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Seong Hyun Jeong, Kwang Jae Lee, Yeong Bae Kim, Heok Chun Kwon, Sung Jae Sin, Jae Yeon Chung
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Since the diagnostic value of ileoscopy is not well documented, it is uncertain if terminal ileum intubation should be performed routinely in patients undergoing colonoscopy. We aimed to assess the diagnostic yield of terminal ileum intubation during colonoscopy according to indications for colonoscopy. METHODS: We routinely performed terminal ileum intubation in subjects who underwent colonoscopy at Ajou University Hospital between 1 January 2005 and 31 December 2005...
January 2008: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
H H Lutz, N Gaßler, K Streetz, G Sellge, C Trautwein, J J W Tischendorf
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In patients with chronic diarrhoea of unknown origin, colonoscopy with intubation of the terminal ileum and performance of biopsies are standard in the diagnostic work-up. While the importance of random biopsies in the colon even in cases with normal endoscopic appearance has been proven in several studies, the role of biopsies in the terminal ileum under these circumstances is not well defined. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this prospective observational 24-month study patients with chronic diarrhoea of unknown cause were included...
December 2013: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
Laura J Neilson, Roisin Bevan, Simon Panter, Siwan Thomas-Gibson, Colin J Rees
This special report focuses on the current literature regarding the utility of terminal ileal (TI) intubation and biopsy. The authors reviewed the literature regarding the clinical benefit of TI intubation at the time of colonoscopy and also the evidence for TI intubation as a colonoscopy quality indicator. TI intubation is useful to identify ileal diseases such as Crohn's disease and additionally as a means of confirming colonoscopy completion when classical caecal landmarks are not confidently seen. Previous studies have demonstrated that TI intubation has variable yield but may be more useful in patients presenting with diarrhea...
May 2015: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Ali Riza Koksal, Salih Boga, Huseyin Alkim, Meltem Ergun, Mehmet Bayram, Damlanur Sakiz, Osman Ozdogan, Engin Altinkaya, Canan Alkim
BACKGROUND: Terminal ileum endoscopy and biopsy are the diagnostic tools of diseases attacking the ileum. However, abnormal histological findings can be found in endoscopically normal terminal ileum. OBJECTIVE: This study was performed to evaluate the histopathological results of biopsies from endoscopically normal terminal ileum in order to determine pre-procedure clinical and laboratory factors predicting abnormal histopathological results, if any. METHODS: A total of 297 patients who underwent colonoscopy and terminal ileum biopsy and had normal terminal ileum or a few aphthous ulcers in the terminal ileum together with completely normal colon mucosa were included in the study...
2014: Libyan Journal of Medicine
Abdurrahim Sayilir, Mevlüt Kurt, Murat Kekilli, Ibrahim K Onal, Yavuz Beyazit, Nesrin Turhan, Mehmet Ibiş, Mehmet Arhan
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the diagnostic value of a terminal ileum biopsy in chronic non-bloody diarrhea with normal endoscopic appearance. METHODS: Patients who had a terminal ileum biopsy performed between January 2007 and January 2010 during a colonoscopy despite normal endoscopic appearance were reviewed. They were divided into two groups according to the indication for the colonoscopy: non-bloody diarrhea and non-diarrhea; and their histopathological findings were compared...
June 2011: Journal of Digestive Diseases
Rohit Makkar, Rocio Lopez, Bo Shen
OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to investigate the frequency and factors involved in the terminal ileum intubation of patients with chronic, non-bloody diarrhea and to compare diagnostic yields of colonoscopy and ileocolonoscopy. METHODS: The medical records of 945 patients undergoing colonoscopy for chronic, non-bloody diarrhea were reviewed. Findings of microscopic colitis, Clostridium difficile colitis, celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease or tropical sprue were considered as definitive causes of diarrhea...
