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EM Neuro

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20 papers 100 to 500 followers Emergent neurological neurosurgical considerations.
By Merlin Curry MD, EMT-P
Shehzad Khalid, R Shane Tubbs
We have reviewed here the neuroanatomical and neuropsychological literature of the human brain and have proposed the various pain mechanisms that we currently know of. Essentially when tissue is damaged, peripheral nociceptors are activated continuously and prostanoids are hence produced. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and medications aim to target these prostanoids to treat the inflammatory component of pain. Normal pain tends to have a protective response. It is important for the nervous system to learn and recognize this painful stimulus earlier and quicker with repeated exposure to avoid tissue damage...
October 6, 2017: Curēus
William J Powers, Alejandro A Rabinstein, Teri Ackerson, Opeolu M Adeoye, Nicholas C Bambakidis, Kyra Becker, José Biller, Michael Brown, Bart M Demaerschalk, Brian Hoh, Edward C Jauch, Chelsea S Kidwell, Thabele M Leslie-Mazwi, Bruce Ovbiagele, Phillip A Scott, Kevin N Sheth, Andrew M Southerland, Deborah V Summers, David L Tirschwell
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The purpose of these guidelines is to provide an up-to-date comprehensive set of recommendations for clinicians caring for adult patients with acute arterial ischemic stroke in a single document. The intended audiences are prehospital care providers, physicians, allied health professionals, and hospital administrators. These guidelines supersede the 2013 guidelines and subsequent updates. METHODS: Members of the writing group were appointed by the American Heart Association Stroke Council's Scientific Statements Oversight Committee, representing various areas of medical expertise...
March 2018: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Christopher R Carpenter, Adnan M Hussain, Michael J Ward, Gregory J Zipfel, Susan Fowler, Jesse M Pines, Marco L A Sivilotti
BACKGROUND: Spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a rare, but serious etiology of headache. The diagnosis of SAH is especially challenging in alert, neurologically intact patients, as missed or delayed diagnosis can be catastrophic. OBJECTIVES: The objective was to perform a diagnostic accuracy systematic review and meta-analysis of history, physical examination, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tests, computed tomography (CT), and clinical decision rules for spontaneous SAH...
September 2016: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
Joshua Bucher, Alex Koyfman
BACKGROUND: Intubation of the neurologically injured patient is a critical procedure that must be done in a manner to prevent further neurologic injury. Although many different medications and techniques have been used to meet specific needs, there is little to no evidence to support many claims. OBJECTIVE: To review the literature regarding important topics relating to intubating patients with neurologic injury. DISCUSSION: Airway management requires ideal preoxygenation and airway maneuvers to minimize manipulation of the larynx and to maximize first-pass success...
December 2015: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Rafael Yuste
For over a century, the neuron doctrine--which states that the neuron is the structural and functional unit of the nervous system--has provided a conceptual foundation for neuroscience. This viewpoint reflects its origins in a time when the use of single-neuron anatomical and physiological techniques was prominent. However, newer multineuronal recording methods have revealed that ensembles of neurons, rather than individual cells, can form physiological units and generate emergent functional properties and states...
August 2015: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
David Sayer, Ben Bloom, Katalin Fernando, Stuart Jones, Sally Benton, Shumontha Dev, Sathish Deverapalli, Tim Harris
OBJECTIVES: The objective was to determine the incidence of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) diagnosed by lumbar puncture (LP) when the head computed tomography (CT) was reported as demonstrating no subarachnoid blood. METHODS: Data were obtained on patients who received LP to diagnose or exclude SAH attending six hospitals over 5 years. Subsequent investigations and outcomes were reviewed in all patients with LPs that did not exclude SAH. RESULTS: A total of 2,248 patients were included...
November 2015: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
Daniel Agustin Godoy, Gustavo Rene Piñero, Patricia Koller, Luca Masotti, Mario Di Napoli
Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage is a type of stroke associated with poor outcomes. Mortality is elevated, especially in the acute phase. From a pathophysiological point of view the bleeding must traverse different stages dominated by the possibility of re-bleeding, edema, intracranial hypertension, inflammation and neurotoxicity due to blood degradation products, mainly hemoglobin and thrombin. Neurological deterioration and death are common in early hours, so it is a true neurological-neurosurgical emergency...
