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G B Rogers, D J Keating, R L Young, M-L Wong, J Licinio, S Wesselingh
The human body hosts an enormous abundance and diversity of microbes, which perform a range of essential and beneficial functions. Our appreciation of the importance of these microbial communities to many aspects of human physiology has grown dramatically in recent years. We know, for example, that animals raised in a germ-free environment exhibit substantially altered immune and metabolic function, while the disruption of commensal microbiota in humans is associated with the development of a growing number of diseases...
June 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
Leonard Calabrese, Vamsidhar Velcheti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 26, 2016: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
Philippe Lefrançois, Hugo Chapdelaine, Benoît Côté, Martin Desrosiers
Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a frequent chronic condition, which has origins in complex interactions between genetic, immunological and microbial factors. The role of auto-immunity in CRS remains unclear, although recent studies have started to emerge in CRS patient refractory to maximal medical management. We discuss the possible auto-immunity link between CRS and other skin diseases, in particular acquired bullous dermatoses, and review the current evidence. We raise additional considerations for auto-immunity from both research and clinical standpoints...
2016: Allergy, Asthma, and Clinical Immunology
James T Rosenbaum, Mark J Asquith
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The microbiome is the term that describes the microbial ecosystem that cohabits an organism such as humans. The microbiome has been implicated in a long list of immune-mediated diseases which include rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and even gout. The mechanisms to account for this effect are multiple. The clinical implications from observations on the microbiome and disease are broad. RECENT FINDINGS: A growing number of microbiota constituents such as Prevotella copri, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Collinsella have been correlated or causally related to rheumatic disease...
October 2016: Current Rheumatology Reports
Maura Rossetti, Roberto Spreafico, Alessandro Consolaro, Jing Yao Leong, Camillus Chua, Margherita Massa, Suzan Saidin, Silvia Magni-Manzoni, Thaschawee Arkachaisri, Carol A Wallace, Marco Gattorno, Alberto Martini, Daniel J Lovell, Salvatore Albani
OBJECTIVES: The imbalance between effector and regulatory T (Treg) cells is crucial in the pathogenesis of autoimmune arthritis. Immune responses are often investigated in the blood because of its accessibility, but circulating lymphocytes are not representative of those found in inflamed tissues. This disconnect hinders our understanding of the mechanisms underlying disease. Our goal was to identify Treg cells implicated in autoimmunity at the inflamed joints, and also readily detectable in the blood upon recirculation...
June 16, 2016: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
Zonne Hofman, Steven de Maat, C Erik Hack, Coen Maas
Episodic and recurrent local cutaneous or mucosal swelling are key features of angioedema. The vasoactive agents histamine and bradykinin are highly implicated as mediators of these swelling attacks. It is challenging to assess the contribution of bradykinin to the clinical expression of angioedema, as accurate biomarkers for the generation of this vasoactive peptide are still lacking. In this review, we will describe the mechanisms that are responsible for bradykinin production in hereditary angioedema (HAE) and the central role that the coagulation factor XII (FXII) plays in it...
October 2016: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
V Pengo, A Banzato, E Bison, G Denas, G Zoppellaro, A Bracco, S Padayattil Jose, A Hoxha, A Ruffatti
This is a practical report on laboratory tests for the diagnosis of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). After a general definition of APS, this study deals with appropriateness and timing in requesting the determination of antiphospholipid (aPL) antibodies. Lupus anticoagulant (LAC), anticardiolipin (aCL), and anti β2-glycoprotein I (aβGPI) are the mandatory tests to be performed, while other tests are not yet validated for clinical use. Interpretation of results is an important discussed issue that implies a close liaison between clinical pathologists and clinicians...