October 2013: Journal of Digestive Diseases
Gavin C Harewood, Jeffrey S Olson, Nora C Mattek, Jennifer L Holub, David A Lieberman
BACKGROUND: The colonic biopsy is the only reliable method for identification of microscopic colitis in patients with chronic diarrhea and normal endoscopic findings. METHODS: The Clinical Outcomes Research Initiative national endoscopic database was analyzed to determine the rate at which colonic biopsy specimens were obtained in patients undergoing colonoscopy for the evaluation of diarrhea with no visible mucosal abnormality. RESULTS: Between January 2000 and December 2003, 5565 unique adult patients underwent colonoscopy for evaluation of diarrhea without detection of any mucosal abnormality...
March 2005: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
R J Shah, C Fenoglio-Preiser, B L Bleau, R A Giannella
OBJECTIVE: Patients referred for chronic diarrhea frequently undergo endoscopic evaluation. There are limited data on the role for colonoscopy with biopsy and ileoscopy for patients with chronic diarrhea. METHODS: We reviewed the charts of 228 patients with chronic diarrhea evaluated by colonoscopy between November 1995 and March 1998. Chronic diarrhea was defined as loose, frequent bowel movements for a minimum of 4 wk. Patients were excluded if biopsies were not performed in normal colons, if they had undergone previous bowel surgery, a history of inflammatory bowel disease, HIV, or an inadequate colonoscopy...
April 2001: American Journal of Gastroenterology
Jonathan B McHugh, Henry D Appelman, Barbara J McKenna
OBJECTIVES: Biopsy of the terminal ileum (TI) is commonly performed during colonoscopy. The primary utility of this is to diagnose or rule out Crohn's disease in patients with symptoms and/or radiographic findings suggesting this diagnosis. We see many such biopsies in our gastrointestinal pathology service and have been impressed by the subjectively low yield of TI biopsies. Therefore, we studied this to obtain objective data. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 414 consecutive patients with terminal ileal biopsies...
May 2007: American Journal of Gastroenterology
Ian Holbrook
The prevalence of chronic diarrhoea has been estimated at 4-5% in Western populations and is one of the most common reasons for referral to a gastroenterological clinic. Investigation of patients was rationalized in 2003 with the publication by the British Society of Gastroenterology of guidelines for the investigation of chronic diarrhoea. The guidelines may also be viewed at
May 2005: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
Enrico Stefano Corazziari
Chronic diarrhoea disrupts everyday life because of urgency, incontinence and frequent bowel movements. Non-inflammatory diarrhoea may be secondary to altered process of absorption, secretion or digestion. The most prevalent functional diarrhoea is due to altered gut-brain interaction and often after an acute gastroenteritis. Microscopic colitis, rare cases of eosinophilic colitis, congenital diarrhoeal disorders and bile acid malabsorption have been more frequently reported and their pathophysiology elucidated...
October 2012: Internal and Emergency Medicine
Lawrence R Schiller
Definitions for 'chronic diarrhoea' are arbitrary and are not evidence-based. The duration of illness that would differentiate acute from chronic diarrhoea is often taken as four weeks and serves best to exclude most infectious causes of diarrhoea which run their courses within that time interval. Patients tend to identify loose stool consistency rather than increased frequency of bowel movements when they say that they have diarrhoea. Some patients complaining of diarrhoea have frequent passage of formed stools and some have fecal incontinence...
October 2012: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
R Spiller
Patients complaining of 'chronic diarrhoea' usually mean the passage of loose, urgent stools. Chronic diarrhoea is a feature of malabsorption; it may also be seen in the 'dumping syndrome' which follows gastric surgery, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, bile salt malabsorption and in malabsorption of simple sugars including most commonly lactose, fructose and sorbitol. Excessively rapid entry of chyme into the small or large intestine generates propulsive motor patterns leading to accelerated transit. Inflammation is associated with decreased normal mixing motor patterns but increased propulsive motility including high amplitude propagated contractions (HAPCs)...
