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Medicina interna

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102 papers 25 to 100 followers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286222/2017-acc-aha-hrs-guideline-for-the-evaluation-and-management-of-patients-with-syncope-executive-summary-a-report-of-the-american-college-of-cardiology-american-heart-association-task-force-on-clinical-practice-guidelines-and-the-heart-rhythm-society
#1
Win-Kuang Shen, Robert S Sheldon, David G Benditt, Mitchell I Cohen, Daniel E Forman, Zachary D Goldberger, Blair P Grubb, Mohamed H Hamdan, Andrew D Krahn, Mark S Link, Brian Olshansky, Satish R Raj, Roopinder Kaur Sandhu, Dan Sorajja, Benjamin C Sun, Clyde W Yancy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 9, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28232935/advances-in-understanding-and-management-of-residual-renal-function-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#2
REVIEW
Xin Liu, Chunsun Dai
BACKGROUND: Residual renal function (RRF), defined as the ability of native kidneys to eliminate water and uremic toxins, is closely correlated with mortality and morbidity rates among patients receiving either peritoneal dialysis (PD) or hemodialysis (HD) via continuous clearance of middle-sized molecules and protein-bound solutes. Therefore, preserving RRF is considered to be one of the primary goals in managing patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). SUMMARY AND KEY MESSAGES: In this article, we provide a review on the understanding and management of RRF in patients on dialysis...
January 2017: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302313/influenza
#3
REVIEW
Catharine Paules, Kanta Subbarao
Influenza is an acute respiratory illness, caused by influenza A, B, and C viruses, that occurs in local outbreaks or seasonal epidemics. Clinical illness follows a short incubation period and presentation ranges from asymptomatic to fulminant, depending on the characteristics of both the virus and the individual host. Influenza A viruses can also cause sporadic infections or spread worldwide in a pandemic when novel strains emerge in the human population from an animal host. New approaches to influenza prevention and treatment for management of both seasonal influenza epidemics and pandemics are desirable...
March 10, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249994/duration-of-dual-antiplatelet-therapy-in-acute-coronary-syndrome
#4
REVIEW
Simon John Wilson, David E Newby, Dana Dawson, John Irving, Colin Berry
Despite a large volume of evidence supporting the use of dual antiplatelet therapy in patients with acute coronary syndrome, there remains major uncertainty regarding the optimal duration of therapy. Clinical trials have varied markedly in the duration of therapy, both across and within trials. Recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses suggest that shorter durations of dual antiplatelet therapy are superior because the avoidance of atherothrombotic events is counterbalanced by the greater risks of excess major bleeding with apparent increases in all-cause mortality with longer durations...
March 1, 2017: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249081/management-of-type-2-diabetes-in-2017-getting-to-goal
#5
Jane E B Reusch, JoAnn E Manson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 14, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196954/metformin-and-thyroid-disease
#6
Xianghui Meng, Shuhang Xu, Guofang Chen, Michael Derwahl, Chao Liu
An intriguing area of research in thyroidology is the recently discovered association of insulin resistance with thyroid functional and morphological abnormalities. Individuals with hyperinsulinemia have larger thyroid gland and a higher prevalence of thyroid nodules and cancer. Accordingly, patients treated with metformin have a smaller thyroid volume and a lower risk of incident goiter, thyroid nodule and cancer. Multiple studies in vitro and in vivo have demonstrated that metformin can inhibit the growth of thyroid cells and different types of thyroid cancer cells by affecting the insulin/IGF-1 and mTOR pathways...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/15723115/-treatment-of-intracranial-hypertension-of-malign-tumour-origin
#7
REVIEW
A Vázquez, P Portillo, I Zazpe, B Muñoz
Brain tumours are a frequent cause of intracraneal hypertension syndrome, clinically manifested by headache, nausea and vomiting, and a decrease in the level of consciousness. The keypoint sign of intracraneal hypertension is papilloedema. Other manifestations depend on the localization of the tumour, appearing as neurological focality and seizures. The causes of intracranial hypertension of tumoural origin are the mass effect of the tumour, brain edema, the possibility of intratumoural haemorrhage and hydrocephalus caused by obstruction in the circulation of cerebrospinal fluid...