August 4, 2015: World Journal of Critical Care Medicine
Tariq K Halasa, Rami James N Aoun, Mithun G Sattur, Bernard R Bendok
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2015: Neurosurgery
John P Betjemann, Daniel H Lowenstein
Status epilepticus is a common neurological emergency with considerable associated health-care costs, morbidity, and mortality. The definition of status epilepticus as a prolonged seizure or a series of seizures with incomplete return to baseline is under reconsideration in an effort to establish a more practical definition to guide management. Clinical research has focused on early seizure termination in the prehospital setting. The approach of early escalation to anaesthetic agents for refractory generalised convulsive status epilepticus, rather than additional trials of second-line anti-epileptic drugs, to avoid neuronal injury and pharmaco-resistance associated with prolonged seizures is gaining momentum...
June 2015: Lancet Neurology
Olvert A Berkhemer, Puck S S Fransen, Debbie Beumer, Lucie A van den Berg, Hester F Lingsma, Albert J Yoo, Wouter J Schonewille, Jan Albert Vos, Paul J Nederkoorn, Marieke J H Wermer, Marianne A A van Walderveen, Julie Staals, Jeannette Hofmeijer, Jacques A van Oostayen, Geert J Lycklama à Nijeholt, Jelis Boiten, Patrick A Brouwer, Bart J Emmer, Sebastiaan F de Bruijn, Lukas C van Dijk, L Jaap Kappelle, Rob H Lo, Ewoud J van Dijk, Joost de Vries, Paul L M de Kort, Willem Jan J van Rooij, Jan S P van den Berg, Boudewijn A A M van Hasselt, Leo A M Aerden, René J Dallinga, Marieke C Visser, Joseph C J Bot, Patrick C Vroomen, Omid Eshghi, Tobien H C M L Schreuder, Roel J J Heijboer, Koos Keizer, Alexander V Tielbeek, Heleen M den Hertog, Dick G Gerrits, Renske M van den Berg-Vos, Giorgos B Karas, Ewout W Steyerberg, H Zwenneke Flach, Henk A Marquering, Marieke E S Sprengers, Sjoerd F M Jenniskens, Ludo F M Beenen, René van den Berg, Peter J Koudstaal, Wim H van Zwam, Yvo B W E M Roos, Aad van der Lugt, Robert J van Oostenbrugge, Charles B L M Majoie, Diederik W J Dippel
BACKGROUND: In patients with acute ischemic stroke caused by a proximal intracranial arterial occlusion, intraarterial treatment is highly effective for emergency revascularization. However, proof of a beneficial effect on functional outcome is lacking. METHODS: We randomly assigned eligible patients to either intraarterial treatment plus usual care or usual care alone. Eligible patients had a proximal arterial occlusion in the anterior cerebral circulation that was confirmed on vessel imaging and that could be treated intraarterially within 6 hours after symptom onset...
January 1, 2015: New England Journal of Medicine
Matthijs C Brouwer, Allan R Tunkel, Guy M McKhann, Diederik van de Beek
New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 371, Issue 5, Page 447-456, July 2014.
July 31, 2014: New England Journal of Medicine
Jonathan A Edlow, Alejandro Rabinstein, Stephen J Traub, Eelco F M Wijdicks
Because coma has many causes, physicians must develop a structured, algorithmic approach to diagnose and treat reversible causes rapidly. The three main mechanisms of coma are structural brain lesions, diffuse neuronal dysfunction, and, rarely, psychiatric causes. The first priority is to stabilise the patient by treatment of life-threatening conditions, then to use the history, physical examination, and laboratory findings to identify structural causes and diagnose treatable disorders. Some patients have a clear diagnosis...
December 6, 2014: Lancet
Martin Ebinger, Benjamin Winter, Matthias Wendt, Joachim E Weber, Carolin Waldschmidt, Michal Rozanski, Alexander Kunz, Peter Koch, Philipp A Kellner, Daniel Gierhake, Kersten Villringer, Jochen B Fiebach, Ulrike Grittner, Andreas Hartmann, Bruno-Marcel Mackert, Matthias Endres, Heinrich J Audebert
IMPORTANCE: Time to thrombolysis is crucial for outcome in acute ischemic stroke. OBJECTIVE: To determine if starting thrombolysis in a specialized ambulance reduces delays. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: In the Prehospital Acute Neurological Treatment and Optimization of Medical care in Stroke Study (PHANTOM-S), conducted in Berlin, Germany, we randomly assigned weeks with and without availability of the Stroke Emergency Mobile (STEMO) from May 1, 2011, to January 31, 2013...
April 23, 2014: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Peter S Dayan, James F Holmes, Shireen Atabaki, John Hoyle, Michael G Tunik, Richard Lichenstein, Elizabeth Alpern, Michelle Miskin, Nathan Kuppermann
STUDY OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine the prevalence of traumatic brain injuries in children who vomit after minor blunt head trauma, particularly when the vomiting occurs without other findings suggestive of traumatic brain injury (ie, isolated vomiting). We also aimed to determine the relationship between the timing and degree of vomiting and traumatic brain injury prevalence. METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of children younger than 18 years with minor blunt head trauma...