May 2016: International Journal of Laboratory Hematology
Hampig Raphael Kourie, Gil Awada, Ahmad Hussein Awada
2015 was marked by the tsunami of immune checkpoint inhibitors revealed by numerous FDA approvals, publications and abstracts in relation with these drugs in different cancers and settings. First, we reported all new indications of anti-CTLA4 and anti-PD1 approved by the FDA, the positive clinical trials published and the abstracts with promising results at important scientific meetings during 2015. Then, we discussed different critical issues of these new agents going from their predictive factors, combination therapies, tumor response patterns, efficacy in particular settings, side effect management to cost and economic burden...
May 2016: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
Md Selim Ahmed, Yong-Soo Bae
Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen presenting cells, and play an important role in the induction of antigen-specific adaptive immunity. However, some DC populations are involved in immune regulation and immune tolerance. These DC populations are believed to take part in the control of immune exaggeration and immune disorder, and maintain immune homeostasis in the body. Tolerogenic DCs (tolDCs) can be generated in vitro by genetic or pharmacological modification or by controlling the maturation stages of cytokine-derived DCs...
February 2016: Immune Network
A Katharina Simon, Georg A Hollander, Andrew McMichael
This article reviews the development of the immune response through neonatal, infant and adult life, including pregnancy, ending with the decline in old age. A picture emerges of a child born with an immature, innate and adaptive immune system, which matures and acquires memory as he or she grows. It then goes into decline in old age. These changes are considered alongside the risks of different types of infection, autoimmune disease and malignancy.
December 22, 2015: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Yuan Min Wang, Joanna Ghali, Geoff Yu Zhang, Min Hu, Ya Wang, Andrew Sawyer, Jimmy Jianheng Zhou, Dhanushka A Hapudeniya, Yiping Wang, Qi Cao, Guoping Zheng, David C Harris, Stephen I Alexander
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) have been recognized as having a major role in maintaining peripheral tolerance and preventing and limiting autoimmune and chronic inflammatory diseases. Tregs derive from the thymus and also develop peripherally. In this review, we discuss recent progress in our understanding of the basic mechanisms involved in Treg development and function in protecting against autoimmunity in the periphery, including thymic selection, peripheral induction and the many mechanisms of Treg suppression...
February 2016: Nephrology
Ho-Sun Lee
Exposure to environmental factors in early life can influence developmental processes and long-term health in humans. Early life nutrition and maternal diet are well-known examples of conditions shown to influence the risk of developing metabolic diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases, in adulthood. It is increasingly accepted that environmental compounds, including nutrients, can produce changes in the genome activity that, in spite of not altering the DNA sequence, can produce important, stable and, in some instances, transgenerational alterations in the phenotype...
November 2015: Nutrients
Elizabeth I Buchbinder, Anupam Desai
The cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed death 1 (PD-1) immune checkpoints are negative regulators of T-cell immune function. Inhibition of these targets, resulting in increased activation of the immune system, has led to new immunotherapies for melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer, and other cancers. Ipilimumab, an inhibitor of CTLA-4, is approved for the treatment of advanced or unresectable melanoma. Nivolumab and pembrolizumab, both PD-1 inhibitors, are approved to treat patients with advanced or metastatic melanoma and patients with metastatic, refractory non-small cell lung cancer...
February 2016: American Journal of Clinical Oncology
Werner J Pichler, Jacqueline Adam, Stephen Watkins, Natascha Wuillemin, James Yun, Daniel Yerly
Small chemicals like drugs tend to bind to proteins via noncovalent bonds, e.g. hydrogen bonds, salt bridges or electrostatic interactions. Some chemicals interact with other molecules than the actual target ligand, representing so-called 'off-target' activities of drugs. Such interactions are a main cause of adverse side effects to drugs and are normally classified as predictable type A reactions. Detailed analysis of drug-induced immune reactions revealed that off-target activities also affect immune receptors, such as highly polymorphic human leukocyte antigens (HLA) or T cell receptors (TCR)...
