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Outstanding Clinical Review

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230 papers 100 to 500 followers
By César Gerardo Martínez Hernández General and Nuclear Cardiologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440374/mechanisms-in-endocrinology-diabetic-cardiomyopathy-pathophysiology-and-potential-metabolic-interventions-state-of-the-art-review
#1
REVIEW
Eylem Levelt, Gaurav Gulsin, Stefan Neubauer, Gerry P McCann
Heart failure is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes contributes to the development of heart failure through a variety of mechanisms, including disease-specific myocardial structural, functional and metabolic changes. This review will focus on the contemporary contributions of state of the art non-invasive technologies to our understanding of diabetic cardiomyopathy, including data on cardiac disease phenotype, cardiac energy metabolism and energetic deficiency, ectopic and visceral adiposity, diabetic liver disease, metabolic modulation strategies and cardiovascular outcomes with new classes of glucose-lowering therapies...
April 2018: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686441/rheumatic-fever-new-diagnostic-criteria
#2
REVIEW
Izabela Szczygielska, Elżbieta Hernik, Beata Kołodziejczyk, Agnieszka Gazda, Maria Maślińska, Piotr Gietka
Rheumatic fever (RF) is an autoimmune disease associated with group A β-hemolytic streptococcal infection, in the course of which the patient develops carditis, arthritis, chorea, subcutaneous nodules and erythema marginatum. Rheumatic fever diagnosis is based on the Jones criteria, developed in 1944, then revised twice by the American Heart Association (AHA), in 1992 and recently in 2015. The last revision of the Jones criteria consists mainly in the supplementation of the major criteria with echocardiographic examination, the introduction of a concept of subclinical carditis and the isolation of low, medium and high risk populations among the patients...
2018: Reumatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605975/advantages-and-disadvantages-of-long-term-proton-pump-inhibitor-use
#3
REVIEW
Yoshikazu Kinoshita, Norihisa Ishimura, Shunji Ishihara
Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) potently inhibit gastric acid secretion and are widely used for treatment of acid-related diseases including gastroesophageal reflux disease and secondary prevention of aspirin/NSAID-induced ulcers. Although clinically important adverse effects of PPIs can occur, just as with other drugs, those are not frequently observed during or after administration. Thus, PPIs are regarded as relatively safe and considered to be clinically beneficial. Recently, PPIs have become frequently administered to patients with functional gastrointestinal diseases or primary prevention of drug-related gastroduodenal damage, even though their beneficial effects for those conditions have not been fully confirmed...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626019/diagnosis-and-management-of-sepsis
#4
Tom Evans
Sepsis is a common condition with high morbidity and mortality. Although many patients may require critical care, this article considers the features of sepsis that are of most relevance to acute general physicians. Recently updated definitions of sepsis and septic shock have been proposed which better identify patients who are likely to have a poor outcome, and therefore give an opportunity to escalate care. Despite these advances, there is still no molecular signature able to diagnose sepsis. Pathogenesis is complex, with many immune and non-immune mediators involved...
March 2018: Clinical Medicine: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694824/pfo-closure-for-cryptogenic-stroke
#5
Michael Y Mi, Peter C Block, Joseph P Broderick
New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 378, Issue 17, Page 1639-1642, April 2018.
April 26, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29637759/clinical-practice-guidelines-for-the-antibiotic-treatment-of-community-acquired-urinary-tract-infections
#6
Cheol In Kang, Jieun Kim, Dae Won Park, Baek Nam Kim, U Syn Ha, Seung Ju Lee, Jeong Kyun Yeo, Seung Ki Min, Heeyoung Lee, Seong Heon Wie
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are infectious diseases that commonly occur in communities. Although several international guidelines for the management of UTIs have been available, clinical characteristics, etiology and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns may differ from country to country. This work represents an update of the 2011 Korean guideline for UTIs. The current guideline was developed by the update and adaptation method. This clinical practice guideline provides recommendations for the diagnosis and management of UTIs, including asymptomatic bacteriuria, acute uncomplicated cystitis, acute uncomplicated pyelonephritis, complicated pyelonephritis related to urinary tract obstruction, and acute bacterial prostatitis...
March 2018: Infection & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622591/safety-and-efficacy-of-novel-oral-anticoagulants-versus-warfarin-in-medicare-beneficiaries-with-atrial-fibrillation-and-valvular-heart-disease
#7
Alexandros Briasoulis, Chakradhari Inampudi, Emmanuel Akintoye, Paulino Alvarez, Sidakpal Panaich, Mary Vaughan-Sarrazin
BACKGROUND: We examined a large community-based sample of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and valvular heart disease (VHD) (excluding prosthetic valves) with a goal to compare outcomes among patients with AF, with and without VHD, taking warfarin, dabigatran, and rivaroxaban. METHODS AND RESULTS: We identified Medicare beneficiaries enrolled in Medicare Part D benefit plan from 2011 to 2013 with newly diagnosed AF (18 137 patients with VHD [dabigatran, 1979; rivaroxaban, 2027; warfarin, 14 131] and 85 596 patients without VHD [dabigatran, 13 522; rivaroxaban, 14 257; warfarin, 57 817])...
