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Outstanding Clinical Review

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159 papers 100 to 500 followers
By César Gerardo Martínez Hernández General and Nuclear Cardiologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416507/thrombotic-thrombocytopenic-purpura
#1
REVIEW
Bérangère S Joly, Paul Coppo, Agnès Veyradier
Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a rare and life-threatening thrombotic microangiopathy characterized by microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, severe thrombocytopenia, and organ ischemia linked to disseminated microvascular platelet rich-thrombi. TTP is specifically related to a severe deficiency in ADAMTS13 (a disintegrin and metalloprotease with thrombospondin type 1 repeats, member 13), the specific von Willebrand factor-cleaving protease. ADAMTS13 deficiency is most frequently acquired via ADAMTS13 autoantibodies, but rarely, it is inherited via mutations of the ADAMTS13 gene...
May 25, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620111/dietary-fats-and-cardiovascular-disease-a-presidential-advisory-from-the-american-heart-association
#2
REVIEW
Frank M Sacks, Alice H Lichtenstein, Jason H Y Wu, Lawrence J Appel, Mark A Creager, Penny M Kris-Etherton, Michael Miller, Eric B Rimm, Lawrence L Rudel, Jennifer G Robinson, Neil J Stone, Linda V Van Horn
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading global cause of death, accounting for 17.3 million deaths per year. Preventive treatment that reduces CVD by even a small percentage can substantially reduce, nationally and globally, the number of people who develop CVD and the costs of caring for them. This American Heart Association presidential advisory on dietary fats and CVD reviews and discusses the scientific evidence, including the most recent studies, on the effects of dietary saturated fat intake and its replacement by other types of fats and carbohydrates on CVD...
June 15, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589057/treatment-of-sydenham-s-chorea-a-review-of-the-current-evidence
#3
REVIEW
Shannon L Dean, Harvey S Singer
BACKGROUND: Sydenham's chorea (SC), the neurologic manifestation of rheumatic fever, remains the most prevalent form of chorea in children. Suggested treatments of chorea in SC include prophylactic penicillin, symptomatic (antipsychotic and anticonvulsant) medications, and immunomodulatory therapy (steroids, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), and plasma exchange). In this manuscript, we undertook a systematic review of the published literature to examine the data supporting these therapeutic recommendations...
2017: Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577069/prevention-of-acute-kidney-injury-and-protection-of-renal-function-in-the-intensive-care-unit-update-2017-expert-opinion-of-the-working-group-on-prevention-aki-section-european-society-of-intensive-care-medicine
#4
M Joannidis, W Druml, L G Forni, A B J Groeneveld, P M Honore, E Hoste, M Ostermann, H M Oudemans-van Straaten, M Schetz
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) in the intensive care unit is associated with significant mortality and morbidity. OBJECTIVES: To determine and update previous recommendations for the prevention of AKI, specifically the role of fluids, diuretics, inotropes, vasopressors/vasodilators, hormonal and nutritional interventions, sedatives, statins, remote ischaemic preconditioning and care bundles. METHOD: A systematic search of the literature was performed for studies published between 1966 and March 2017 using these potential protective strategies in adult patients at risk of AKI...
June 2017: Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591533/management-of-septic-shock
#5
Rebecca E Berger, Emanuel Rivers, Mitchell M Levy
New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 376, Issue 23, Page 2282-2285, June 2017.
June 8, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556585/a-practical-approach-to-diagnosing-endocrine-hypertension
#6
REVIEW
Jun Yang, Jimmy Shen, Peter J Fuller
Hypertension is a leading cardiovascular risk factor that remains difficult to manage in a large segment of the population. Secondary causes of hypertension, which are amenable to targeted treatment or even cure, may contribute to poor blood pressure control. The most common endocrine cause, primary aldosteronism, requires biochemical screening as there are often no symptoms or signs other than hypertension. Screening tests should be done after adequate preparation to optimise the results and minimise the confounding effects of diet and medications...
May 27, 2017: Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427116/current-trends-in-the-management-of-gastroesophageal-reflux-disease
#7
REVIEW
Dalbir S Sandhu, Ronnie Fass
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) characterized by heartburn and/or regurgitation symptoms is one of the most common gastrointestinal disorders managed by gastroenterologists and primary care physicians. There has been an increase in GERD prevalence, particularly in North America and East Asia. Over the past three decades proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have been the mainstay of medical therapy for GERD. However, recently there has been an increasing awareness amongst physicians and patients regarding the side effects of the PPI class of drugs...
