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Cholestyramine

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37 papers 0 to 25 followers and all things BAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26426834/diagnosis-of-bile-acid-diarrhoea-by-fasting-and-postprandial-measurements-of-fibroblast-growth-factor-19
#1
Christian Borup, Charlotte Syversen, Pierre Bouchelouche, Morten Damgaard, Jesper Graff, Jüri Johannes Rumessen, Lars Kristian Munck
BACKGROUND: A deficiency in the ileal hormone fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) has been described in patients with bile acid diarrhoea (BAD), but fasting FGF19 levels have insufficient diagnostic power. We assess whether single postprandial sampling of FGF19 has greater discriminative value than fasting FGF19 for detection of BAD and we evaluate the reproducibility of fasting FGF19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-six patients consecutively referred to Se homocholic acid retention test (SeHCAT) were included...
December 2015: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26347530/biomarkers-for-bile-acid-diarrhoea-in-functional-bowel-disorder-with-diarrhoea-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#2
Nelson Valentin, Michael Camilleri, Osama Altayar, Priya Vijayvargiya, Andres Acosta, Alfred D Nelson, M Hassan Murad
: There is no universally available laboratory test to diagnose bile acid diarrhoea (BAD). OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to identify a biomarker for idiopathic BAD in patients with functional bowel disorder (FBD) with diarrhoea. DESIGN: We searched multiple databases through 15 May 2015. Data were only available to estimate the diagnostic yield of each test (the prevalence of a positive test). Estimates were pooled across studies using the random effects model...
September 7, 2015: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26256900/effect-of-cholecystectomy-on-bile-acid-synthesis-and-circulating-levels-of-fibroblast-growth-factor-19
#3
Francisco Barrera, Lorena Azócar, Héctor Molina, Kurt A Schalper, Marcia Ocares, Jessica Liberona, Luis Villarroel, Fernando Pimentel, Rosa M Pérez-Ayuso, Flavio Nervi, Albert K Groen, Juan F Miquel
UNLABELLED: Background and rationale for the study. FGF19/15 is a gut-derived hormone presumably governing bile acid (BA) synthesis and gallbladder (GB) refilling. FGF19 mRNA is present in human GB cholangiocytes (hGBECs); however, the physiological significance of GB-derived FGF19 remains unknown. We investigated whether hGBECs secrete FGF19 and the effects of cholecystectomy on serum FGF19 ([FGF19]s) and BA synthesis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: FGF19 expression was assessed by qRT-PCRs and immunostaining in hGBECs and terminal ileum, and quantified in bile and serum by ELISA...
September 2015: Annals of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26138466/therapeutic-targeting-of-bile-acids
#4
REVIEW
Michael Camilleri, Gregory J Gores
The first objectives of this article are to review the structure, chemistry, and physiology of bile acids and the types of bile acid malabsorption observed in clinical practice. The second major theme addresses the classical or known properties of bile acids, such as the role of bile acid sequestration in the treatment of hyperlipidemia; the use of ursodeoxycholic acid in therapeutics, from traditional oriental medicine to being, until recently, the drug of choice in cholestatic liver diseases; and the potential for normalizing diverse bowel dysfunctions in irritable bowel syndrome, either by sequestering intraluminal bile acids for diarrhea or by delivering more bile acids to the colon to relieve constipation...
August 15, 2015: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26043746/effect-of-bile-acid-sequestrants-on-the-risk-of-cardiovascular-events-a-mendelian-randomization-analysis
#5
REVIEW
Stephanie Ross, Matthew D'Mello, Sonia S Anand, John Eikelboom, Alexandre F R Stewart, Nilesh J Samani, Robert Roberts, Guillaume Paré
BACKGROUND: Statins lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and risk of coronary artery disease (CAD), but they may be ineffective or not tolerated. Bile acid sequestrants (BAS) reduce LDL-C, yet their clinical efficacy on CAD remains controversial. METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to assess the effect of cholestyramine and colesevelam. We then used Mendelian randomization to estimate the effect of BAS on reducing the risk of CAD...
August 2015: Circulation. Cardiovascular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26031975/quantifying-bile-acid-malabsorption-helps-predict-response-and-tailor-sequestrant-therapy
#6
Oluwafikunayo Orekoya, John McLaughlin, Eugenia Leitao, Wendy Johns, Simon Lal, Peter Paine
Although recognised as a cause of chronic diarrhoea for over forty years, diagnostic tests and treatments for bile acid malabsorption (BAM) remain controversial. Recent National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidelines highlighted the lack of evidence in the field, and called for further research. This retrospective study explores the BAM subtype and severity, the use and response to bile acid sequestrants (BAS) and the prevalence of abnormal colonic histology. 264 selenium-75-labelled homocholic acid conjugated taurine (SeHCAT)-tested patient records were reviewed and the severity and subtype of BAM, presence of colonic histopathology and response to BAS were recorded...