April 5, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29531957/an-algorithmic-approach-for-the-treatment-of-severe-uncontrolled-asthma
#8
REVIEW
Eleftherios Zervas, Konstantinos Samitas, Andriana I Papaioannou, Petros Bakakos, Stelios Loukides, Mina Gaga
A small subgroup of patients with asthma suffers from severe disease that is either partially controlled or uncontrolled despite intensive, guideline-based treatment. These patients have significantly impaired quality of life and although they constitute <5% of all asthma patients, they are responsible for more than half of asthma-related healthcare costs. Here, we review a definition for severe asthma and present all therapeutic options currently available for these severe asthma patients. Moreover, we suggest a specific algorithmic treatment approach for the management of severe, difficult-to-treat asthma based on specific phenotype characteristics and biomarkers...
January 2018: ERJ Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603142/optimal-pain-management-for-patients-with-cancer-in-the-modern-era
#9
REVIEW
Bethann M Scarborough, Cardinale B Smith
Pain is a common symptom among patients with cancer. Adequate pain assessment and management are critical to improve the quality of life and health outcomes in this population. In this review, the authors provide a framework for safely and effectively managing cancer-related pain by summarizing the evidence for the importance of controlling pain, the barriers to adequate pain management, strategies to assess and manage cancer-related pain, how to manage pain in patients at risk of substance use disorder, and considerations when managing pain in a survivorship population...
March 30, 2018: CA: a Cancer Journal for Clinicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548485/incidence-of-venous-thromboembolism-and-use-of-anticoagulation-in-hematological-malignancies-critical-review-of-the-literature
#10
REVIEW
Ombretta Annibali, Mariasanta Napolitano, Giuseppe Avvisati, Sergio Siragusa
Venous Thromboembolism (VTE) frequently complicates the course of hematologic malignancies (HM) and its incidence is similar to that observed in high-risk solid tumors. Despite that, pharmacologic prophylaxis and treatment of VTE in patients with HM is challenging, mainly because a severe thrombocytopenia frequently complicates the course of treatments or may be present since diagnosis, thus increasing the risk of bleeding. Therefore, in this setting, safe and effective methods of VTE prophylaxis and treatment have not been well defined and hematologists generally refer to guidelines produced for cancer patients that give indications on anticoagulation in patients with thrombocytopenia...
April 2018: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437784/role-of-iodide-metabolism-in-physiology-and-cancer
#11
REVIEW
Antonio De la Vieja, Pilar Santisteban
Iodide (I- ) metabolism is crucial for the synthesis of thyroid hormones (THs) in the thyroid and the subsequent action of these hormones in the organism. I- is principally transported by the sodium iodide symporter (NIS) and by the anion exchanger PENDRIN, and recent studies have demonstrated the direct participation of new transporters including anoctamin 1 (ANO1), cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and sodium multivitamin transporter (SMVT). Several of these transporters have been found expressed in various tissues, implicating them in I- recycling...
April 2018: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540496/exacerbations-of-copd
#12
Christian Viniol, Claus F Vogelmeier
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the third leading cause of death worldwide. While COPD is a mainly chronic disease, a substantial number of patients suffer from exacerbations. Severe exacerbations are related to a significantly worse survival outcome. This review summarises the current knowledge on the different aspects of COPD exacerbations. The impact of risk factors and triggers such as smoking, severe airflow limitation, bronchiectasis, bacterial and viral infections and comorbidities is discussed...
March 31, 2018: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530658/systemic-antibiotics-for-the-treatment-of-skin-and-soft-tissue-abscesses-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
REVIEW
Michael Gottlieb, Joshua M DeMott, Marilyn Hallock, Gary D Peksa
STUDY OBJECTIVE: The addition of antibiotics to standard incision and drainage is controversial, with earlier studies demonstrating no significant benefit. However, 2 large, multicenter trials have recently been published that have challenged the previous literature. The goal of this review was to determine whether systemic antibiotics for abscesses after incision and drainage improve cure rates. METHODS: PubMed, the Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Scopus, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and bibliographies of selected articles were assessed for all randomized controlled trials comparing adjuvant antibiotics with placebo in the treatment of drained abscesses, with an outcome of treatment failure assessed within 21 days...