2015: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
Ethan S Sen, Sarah L N Clarke, Athimalaipet V Ramanan
Macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) is a potentially life-threatening complication of rheumatic diseases such as systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA) and systemic lupus erythematosus. It is often considered a type of secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) and results from over-activation of T lymphocytes and macrophages leading to a "cytokine storm". Characteristic features are persistent fever, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, cytopenias (anemia, leucopenia, thrombocytopenia), raised C-reactive protein, falling erythrocyte sedimentation rate, hypofibrinogenemia, transaminitis, hypertriglyceridemia and extreme hyperferritinemia often associated with multi-organ impairment...
March 2016: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
Stefan Müller, Thomas Schaffer, Beatrice Flogerzi, Beatrice Seibold-Schmid, Jasmin Schnider, Kazue Takahashi, Arlette Darfeuille-Michaud, Emilie Vazeille, Alain M Schoepfer, Frank Seibold
BACKGROUND: In Crohn's disease (CD) the deficiency of mannan-binding lectin (MBL) is associated with an increased prevalence of anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies (ASCA) and with complicated phenotypes of the disease. However, the role of MBL in intestinal inflammation is currently unclear. A study was undertaken to analyse local MBL expression in human intestine and the consequences of MBL deficiency in experimental colitis and yeast infection. METHODS: ASCA were measured by ELISA...
November 2010: Gut
Jingyuan Fu, Marc Jan Bonder, María Carmen Cenit, Ettje F Tigchelaar, Astrid Maatman, Jackie A M Dekens, Eelke Brandsma, Joanna Marczynska, Floris Imhann, Rinse K Weersma, Lude Franke, Tiffany W Poon, Ramnik J Xavier, Dirk Gevers, Marten H Hofker, Cisca Wijmenga, Alexandra Zhernakova
RATIONALE: Evidence suggests that the gut microbiome is involved in the development of cardiovascular disease, with the host-microbe interaction regulating immune and metabolic pathways. However, there was no firm evidence for associations between microbiota and metabolic risk factors for cardiovascular disease from large-scale studies in humans. In particular, there was no strong evidence for association between cardiovascular disease and aberrant blood lipid levels. OBJECTIVES: To identify intestinal bacteria taxa, whose proportions correlate with body mass index and lipid levels, and to determine whether lipid variance can be explained by microbiota relative to age, sex, and host genetics...
October 9, 2015: Circulation Research
(no author information available yet)
Studies of the human microbiome have revealed that even healthy individuals differ remarkably in the microbes that occupy habitats such as the gut, skin and vagina. Much of this diversity remains unexplained, although diet, environment, host genetics and early microbial exposure have all been implicated. Accordingly, to characterize the ecology of human-associated microbial communities, the Human Microbiome Project has analysed the largest cohort and set of distinct, clinically relevant body habitats so far...
June 14, 2012: Nature
C Berek
Eosinophils perform numerous tasks. They are involved in inflammatory reactions associated with innate immune defence against parasitic infections and are also involved in pathological processes in response to allergens. Recently, however, it has become clear that eosinophils also play crucial non-inflammatory roles in the generation and maintenance of adaptive immune responses. Eosinophils, being a major source of the plasma cell survival factor APRIL (activation and proliferation-induced ligand), are essential not only for the long-term survival of plasma cells in the bone marrow, but also for the maintenance of these cells in the lamina propria which underlies the gut epithelium...
January 2016: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
T Gülen, H Hägglund, B Dahlén, G Nilsson
Mastocytosis is a complex disorder characterized by the accumulation of abnormal mast cells (MC) in the skin, bone marrow and/or other visceral organs. The clinical manifestations result from MC-derived mediators and, less frequently, from destructive infiltration of MCs. Patients suffer from a variety of symptoms including pruritus, flushing and life-threatening anaphylaxis. Whilst mastocytosis is likely to be suspected in a patient with typical skin lesions [i.e. urticaria pigmentosa (UP)], the absence of cutaneous signs does not rule out the diagnosis of this disease...
March 2016: Journal of Internal Medicine
2015-10-04 16:01:09
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