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CSIM2015 Five Top Papers

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5 papers 0 to 25 followers Five top papers relevant to GIM presented at #CSIM2015
Reed A C Siemieniuk, Maureen O Meade, Pablo Alonso-Coello, Matthias Briel, Nathan Evaniew, Manya Prasad, Paul E Alexander, Yutong Fei, Per O Vandvik, Mark Loeb, Gordon H Guyatt
BACKGROUND: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is common and often severe. PURPOSE: To examine the effect of adjunctive corticosteroid therapy on mortality, morbidity, and duration of hospitalization in patients with CAP. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials through 24 May 2015. STUDY SELECTION: Randomized trials of systemic corticosteroids in hospitalized adults with CAP...
October 6, 2015: Annals of Internal Medicine
Christopher P Cannon, Michael A Blazing, Robert P Giugliano, Amy McCagg, Jennifer A White, Pierre Theroux, Harald Darius, Basil S Lewis, Ton Oude Ophuis, J Wouter Jukema, Gaetano M De Ferrari, Witold Ruzyllo, Paul De Lucca, KyungAh Im, Erin A Bohula, Craig Reist, Stephen D Wiviott, Andrew M Tershakovec, Thomas A Musliner, Eugene Braunwald, Robert M Califf
BACKGROUND: Statin therapy reduces low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels and the risk of cardiovascular events, but whether the addition of ezetimibe, a nonstatin drug that reduces intestinal cholesterol absorption, can reduce the rate of cardiovascular events further is not known. METHODS: We conducted a double-blind, randomized trial involving 18,144 patients who had been hospitalized for an acute coronary syndrome within the preceding 10 days and had LDL cholesterol levels of 50 to 100 mg per deciliter (1...
June 18, 2015: New England Journal of Medicine
Mark R Thursz, Paul Richardson, Michael Allison, Andrew Austin, Megan Bowers, Christopher P Day, Nichola Downs, Dermot Gleeson, Alastair MacGilchrist, Allister Grant, Steven Hood, Steven Masson, Anne McCune, Jane Mellor, John O'Grady, David Patch, Ian Ratcliffe, Paul Roderick, Louise Stanton, Nikhil Vergis, Mark Wright, Stephen Ryder, Ewan H Forrest
BACKGROUND: Alcoholic hepatitis is a clinical syndrome characterized by jaundice and liver impairment that occurs in patients with a history of heavy and prolonged alcohol use. The short-term mortality among patients with severe disease exceeds 30%. Prednisolone and pentoxifylline are both recommended for the treatment of severe alcoholic hepatitis, but uncertainty about their benefit persists. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter, double-blind, randomized trial with a 2-by-2 factorial design to evaluate the effect of treatment with prednisolone or pentoxifylline...
April 23, 2015: New England Journal of Medicine
Douwe F Postma, Cornelis H van Werkhoven, Leontine J R van Elden, Steven F T Thijsen, Andy I M Hoepelman, Jan A J W Kluytmans, Wim G Boersma, Clara J Compaijen, Eva van der Wall, Jan M Prins, Jan J Oosterheert, Marc J M Bonten
BACKGROUND: The choice of empirical antibiotic treatment for patients with clinically suspected community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) who are admitted to non-intensive care unit (ICU) hospital wards is complicated by the limited availability of evidence. We compared strategies of empirical treatment (allowing deviations for medical reasons) with beta-lactam monotherapy, beta-lactam-macrolide combination therapy, or fluoroquinolone monotherapy. METHODS: In a cluster-randomized, crossover trial with strategies rotated in 4-month periods, we tested the noninferiority of the beta-lactam strategy to the beta-lactam-macrolide and fluoroquinolone strategies with respect to 90-day mortality, in an intention-to-treat analysis, using a noninferiority margin of 3 percentage points and a two-sided 90% confidence interval...
April 2, 2015: New England Journal of Medicine
Tammy T Hshieh, Jirong Yue, Esther Oh, Margaret Puelle, Sarah Dowal, Thomas Travison, Sharon K Inouye
IMPORTANCE: Delirium, an acute disorder with high morbidity and mortality, is often preventable through multicomponent nonpharmacological strategies. The efficacy of these strategies for preventing subsequent adverse outcomes has been limited to small studies to date. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate available evidence on multicomponent nonpharmacological delirium interventions in reducing incident delirium and preventing poor outcomes associated with delirium. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from January 1, 1999, to December 31, 2013...
April 2015: JAMA Internal Medicine
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