June 2014: Annals of Emergency Medicine
Eelco F M Wijdicks, Kevin N Sheth, Bob S Carter, David M Greer, Scott E Kasner, W Taylor Kimberly, Stefan Schwab, Eric E Smith, Rafael J Tamargo, Max Wintermark
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: There are uncertainties surrounding the optimal management of patients with brain swelling after an ischemic stroke. Guidelines are needed on how to manage this major complication, how to provide the best comprehensive neurological and medical care, and how to best inform families facing complex decisions on surgical intervention in deteriorating patients. This scientific statement addresses the early approach to the patient with a swollen ischemic stroke in a cerebral or cerebellar hemisphere...
April 2014: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Adrian Budhram, David Lipson, Shanker Nesathurai, David Harvey, Michel P Rathbone
Postanoxic myoclonus is a rare manifestation after an anoxic event, with fewer than 150 cases reported in the literature. The condition is characterized by myoclonic jerks, which are worse on action than at rest, and postural lapses, ataxia, and dysarthria. The disability caused by postanoxic myoclonus can be profound, and treatment in the rehabilitation setting is exceptionally challenging. We present 2 patients who suffered from postanoxic myoclonus after an anoxic event, both of whom were successfully treated with a combination of levetiracetam, valproic acid, and clonazepam...
March 2014: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Vishnumurthy Shushrutha Hedna, Abhay Kumar, Bayard Miller, Sharathchandra Bidari, Arash Salardini, Michael F Waters, Maria Hella, Edward Valenstein, Stephan Eisenschenk
Intracranial hypotension (IH) has been a known entity in neurocritical care since 1938. Even though many cases are spontaneous, the incidence of intracranial hypotension in the neurocritical care setting is increasing by virtue of the increased number of neurosurgical interventions. Whether spontaneous or secondary in etiology, diagnosis of IH usually requires the presence of orthostatic symptoms, including headaches and nausea with low opening CSF pressure. However, typical clinical features in the appropriate clinical context and imaging, even with normal CSF pressure, can indicate IH...
March 2014: Journal of Neurosurgery
Randall M Chesnut, Nancy Temkin, Nancy Carney, Sureyya Dikmen, Carlos Rondina, Walter Videtta, Gustavo Petroni, Silvia Lujan, Jim Pridgeon, Jason Barber, Joan Machamer, Kelley Chaddock, Juanita M Celix, Marianna Cherner, Terence Hendrix
BACKGROUND: Intracranial-pressure monitoring is considered the standard of care for severe traumatic brain injury and is used frequently, but the efficacy of treatment based on monitoring in improving the outcome has not been rigorously assessed. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter, controlled trial in which 324 patients 13 years of age or older who had severe traumatic brain injury and were being treated in intensive care units (ICUs) in Bolivia or Ecuador were randomly assigned to one of two specific protocols: guidelines-based management in which a protocol for monitoring intraparenchymal intracranial pressure was used (pressure-monitoring group) or a protocol in which treatment was based on imaging and clinical examination (imaging-clinical examination group)...
December 27, 2012: New England Journal of Medicine
Pierre Amarenco, Julien Bogousslavsky, Alfred Callahan, Larry B Goldstein, Michael Hennerici, Amy E Rudolph, Henrik Sillesen, Lisa Simunovic, Michael Szarek, K M A Welch, Justin A Zivin
BACKGROUND: Statins reduce the incidence of strokes among patients at increased risk for cardiovascular disease; whether they reduce the risk of stroke after a recent stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) remains to be established. METHODS: We randomly assigned 4731 patients who had had a stroke or TIA within one to six months before study entry, had low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels of 100 to 190 mg per deciliter (2.6 to 4.9 mmol per liter), and had no known coronary heart disease to double-blind treatment with 80 mg of atorvastatin per day or placebo...
August 10, 2006: New England Journal of Medicine
Amit K Mistri, Thompson G Robinson, John F Potter
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Systolic blood pressure (SBP) levels below 140 mm Hg after acute stroke occur in 18% to 25% of patients, and may be associated with adverse outcome, in terms of death and disability. It has thus been proposed that BP elevation in acute ischemic stroke may be beneficial by increasing perfusion to the peri-infarct penumbra, though not only in those with low BP levels. METHODS: All articles studying BP elevation in the context of acute stroke were identified using a structured search strategy...
June 2006: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
2015-09-29 19:45:18
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