June 2015: Clinical Medicine: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25918262/bile-acid-diarrhea-prevalence-pathogenesis-and-therapy
#7
REVIEW
Michael Camilleri
Bile acid diarrhea (BAD) is usually seen in patients with ileal Crohn's disease or ileal resection. However, 25% to 50% of patients with functional diarrhea or diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) also have evidence of BAD. It is estimated that 1% of the population may have BAD. The causes of BAD include a deficiency in fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF-19), a hormone produced in enterocytes that regulates hepatic bile acid (BA) synthesis. Other potential causes include genetic variations that affect the proteins involved in BA enterohepatic circulation and synthesis or in the TGR5 receptor that mediates the actions of BA in colonic secretion and motility...
May 23, 2015: Gut and Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25913530/systematic-review-with-meta-analysis-the-prevalence-of-bile-acid-malabsorption-in-the-irritable-bowel-syndrome-with-diarrhoea
#8
REVIEW
S A Slattery, O Niaz, Q Aziz, A C Ford, A D Farmer
BACKGROUND: Irritable bowel syndrome is a widespread disorder with a marked socioeconomic burden. Previous studies support the proposal that a subset of patients with features compatible with diarrhoea-predominant IBS (IBS-D) have bile acid malabsorption (BAM). AIM: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the prevalence of BAM in patients meeting the accepted criteria for IBS-D. METHODS: MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched up to March 2015...
July 2015: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25858478/randomised-clinical-trial-colestyramine-vs-hydroxypropyl-cellulose-in-patients-with-functional-chronic-watery-diarrhoea
#9
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
F Fernández-Bañares, M Rosinach, M Piqueras, A Ruiz-Cerulla, I Modolell, Y Zabana, J Guardiola, M Esteve
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic bile acid malabsorption (BAM) has been suggested as a cause of chronic watery diarrhoea, with a response to colestyramine in 70% of patients. However, the efficacy of this drug has never been investigated in placebo-controlled trials. AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of colestyramine as compared with hydroxypropyl cellulose in the treatment of functional chronic watery diarrhoea. METHODS: Patients with chronic watery diarrhoea were randomly assigned to groups given colestyramine sachets 4 g twice daily (n = 13) or identical hydroxypropyl cellulose sachets (n = 13) for 8 weeks...
June 2015: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25854696/fgf19-promotes-progression-of-prostate-cancer
#10
Hirotaka Nagamatsu, Jun Teishima, Keisuke Goto, Hiroyuki Shikuma, Hiroyuki Kitano, Koichi Shoji, Shogo Inoue, Akio Matsubara
BACKGROUND: Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling pathways have been reported to play important roles in prostate cancer (PCa) progression. FGF19 is one of a subfamily of FGFs that circulate in serum and act in an endocrine manner. Our objective was to investigate its role in the progression of PCa. METHODS: The effect of FGF19 on the proliferation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition of LNCaP and PC3 cells was examined using MTT assay and Western blotting. Serum concentration of FGF19 was measured by ELISA in 209 patients with PCa, and the association between clinicopathological features and the presence of FGF19-positive cells in tissues derived from 155 patients who undergone radical prostatectomy was investigated...
July 1, 2015: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25736145/editorial-colesevelam-effects-on-faecal-bile-acids-in-ibs-with-diarrhoea-author-s-reply
#11
EDITORIAL
M Camilleri
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2015: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25736144/editorial-colesevelam-effects-on-faecal-bile-acids-in-ibs-with-diarrhoea
#12
EDITORIAL
J R F Walters, R N Appleby
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2015: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25728737/are-bile-acid-malabsorption-and-bile-acid-diarrhoea-important-causes-of-loose-stool-complicating-cancer-therapy
#13
F Phillips, A C G Muls, A Lalji, H J N Andreyev
AIM: Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms during and after cancer therapy can significantly affect quality of life and interfere with treatment. This study assessed whether bile acid malabsorption (BAM) or bile acid diarrhoea (BAD) are important causes of diarrhoea associated with cancer treatment. METHOD: A retrospective analysis was carried out of consecutive patients assessed for BAM using ((75) Se) Selenium homocholic acid taurocholate (SeHCAT) scanning, after reporting any episodes of loose stool, attending a gastroenterology clinic in a cancer centre...