2004: Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27339672/acute-on-chronic-and-decompensated-chronic-liver-failure-definitions-epidemiology-and-prognostication
#8
REVIEW
Jody C Olson
Chronic liver disease is the fifth leading cause of death worldwide and represents a major burden for the health care community. Cirrhosis is a progressive disease resulting in end-stage liver failure, which in the absence of liver transplantation is fatal. Acute-on-chronic liver failure carries high short-term mortality but is potentially reversible. Viral hepatitis, alcohol, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease remain the principal causes of liver disease. Though treatments exist for hepatitis B and C, they remain unavailable to many with these diseases...
July 2016: Critical Care Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27339673/hepatic-encephalopathy-the-old-and-the-new
#9
REVIEW
Prem A Kandiah, Gagan Kumar
Hepatic encephalopathy occurs ubiquitously in all causes of advanced liver failure, however, its implications on mortality diverge and vary depending upon acuity and severity of liver failure. This associated mortality has decreased in subsets of liver failure over the last 20 years. Aside from liver transplantation, this improvement is not attributable to a single intervention but likely to a combination of practical advances in critical care management. Misconceptions surrounding many facets of hepatic encephalopathy exists due to heterogeneity in presentation, pathophysiology and outcome...
July 2016: Critical Care Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27339675/kidney-injury-in-liver-disease
#10
REVIEW
Kevin R Regner, Kai Singbartl
Acute kidney injury (AKI) occurs frequently in patients with liver disease and increases morbidity and mortality. Hepatorenal syndrome is a common cause of AKI in patients with decompensated cirrhosis and is due to alterations in systemic and renal hemodynamics. Serum creatinine-based estimation of kidney function is a key component of the Model for End-stage Liver Disease score in liver transplant candidates. Continuous renal replacement therapy is used in critically ill patients with liver failure and AKI...
July 2016: Critical Care Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27339678/hematological-issues-in-liver-disease
#11
REVIEW
Michael G Allison, Carl B Shanholtz, Ashutosh Sachdeva
Acute and chronic liver failure are associated with numerous alterations in different features of the coagulation system. Consequently, there is widespread confusion regarding the potential for both bleeding and thrombosis in patients with liver disease. The risk of bleeding is related to the hemodynamic changes in portal pressures and venous congestion whereas the thrombotic risk stems from changes in the coagulation system. Antithrombotic prophylaxis and treatment of patients with hemorrhage and thrombosis requires careful assessment, interpretation of laboratory workup, and attention to coexistent morbidities...
July 2016: Critical Care Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159829/iga-nephropathy
#12
Jennifer C Rodrigues, Mark Haas, Heather N Reich
IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is a leading cause of CKD and renal failure. Recent international collaborative efforts have led to important discoveries that have improved our understanding of some of the key steps involved in the immunopathogenesis of IgAN. Furthermore, establishment of multicenter networks has contributed to rigorous design and execution of clinical trials that have provided important insights regarding immunotherapy in IgAN. In this article, we review emerging developments in clinical and translational IgAN research and describe how these novel findings will influence future strategies to improve the outcome of patients with IgAN...
February 3, 2017: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170483/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-pituitary-adenomas-a-review
#13
REVIEW
Mark E Molitch
Importance: Pituitary adenomas may hypersecrete hormones or cause mass effects. Therefore, early diagnosis and treatment are important. Observations: Prevalence of pituitary adenomas ranges from 1 in 865 adults to 1 in 2688 adults. Approximately 50% are microadenomas (<10 mm); the remainder are macroadenomas (≥10 mm). Mass effects cause headache, hypopituitarism, and visual field defects. Treatments include transsphenoidal surgery, medical therapies, and radiotherapy...