December 2006: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
X Fan, J H Sellin
BACKGROUND: Chronic watery diarrhoea is one of the most common symptoms prompting GI evaluation. Recently, new diagnostic considerations have emerged as possible factors in chronic diarrhoea. AIM: To review available data regarding diagnosis and treatment of chronic diarrhoea with an emphasis on bacterial overgrowth and bile acid malabsorption. METHODS: A systematic search of the English language literature of chronic diarrhoea was performed focused on three possible aetiologies of diarrhoea: small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), idiopathic bile salt malabsorption (IBAM), gluten responsive enteropathy...
May 15, 2009: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Claire M Payne, Ronnie Fass, Harris Bernstein, Jorge Giron, Carol Bernstein, Katerina Dvorak, Harinder Garewal
The mechanisms that regulate ionic balance, fluid absorption and secretion in the gastrointestinal tract are complex. Disturbance of this homeostatic state by bile acids, bacterial enterotoxins and neoplasm-derived secretagogues, for example, can lead to diarrhea. Determining the causes of chronic diarrhea in individual patients may, therefore, represent a diagnostic challenge. The gastrointestinal tract has finely tuned mechanisms to maintain ionic balance, fluid absorption and secretion. To achieve this homeostasis, various ionic transport proteins/complexes are targeted to the apical, basal or basolateral membranes of epithelial cells...
October 2006: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
J Zhao, M Fox, Y Cong, H Chu, Y Shang, M Fried, N Dai
BACKGROUND: Many studies report a high prevalence of lactose intolerance in patients with functional, gastrointestinal disease. AIM: To evaluate the role of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) in condition of lactose intolerance and the mechanism by which SIBO may impact lactose tolerance in affected patients. METHODS: Consecutive out-patients with chronic functional diarrhoea (CFD) and healthy controls underwent a validated 20 g lactose hydrogen breath test (HBT)...
April 2010: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
C Wilcox, J Turner, J Green
BACKGROUND: Bile acid malabsorption (BAM) is a common, yet under-recognised, cause of chronic diarrhoea, with limited guidance available on the appropriate management of patients with BAM. AIM: To summarise the evidence supporting different treatments available for patients with bile acid malabsorption, noting their impact on clinical outcomes, tolerability and associated side effects. METHODS: A literature search was conducted through PubMed, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Scopus...
May 2014: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Robert M Genta, Amnon Sonnenberg
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In clinical practice, colonoscopy is widely used for the workup of chronic unexplained diarrhea. The aim of this study was to determine the yield of colonic biopsy in such an endeavor. METHODS: In a computerized database of 130 204 patients evaluated for chronic diarrhea, we tested the influence of biopsy site, number of tissue fragments, patient symptoms, and indication on the outcome of histopathologic evaluation. RESULTS: The population comprised 69% women and 31% men aged (mean±SD) 52...
April 13, 2015: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
W Gerok
The symptom of diarrhoea is defined as an abnormally frequent discharge from the bowel (more than 3 times a day) and a semisolid or fluid consistency of the faecal matter. Diarrhoea is termed chronic when it lasts more than four weeks. Diarrhoea is the result of disturbances in enteral water and electrolyte balance. Increased intestinal motility is usually not the cause but the result of diarrhoea. Transport of water through the gut is dependent on the osmotic gradient between interstitium and gut lumen. The secretion of chloride ions by the cells of the intestinal glands plays a major role in water secretion into the gut lumen, while sodium and potassium absorption in the villous zone of the enterocytes is crucial for enteral water absorption...
October 12, 2000: Praxis
G Farfán Flores, G Sánchez, R Tello, G Villanueva
90 patients with chronic diarrhoea underwent this prospective study. They were seen in a private hospital of Lima during 1990 and 1991. According to a methodologic plan for determining sources and the diseases that originate chronic diarrhoea. In all patients hematologic, bioquimic, coprocultures, coproparasitologic exams were done, chest and intestinal transit X-rays. All underwent duodenal content culture. Colon X-ray in 25 cases; proctosigmoidoscopy in 14 and upper digestive endoscopy in 19 patients. Abdominal echography in 12 and TAC in 2 cases...
1993: Revista de Gastroenterología del Perú: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad de Gastroenterología del Perú
2016-01-30 23:41:13
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