April 24, 2017: Gut and Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107561/beta-blockers-for-hypertension
#8
REVIEW
Charles S Wiysonge, Hazel A Bradley, Jimmy Volmink, Bongani M Mayosi, Lionel H Opie
BACKGROUND: Beta-blockers refer to a mixed group of drugs with diverse pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties. They have shown long-term beneficial effects on mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD) when used in people with heart failure or acute myocardial infarction. Beta-blockers were thought to have similar beneficial effects when used as first-line therapy for hypertension. However, the benefit of beta-blockers as first-line therapy for hypertension without compelling indications is controversial...
January 20, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857121/guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome-a-century-of-progress
#9
REVIEW
John A Goodfellow, Hugh J Willison
In 1916, Guillain, Barré and Strohl reported on two cases of acute flaccid paralysis with high cerebrospinal fluid protein levels and normal cell counts - novel findings that identified the disease we now know as Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). 100 years on, we have made great progress with the clinical and pathological characterization of GBS. Early clinicopathological and animal studies indicated that GBS was an immune-mediated demyelinating disorder, and that severe GBS could result in secondary axonal injury; the current treatments of plasma exchange and intravenous immunoglobulin, which were developed in the 1980s, are based on this premise...
December 2016: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364357/treatment-of-diabetic-ketoacidosis-dka-hyperglycemic-hyperosmolar-state-hhs-novel-advances-in-the-management-of-hyperglycemic-crises-uk-versus-usa
#10
REVIEW
Ketan K Dhatariya, Priyathama Vellanki
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state (HHS) are diabetic emergencies that cause high morbidity and mortality. Their treatment differs in the UK and USA. This review delineates the differences in diagnosis and treatment between the two countries. RECENT FINDINGS: Large-scale studies to determine optimal management of DKA and HHS are lacking. The diagnosis of DKA is based on disease severity in the USA, which differs from the UK...
May 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501304/speculations-on-salt-and-the-genesis-of-arterial-hypertension
#11
REVIEW
Jens Titze, Friedrich C Luft
Blood pressure salt sensitivity and salt resistance are mechanistically imperfectly explained. A prescient systems medicine approach by Guyton and colleagues-more than 50 years ago-suggested how salt intake might influence blood pressure. They proposed that a high-salt diet engenders sodium accumulation, volume expansion, cardiac output adjustments, and then autoregulation for flow maintenance. The autoregulation in all vascular beds increases systemic vascular resistance, causing the kidneys to excrete more salt and water, thus reducing systems to normal and minimizing any changes in blood pressure...
June 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533303/cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-in-adults-and-children-with-mechanical-circulatory-support-a-scientific-statement-from-the-american-heart-association
#12
REVIEW
Mary Ann Peberdy, Jason A Gluck, Joseph P Ornato, Christian A Bermudez, Russell E Griffin, Vigneshwar Kasirajan, Richard E Kerber, Eldrin F Lewis, Mark S Link, Corinne Miller, Jeffrey J Teuteberg, Ravi Thiagarajan, Robert M Weiss, Brian O'Neil
Cardiac arrest in patients on mechanical support is a new phenomenon brought about by the increased use of this therapy in patients with end-stage heart failure. This American Heart Association scientific statement highlights the recognition and treatment of cardiovascular collapse or cardiopulmonary arrest in an adult or pediatric patient who has a ventricular assist device or total artificial heart. Specific, expert consensus recommendations are provided for the role of external chest compressions in such patients...
May 22, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549103/coronary-artery-disease-physiology-and-prognosis
#13
Thomas J Ford, David Corcoran, Colin Berry
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 26, 2017: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417882/easl-clinical-practical-guidelines-on-the-management-of-acute-fulminant-liver-failure
#14
(no author information available yet)
The term acute liver failure (ALF) is frequently applied as a generic expression to describe patients presenting with or developing an acute episode of liver dysfunction. In the context of hepatological practice, however, ALF refers to a highly specific and rare syndrome, characterised by an acute abnormality of liver blood tests in an individual without underlying chronic liver disease. The disease process is associated with development of a coagulopathy of liver aetiology, and clinically apparent altered level of consciousness due to hepatic encephalopathy...