February 7, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170086/cancer-screening-in-the-united-states-2017-a-review-of-current-american-cancer-society-guidelines-and-current-issues-in-cancer-screening
#14
Robert A Smith, Kimberly S Andrews, Durado Brooks, Stacey A Fedewa, Deana Manassaram-Baptiste, Debbie Saslow, Otis W Brawley, Richard C Wender
Answer questions and earn CME/CNE Each year, the American Cancer Society publishes a summary of its guidelines for early cancer detection, data and trends in cancer screening rates, and select issues related to cancer screening. In this issue of the journal, the authors summarize current American Cancer Society cancer screening guidelines, describe an update of their guideline for using human papillomavirus vaccination for cancer prevention, describe updates in US Preventive Services Task Force recommendations for breast and colorectal cancer screening, discuss interim findings from the UK Collaborative Trial on Ovarian Cancer Screening, and provide the latest data on utilization of cancer screening from the National Health Interview Survey...
February 7, 2017: CA: a Cancer Journal for Clinicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169053/management-of-cancer-associated-venous-thromboembolism-in-the-emergency-department
#15
REVIEW
Rahul V Nene, Christopher J Coyne
Patients with cancer are at increased risk of venous thromboembolism, and emergency physicians can play a significant role in addressing one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in this patient population. However, there are no comprehensive guidelines addressing the approach to cancer-associated venous thromboembolism in the emergency department. Here, we review the guidelines put forth by various national and international cancer societies and highlight how emergency physicians can help institute appropriate treatment and prevent the recurrence of venous thromboembolism in cancer patients...
February 3, 2017: Annals of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181201/management-of-hypertension-in-the-elderly-and-frail-elderly
#16
REVIEW
Claudio Ferri, Livia Ferri, Giovambattista Desideri
An elevated systolic but not diastolic blood pressure level represents a common finding in elderly patients and is associated with an increased risk for developing coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular disease, peripheral artery disease, progressive cognitive decline and renal failure. Although less frequently, elderly patients manifest not only with systolic but also diastolic hypertension. Also in this case, the elderly patient will present an increased risk for developing hypertension-related abnormalities...
March 2017: High Blood Pressure & Cardiovascular Prevention: the Official Journal of the Italian Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145671/evaluation-of-jaundice-in-adults
#17
Matthew V Fargo, Scott P Grogan, Aaron Saguil
Jaundice in adults can be an indicator of significant underlying disease. It is caused by elevated serum bilirubin levels in the unconjugated or conjugated form. The evaluation of jaundice relies on the history and physical examination. The initial laboratory evaluation should include fractionated bilirubin, a complete blood count, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, ?-glutamyltransferase, prothrombin time and/or international normalized ratio, albumin, and protein. Imaging with ultrasonography or computed tomography can differentiate between extrahepatic obstructive and intrahepatic parenchymal disorders...
February 1, 2017: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/18378522/treating-hypertension-in-the-very-old
#18
EDITORIAL
John B Kostis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1, 2008: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23195529/allergy-to-%C3%AE-lactam-antibiotics
#19
REVIEW
Roland Solensky
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2012: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105320/recent-advances-in-the-understanding-and-management-of-atrial-fibrillation-a-focus-on-stroke-prevention
#20
REVIEW
Farhan Shahid, Eduard Shantsila, Gregory Y H Lip
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with an increased risk of stroke compared with the general population. It is anticipated that by 2030 an estimated 14-17 million patients will be diagnosed with this most prevalent arrhythmia within the European Union. AF-related stroke confers a higher mortality and morbidity risk, and thus early detection and assessment for the initiation of effective stroke prevention with oral anticoagulation (OAC) is crucial. Recent guidelines point to the use of non-vitamin K antagonist OACs (NOACs) where appropriate in stroke prevention of patients with non-valvular AF...
2016: F1000Research
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