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By P O Pediatrics, Nephrology
Fabrice Gankam Kengne, Guy Decaux
Hyponatremia is defined by low serum sodium concentration and is the most common electrolyte disorder encountered in clinical practice. Serum sodium is the main determinant of plasma osmolality, which, in turn, affects cell volume. In the presence of low extracellular osmolality, cells will swell if the adaptation mechanisms involved in the cell volume maintenance are inadequate. The most dramatic effects of hyponatremia on the brain are seen when serum sodium concentration decreases in a short period, allowing little or no adaptation...
January 2018: KI Reports
Aniket N Tavare, Diane Murray
A 35-year-old man presented with acute alcoholic hepatitis and encephalopathy. He was hyponatremic, with a sodium level of 119 mmol per liter. Over the next 5 days his clinical condition improved with supportive treatment, which included lactulose and intravenous vitamins and the careful..
February 18, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
Michael L Moritz, Juan C Ayus
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 21, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
Nickolas T Agathis, Ingrid M Libman, Michael L Moritz
Hyponatremia has been reported in the elderly with hypothyroidism and myxedema, but this has not been a universal finding in clinical studies and there have been only a few reports in children. We report a case of an infant who developed hyponatremia due to severe primary hypothyroidism. A 4-month-old ex-preterm male, who had been euthyroid on the newborn screen, developed unexplained hospital-acquired hyponatremia (serum Na 124 mEq/L) while on full oral feeds. He was euvolemic, appeared well and was without myxedema...
2015: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Jan Leonard, Raymond E Garrett, Kristin Salottolo, Denetta S Slone, Charles W Mains, Matthew M Carrick, David Bar-Or
Electrolyte imbalances are common among patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Cerebral salt wasting (CSW) is an electrolyte imbalance characterized by hyponatremia and hypovolemia. Differentiating the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone and CSW remains difficult and the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying CSW are unclear. Our intent was to review the literature on CSW within the TBI population, in order to report the incidence and timing of CSW after TBI, examine outcomes, and summarize the biochemical changes in patients who developed CSW...
November 11, 2015: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
Pierce Geoghegan, Andrew M Harrison, Charat Thongprayoon, Rahul Kashyap, Adil Ahmed, Yue Dong, Alejandro A Rabinstein, Kianoush B Kashani, Ognjen Gajic
OBJECTIVES: To assess the epidemiology of nonoptimal hyponatremia correction and to identify associated morbidity and in-hospital mortality. PATIENTS AND METHODS: An electronic medical record search identified all patients admitted with profound hyponatremia (sodium <120 mmol/L) from January 1, 2008, through December 31, 2012. Patients were classified as having optimally or nonoptimally corrected hyponatremia at 24 hours after admission. Optimal correction was defined as sodium correction in 24 hours of 6 through 10 mmol/L...
October 2015: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
Weeraporn Srisung, Charoen Mankongpaisarnrung, Cyriacus Anaele, Nat Dumrongmongcolgul, Vaqar Ahmed
Low-solute hyponatremia is a relatively uncommon entity of euvolemic hyponatremia. Classic cases were described in alcoholics as beer potomania, which is characterized by hyponatremia in the setting of low-solute intake due to heavy beer drinking. We report a case of low-solute hyponatremia in a nonalcoholic person who was given a solute load, and, subsequently, had excessive diuresis with the resultant rapid increase in serum sodium concentration.
January 2015: Case Reports in Nephrology and Dialysis
Philip Hepp, Tobias Jüttner, Ines Beyer, Tanja Fehm, Wolfgang Janni, Enrico Monaca
BACKGROUND: One of the most feared complications during hysteroscopic surgery is haemodilution by absorption of distension media. One facet of haemodilution, i.e. hyponatremia, can lead to respiratory distress, pulmonary oedema, as well as cardiovascular collapse. CASE PRESENTATION: Here we report the swift recovery of a 45 year, female, Caucasian patient with acute hyponatremia (74 mEq/L) and pulmonary oedema by the employment of rapid correctional strategies. CONCLUSION: The absorption of irrigation fluids, as presented in this case, is an inevitable side effect of hysteroscopic surgery...
