth
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 16, 2016: Neurology
Matteo Gastaldi, Anaïs Thouin, Angela Vincent
Over the last 15 years it has become clear that rare but highly recognizable diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), including newly identified forms of limbic encephalitis and other encephalopathies, are likely to be mediated by antibodies (Abs) to CNS proteins. The Abs are directed against membrane receptors and ion channel-associated proteins that are expressed on the surface of neurons in the CNS, such as N-methyl D-aspartate receptors and leucine-rich, glioma inactivated 1 protein and contactin-associated protein like 2, that are associated with voltage-gated potassium channels...
January 2016: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
Sophie Binks, Angela Vincent, Jacqueline Palace
Myasthenia gravis (MG) is the archetypic disorder of both the neuromuscular junction and autoantibody-mediated disease. In most patients, IgG1-dominant antibodies to acetylcholine receptors cause fatigable weakness of skeletal muscles. In the rest, a variable proportion possesses antibodies to muscle-specific tyrosine kinase while the remainder of seronegative MG is being explained through cell-based assays using a receptor-clustering technique and, to a lesser extent, proposed new antigenic targets. The incidence and prevalence of MG are increasing, particularly in the elderly...
April 2016: Journal of Neurology
Patrick Gérardin, Thérèse Couderc, Marc Bintner, Patrice Tournebize, Michel Renouil, Jérome Lémant, Véronique Boisson, Gianandrea Borgherini, Frédérik Staikowsky, Frédéric Schramm, Marc Lecuit, Alain Michault
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the cumulative incidence rate (CIR) of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV)-associated CNS disease during the La Réunion outbreak, and assess the disease burden and patient outcome after 3 years. METHODS: CHIKV-associated CNS disease was characterized retrospectively in a cohort of patients with positive CHIKV reverse transcriptase PCR or anti-CHIKV immunoglobulin M antibodies in the CSF and fulfilling International Encephalitis Consortium criteria for encephalitis or encephalopathy...
January 5, 2016: Neurology
Anthony O'Connor, Javier P Gisbert, Colm O'Morain, Spiros Ladas
Many interesting articles have been published from many parts of the world over the last year assessing different issues around Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy. This article will address the published literature over the last year pertaining to the topic of treatment of H. pylori infection. The main themes that emerge are assessing the efficacy of standard triple therapy, as well as exploring new first-line treatments, mainly optimized nonbismuth- and bismuth-containing quadruple therapies with some promising data also emerging on dual therapy...
September 2015: Helicobacter
Neil G Simon, Matthew C Kiernan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Antonios Kerasnoudis, Georgios Tsivgoulis
Peripheral neuropathies are one of the most common reasons for seeking neurological care in everyday practice. Electrophysiological studies remain fundamental for the diagnosis and etiological classification of peripheral nerve impairment. The recent technological development though of high resolution ultrasound has allowed the clinician to obtain detailed structural images of peripheral nerves. Nerve ultrasound mainly focuses on the evaluation of the cross sectional area, cross sectional area variability along the anatomical course, echogenity, vascularity and mobility of the peripheral nerves...
July 2015: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
Aaron Bunnell, John Ney, Alfred Gellhorn, Catherine L Hough
Intensive care unit-acquired weakness (ICU-AW) causes significant morbidity and impairment in critically ill patients. Recent advances in neuromuscular ultrasound (NMUS) allow evaluation of neuromuscular pathology early in critical illness. Here we review application of ultrasound in ICU-AW. MEDLINE-indexed articles were searched for terms relevant to ultrasound and critical illness. Two reviewers evaluated the resulting abstracts (n = 218) and completed full-text review (n = 13). Twelve studies and 1 case report were included...
November 2015: Muscle & Nerve
Irina Lazarev, Ilan Shelef, Yael Refaely, Samuel Ariad, Gal Ifergane
Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is characterized by a relatively high rate of autoimmune phenomena. Paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis (PLE) is an autoimmune syndrome in which a non-neural tumor containing an antigen normally present in the nervous system precipitates an antibody attack on neural tissues. Patients with PLE usually present with rapidly progressive short-term memory deficits, confusion or even dementia. Palmar fasciitis and polyarthritis syndrome (PFPAS) is another autoimmune syndrome characterized by rheumatologic manifestations, especially involving the palms of the hands...
September 7, 2015: Rare Tumors
M Dani, D J Brooks, P Edison
Aggregated tau protein is a major neuropathological substrate central to the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), frontotemporal dementia, progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration and chronic traumatic encephalopathy. In AD, it has been shown that the density of hyperphosphorylated tau tangles correlates closely with neuronal dysfunction and cell death, unlike β-amyloid. Until now, diagnostic and pathologic information about tau deposition has only been available from invasive techniques such as brain biopsy or autopsy...
June 2016: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Jeffrey R Binder
The term "Wernicke's area" is most often used as an anatomical label for the gyri forming the lower posterior left sylvian fissure. Although traditionally this region was held to support language comprehension, modern imaging and neuropsychological studies converge on the conclusion that this region plays a much larger role in speech production. This evidence is briefly reviewed, and a simple schematic model of posterior cortical language processing is described.
December 15, 2015: Neurology
Jessica M Baker, Joel Salinas, Aaron L Berkowitz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 13, 2015: Neurology
Shin C Beh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2015: JAMA Neurology
Patricia F Jenkins
INTRODUCTION AND PURPOSE: This paper reviews the complaints and associated symptoms/consequences of lacking essential nutrients and vitamins in our central and peripheral nervous systems. This has become important as there has been a rise in malnutrition following the increasing incidence of bariatric surgery for obesity. METHODS: A case report example involving review of the clinical presentation and treatment. RESULTS: A 30-year-old Caucasian woman who had gastric sleeve surgery did not take the recommended capsules as they were too large to swallow...
2015: American Orthoptic Journal
2015-11-17 15:47:31
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