May 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439398/a-practical-approach-to-the-pharmacological-management-of-hypertension-in-older-people
#15
REVIEW
Nikesh Parekh, Amy Page, Khalid Ali, Kevin Davies, Chakravarthi Rajkumar
Hypertension is the leading cause of cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality in adults over the age of 65. The first part of this paper is an overview, summarizing the current guidelines on the pharmacological management of hypertension in older adults in Europe and the USA, and evidence from key trials that contributed to the guidelines. In the second part of the paper, we will discuss the major challenges of managing hypertension in the context of multimorbidity, including frailty, orthostatic hypotension (OH), falls and cognitive impairment that are associated with ageing...
April 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446982/management-of-chest-trauma
#16
REVIEW
Corinna Ludwig, Aris Koryllos
Trauma is the leading cause of death worldwide. Approximately 2/3 of the patients have a chest trauma with varying severity from a simple rib fracture to penetrating injury of the heart or tracheobronchial disruption. Blunt chest trauma is most common with 90% incidence, of which less than 10% require surgical intervention of any kind. Mortality is second highest after head injury, which underlines the importance of initial management. Many of these deaths can be prevented by prompt diagnosis and treatment...
April 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320439/mechanical-ventilation-in-obese-icu-patients-from-intubation-to-extubation
#17
REVIEW
Audrey De Jong, Gerald Chanques, Samir Jaber
This article is one of ten reviews selected from the Annual Update in Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine 2017. Other selected articles can be found online at http://ccforum.com/series/annualupdate2017 . Further information about the Annual Update in Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine is available from http://www.springer.com/series/8901 .
March 21, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461007/2017-acc-aha-hfsa-focused-update-of-the-2013-accf-aha-guideline-for-the-management-of-heart-failure-a-report-of-the-american-college-of-cardiology-american-heart-association-task-force-on-clinical-practice-guidelines-and-the-heart-failure-society-of-america
#18
Clyde W Yancy, Mariell Jessup, Biykem Bozkurt, Javed Butler, Donald E Casey, Monica M Colvin, Mark H Drazner, Gerasimos S Filippatos, Gregg C Fonarow, Michael M Givertz, Steven M Hollenberg, JoAnn Lindenfeld, Frederick A Masoudi, Patrick E McBride, Pamela N Peterson, Lynne Warner Stevenson, Cheryl Westlake
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 21, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475773/proceedings-from-the-2nd-european-clinical-consensus-conference-for-device-based-therapies-for-hypertension-state-of-the-art-and-considerations-for-the-future
#19
Felix Mahfoud, Roland E Schmieder, Michel Azizi, Atul Pathak, Horst Sievert, Costas Tsioufis, Thomas Zeller, Stefan Bertog, Peter J Blankestijn, Michael Böhm, Michel Burnier, Gilles Chatellier, Isabelle Durand Zaleski, Sebastian Ewen, Guido Grassi, Michael Joner, Sverre E Kjeldsen, Melvin D Lobo, Chaim Lotan, Thomas Felix Lüscher, Gianfranco Parati, Patrick Rossignol, Luis Ruilope, Faisal Sharif, Evert van Leeuwen, Massimo Volpe, Stephan Windecker, Adam Witkowski, William Wijns
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 5, 2017: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167928/clinical-review-of-antidiabetic-drugs-implications-for-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-management
#20
REVIEW
Arun Chaudhury, Chitharanjan Duvoor, Vijaya Sena Reddy Dendi, Shashank Kraleti, Aditya Chada, Rahul Ravilla, Asween Marco, Nawal Singh Shekhawat, Maria Theresa Montales, Kevin Kuriakose, Appalanaidu Sasapu, Alexandria Beebe, Naveen Patil, Chaitanya K Musham, Govinda Prasad Lohani, Wasique Mirza
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a global pandemic, as evident from the global cartographic picture of diabetes by the International Diabetes Federation (http://www.diabetesatlas.org/). Diabetes mellitus is a chronic, progressive, incompletely understood metabolic condition chiefly characterized by hyperglycemia. Impaired insulin secretion, resistance to tissue actions of insulin, or a combination of both are thought to be the commonest reasons contributing to the pathophysiology of T2DM, a spectrum of disease originally arising from tissue insulin resistance and gradually progressing to a state characterized by complete loss of secretory activity of the beta cells of the pancreas...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
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