August 2015: Colorectal Disease: the Official Journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25693765/outcomes-from-treating-bile-acid-malabsorption-using-a-multidisciplinary-approach
#14
Ankur Gupta, Ann C Muls, Amyn Lalji, Karen Thomas, Lorraine Watson, Clare Shaw, H Jervoise N Andreyev
BACKGROUND & AIM: Despite bile acid malabsorption affecting >1 % of the population, the outcomes of treatment are largely unreported. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a structured intervention for this condition. METHOD: This was a retrospective evaluation of prospectively recorded patient reported outcome measures in a consecutive cohort of patients diagnosed with bile acid malabsorption seen in a cancer centre gastroenterology clinic. Every patient completed a 7-day food diary, a gastrointestinal symptom rating scale questionnaire and Bristol stool chart before the first clinic appointment and the symptom questionnaire and Bristol stool chart before all subsequent appointments...
October 2015: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25613056/luminal-toxin-binding-agents-for-clostridium-difficile-infection
#15
Ryan M McCoy, Andrew Klick, Steven Hill, Ryan B Dull
OBJECTIVE: To systematically search the literature for trials evaluating luminal toxin-binding agents (LTBAs) for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). METHODS: A systematic search was conducted utilizing PubMed and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts with the following terms: anion-exchange resins, C difficile, cholestyramine, tolevamer, and colestipol. Articles were included if published in the English language and reported clinical outcomes of more than 5 adult humans with CDI treated with LTBAs...
August 2016: Journal of Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25594801/effect-of-colesevelam-on-faecal-bile-acids-and-bowel-functions-in-diarrhoea-predominant-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#16
M Camilleri, A Acosta, I Busciglio, A Boldingh, R B Dyer, A R Zinsmeister, A Lueke, A Gray, L J Donato
BACKGROUND: About one-third of patients with IBS-diarrhoea (irritable bowel syndrome-D) have evidence of increased bile acid synthesis or excretion. AIMS: To assess effects of the bile acid sequestrant, colesevelam, on faecal excretion of BAs, hepatic BA synthesis and diarrhoea in IBS-D; to appraise whether individual or random stool samples accurately reflect 48-h total faecal bile acid excretion and proportions of the main bile acids excreted and to study the faecal fat excretion in response to colesevelam...
March 2015: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25518063/diarrhea-in-crohn%C3%A2-s-disease-investigating-the-role-of-the-ileal-hormone-fibroblast-growth-factor-19
#17
Jonathan D Nolan, Ian M Johnston, Sanjeev S Pattni, Tracy Dew, Timothy R Orchard, Julian R F Walters
BACKGROUND: Bile acids [BA] are usually reabsorbed by the terminal ileum, but this process is frequently abnormal in Crohn’s disease [CD]. BA malabsorption occurs, and excess colonic BA cause secretory diarrhea. Furthermore, the hormone fibroblast growth factor 19 [FGF19] is synthesized in the ileum in response to BA absorption and regulates BA synthesis. We hypothesized that reduced serum FGF19 levels will be associated with diarrheal symptoms and disease activity in both ileal resected[IR-CD] and non-resected CD [NR-CD] patients...
February 2015: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25518061/cholestyramine-treats-primary-sclerosing-cholangitis-associated-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#18
LETTER
Polychronis Pavlidis, Michael Heneghan, Bu'Hussain Hayee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2015: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25497389/the-potential-use-of-cholestyramine-to-reduce-the-risk-of-developing-clostridium-difficile-associated-diarrhoea-in-patients-receiving-long-term-intravenous-ceftriaxone
#19
B K Puri, J S Hakkarainen-Smith, Jean A Monro
Intravenous pharmacotherapy with the third-generation cephalosporin ceftriaxone is unfortunately associated with a relatively high incidence of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea. Cholestyramine (colestyramine) is an anion-binding resin which can bind luminal C.difficile toxin A (TcdA) and toxin B (TcdB) and which may be beneficial in the treatment of recurrent antibiotic-associated pseudomembranous colitis. We therefore hypothesised that concomitant oral cholestyramine might reduce the risk of C.difficile-associated diarrhoea in patients receiving long-term intravenous ceftriaxone...
January 2015: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25329562/the-response-of-patients-with-bile-acid-diarrhoea-to-the-farnesoid-x-receptor-agonist-obeticholic-acid
#20
J R F Walters, I M Johnston, J D Nolan, C Vassie, M E Pruzanski, D A Shapiro
BACKGROUND: Bile acid diarrhoea is a common cause of chronic diarrhoea, occurring as a primary condition or secondary to ileal disease or resection. Many patients have reduced levels of the ileal hormone fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19), an inhibitory regulator of hepatic bile acid synthesis, secreted in response to farnesoid X receptor (FXR) activation. AIM: To investigate whether obeticholic acid, a potent FXR agonist, could increase FGF19 in patients with bile acid diarrhoea, and produce clinical benefits...
January 2015: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
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