2015: BMC Anesthesiology
Maurice Laville, Volker Burst, Alessandro Peri, Joseph G Verbalis
Despite being the most common electrolyte disturbance encountered in clinical practice, the diagnosis and treatment of hyponatremia (defined as a serum sodium concentration <135 mmol/L) remains far from optimal. This is extremely troubling because not only is hyponatremia associated with increased morbidity, length of hospital stay and hospital resource use, but it has also been shown to be associated with increased mortality. The reasons for this poor management may partly lie in the heterogeneous nature of the disorder; hyponatremia presents with a variety of possible etiologies, differing symptomology and fluid volume status, thereby making its diagnosis potentially complex...
November 2013: Clinical Kidney Journal
Daniela Chlíbková, Beat Knechtle, Thomas Rosemann, Ivana Tomášková, Jan Novotný, Alena Žákovská, Tomáš Uher
BACKGROUND: Exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH), rhabdomyolysis and renal failure appear to be a unique problem in ultra-endurance racers. METHODS: We investigated the combined occurrence of EAH and rhabdomyolysis in seven different ultra-endurance races and disciplines (i.e. multi-stage mountain biking, 24-h mountain biking, 24-h ultra-running and 100-km ultra-running). RESULTS: Two (15.4%) ultra-runners (man and woman) from hyponatremic ultra-athletes (n = 13) and four (4%) ultra-runners (four men) from the normonatremic group (n = 100) showed rhabdomyolysis following elevated blood creatine kinase (CK) levels > 10,000 U/L without the development of renal failure and the necessity of a medical treatment...
2015: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
Pervaiz M Zunga, Omar Farooq, Mohd I Dar, Ishrat H Dar, Samia Rashid, Abdul Q Rather, Javid A Basu, Mohammed Ashraf, Jahangeer A Bhat
The osmotic demyelination syndrome (ODS) has been identified as a complication of the rapid correction of hyponatremia for decades. However, in recent years, a variety of other medical conditions have been associated with the development of ODS, independent of changes in serum sodium which cause a rapid changes in osmolality of the interstitial (extracellular) compartment of the brain leading to dehydration of energy-depleted cells with subsequent axonal damage that occurs in characteristic areas. Slow correction of the serum sodium concentration and additional administration of corticosteroids seems to be a major prevention step in ODS patients...
January 2015: Annals of Neurosciences
Dean A Kujubu, Ardeshir Khosraviani
The first case of severe hyponatremia, since referred to as beer potomania, in a heavy beer drinker patient was reported in 1972. Excessive consumption of beer in particular, which has a low solute content, may result in severe hyponatremia. We report a case of severe hyponatremia that occurred in a patient who, owing to his underlying colon cancer, was drinking beer and ingesting little food.
2015: Permanente Journal
Kevin M Pantalone, Betul A Hatipoglu
Thyroid disorders, particularly hypothyroidism, have historically been implicated in the development of serum hyponatremia. However, in more recent years, this paradigm has been challenged, and it has been suggested that the link between hypothyroidism and hyponatremia may merely be an association. This review will focus on the thyroid and its link with serum hyponatremia, and review the available literature on the topic.
December 26, 2014: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Corinna Giuliani, Alessandro Peri
Hyponatremia is a very common electrolyte disorder, especially in the elderly, and is associated with significant morbidity, mortality and disability. In particular, the consequences of acute hyponatremia on the brain may be severe, including permanent disability and death. Also chronic hyponatremia can affect the health status, causing attention deficit, gait instability, increased risk of falls and fractures, and osteoporosis. Furthermore, an overly rapid correction of hyponatremia can be associated with irreversible brain damage, which may be the result of the osmotic demyelination syndrome...