March 9, 2018: Annals of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461885/physiologic-basis-of-mechanical-ventilation
#14
Martin J Tobin
The primary purpose of mechanical ventilation is to decrease work of breathing. Achieving this goal requires that cycling of the ventilator be carefully aligned with the intrinsic rhythm of a patient's respiratory center output. Problems arise at the point of ventilator triggering, post-trigger inflation, and inspiration-expiration switchover. Careful, iterative adjustments of ventilator settings are required to minimize work of breathing. Use of protocols for the selection of ventilator settings can lead to complications (including alveolar overdistention) and risk of death...
February 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29486908/update-of-pathophysiology-and-management-of-diabetic-kidney-disease
#15
REVIEW
Yi-Chih Lin, Yu-Hsing Chang, Shao-Yu Yang, Kwan-Dun Wu, Tzong-Shinn Chu
Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus and the leading cause of end-stage renal disease in the world. The most characteristic marker of DKD is albuminuria, which is associated with renal disease progression and cardiovascular events. Renal hemodynamics changes, oxidative stress, inflammation, hypoxia and overactive renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) are involved in the pathogenesis of DKD, and renal fibrosis plays the key role. Intensified multifactorial interventions, including RAAS blockades, blood pressure and glucose control, and quitting smoking, help to prevent DKD development and progression...
February 24, 2018: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471884/should-we-measure-the-central-venous-pressure-to-guide-fluid-management-ten-answers-to-10-questions
#16
Daniel De Backer, Jean-Louis Vincent
The central venous pressure (CVP) is the most frequently used variable to guide fluid resuscitation in critically ill patients, although its use has been challenged. In this viewpoint, we use a question and answer format to highlight the potential advantages and limitations of using CVP measurements to guide fluid resuscitation.
February 23, 2018: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29478864/management-of-acute-kidney-injury-core-curriculum-2018
#17
Peter K Moore, Raymond K Hsu, Kathleen D Liu
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a heterogeneous disorder that is common in hospitalized patients and associated with short- and long-term morbidity and mortality. When AKI is present, prompt workup of the underlying cause should be pursued, with specific attention to reversible causes. Measures to prevent AKI include optimization of volume status and avoidance of nephrotoxic medications. Crystalloids are preferred over colloids for most patients, and hydroxyethyl starches should be avoided. Volume overload in the setting of AKI is associated with adverse outcomes, so attention should be paid to overall fluid balance...
February 22, 2018: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427013/assessment-of-fluid-responsiveness-in-spontaneously-breathing-patients-a-systematic-review-of-literature
#18
REVIEW
Renato Carneiro de Freitas Chaves, Thiago Domingos Corrêa, Ary Serpa Neto, Bruno de Arruda Bravim, Ricardo Luiz Cordioli, Fabio Tanzillo Moreira, Karina Tavares Timenetsky, Murillo Santucci Cesar de Assunção
Patients who increase stoke volume or cardiac index more than 10 or 15% after a fluid challenge are usually considered fluid responders. Assessment of fluid responsiveness prior to volume expansion is critical to avoid fluid overload, which has been associated with poor outcomes. Maneuvers to assess fluid responsiveness are well established in mechanically ventilated patients; however, few studies evaluated maneuvers to predict fluid responsiveness in spontaneously breathing patients. Our objective was to perform a systematic review of literature addressing the available methods to assess fluid responsiveness in spontaneously breathing patients...
February 9, 2018: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398179/update-on-diabetic-nephropathy-core-curriculum-2018
#19
Kausik Umanath, Julia B Lewis
Diabetic kidney disease and diabetic nephropathy are the leading cause of end-stage kidney disease in the United States and most developed countries. Diabetes accounts for 30% to 50% of the incident cases of end-stage kidney disease in the United States. Although this represents a significant public health concern, it is important to note that only 30% to 40% of patients with diabetes develop diabetic nephropathy. Specific treatment of patients with diabetic nephropathy can be divided into 4 major arenas: cardiovascular risk reduction, glycemic control, blood pressure control, and inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS)...
February 2, 2018: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406201/proton-pump-inhibitors-review-of-emerging-concerns
#20
REVIEW
Avinash K Nehra, Jeffrey A Alexander, Conor G Loftus, Vandana Nehra
First introduced in 1989, proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are among the most widely utilized medications worldwide, both in the ambulatory and inpatient clinical settings. The PPIs are currently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the management of a variety of gastrointestinal disorders including symptomatic peptic ulcer disease, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and nonulcer dyspepsia as well as for prevention of gastrointestinal bleeding in patients receiving antiplatelet therapy. PPIs inhibit gastric acid secretion, and the most commonly associated adverse effects include abdominal pain, diarrhea, and headache...
February 2018: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
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