October 28, 2014: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Caterina Urso, Salvatore Brucculeri, Gregorio Caimi
Exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH) is dilutional hyponatremia, a variant of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH), characterized by a plasma concentration of sodium lower than 135 mEq/L. The prevalence of EAH is common in endurance (<6 hours) and ultra-endurance events (>6 hours in duration), in which both athletes and medical providers need to be aware of risk factors, symptom presentation, and management. The development of EAH is a combination of excessive water intake, inadequate suppression of the secretion of the antidiuretic hormone (ADH) (due to non osmotic stimuli), long race duration, and very high or very low ambient temperatures...
November 12, 2014: Journal of Clinical Medicine
John K Maesaka, Louis Imbriano, Joseph Mattana, Dympna Gallagher, Naveen Bade, Sairah Sharif
Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte abnormality. Its diagnostic and therapeutic approaches are in a state of flux. It is evident that hyponatremic patients are symptomatic with a potential for serious consequences at sodium levels that were once considered trivial. The recommendation to treat virtually all hyponatremics exposes the need to resolve the diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma of deciding whether to water restrict a patient with the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) or administer salt and water to a renal salt waster...
December 8, 2014: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Min Jee Han, Do Hyoung Kim, Young Hwa Kim, In Mo Yang, Joon Hyung Park, Moon Ki Hong
Osmotic demyelination syndrome is a demyelinating disorder associated with rapid correction of hyponatremia. But, it rarely occurs in acute hypernatremia, and it leads to permanent neurologic symptoms and is associated with high mortality. A 44-year-old woman treated with alternative medicine was admitted with a history of drowsy mental status. Severe hypernatremia (197mEq/L) with hyperosmolality (415mOsm/kgH2O) was evident initially and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a high signal intensity lesion in the pons, consistent with central pontine myelinolysis...
June 2015: Electrolyte & Blood Pressure: E & BP
Ena Gupta, Ryan Kunjal, James D Cury
Hyponatremia is a very commonly encountered clinical entity with potentially dangerous effects and for which many precipitating factors have been identified. We present a case of valproic acid (VPA) overdose causing profound hyponatremia, with one of the lowest serum sodium levels ever documented in literature. A 54-year-old woman with hypothyroidism, hypertension and bipolar disorder presented with somnolence after intentionally ingesting 7,500 mg VPA. She was drowsy but easily arousable with no hemodynamic compromise and an unremarkable physical exam...
September 2015: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
Itsuro Kazama, Tsutomu Tamada, Toshiyuki Nakajima
BACKGROUND: Patients who were surgically treated for Cushing's syndrome postoperatively surrender to "primary" adrenal insufficiency. However, the preoperative over-secretion of cortisol or the postoperative administration of excessive glucocorticoids can cause "secondary" adrenal insufficiency, in which the prevalence of hyponatremia is usually lower than that of primary adrenal insufficiency. CASE REPORT: A 60-year-old woman with a past medical history of Cushing's syndrome developed hyponatremia with symptoms of acute glucocorticoid deficiency, such as prolonged general fatigue and anorexia, after upper respiratory tract infection...
2015: American Journal of Case Reports
Mitsutoshi Kimura, Kan Nawata, Osamu Kinoshita, Masaru Hatano, Teruhiko Imamura, Koichiro Kinugawa, Minoru Ono
The use of implantable continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) as a bridge to transplant is effective for patients with congestive heart failure (HF). However, some patients develop congestive symptoms due to right-sided HF even with LVAD support. Tolvaptan, a vasopressin type 2 receptor antagonist, corrects both congestion and hyponatremia in patients with advanced HF. We report herein a case involving a patient who underwent LVAD implantation and developed hyponatremia and congestive symptoms after negative-pressure wound therapy and omental transposition for postoperative mediastinitis...
2015: International Heart Journal
2015-10-02 15:12:19
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