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Stimulants for negative symptoms in schizophrenia

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47 papers 0 to 25 followers A collection of articles demonstrating the effect psychostimulants may have in reducing the negative symptoms of schizophrenia
Ana Popovic, Martin Bauer, Ulrich Sauerzopf, Lucie Bartova, Nicole Praschak-Rieder, Harald H Sitte, Siegfried Kasper, Matthäus Willeit
Sensitization is defined as a process whereby repeated intermittent exposure to a given stimulus results in an enhanced response at subsequent exposures. Next to robust findings of an increased dopamine synthesis capacity in schizophrenia, empirical data and neuroimaging studies support the notion that the mesolimbic dopamine system of patients with schizophrenia is more reactive compared to healthy controls. These studies led to the conceptualization of schizophrenia as a state of endogenous sensitization, as stronger behavioral response and increased dopamine release after amphetamine administration or exposure to stress have been observed in patients with schizophrenia...
September 9, 2016: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
Philip Skoretz, Chin Tang
High violence prevalence is a common concern for forensic psychiatric settings. Categorizing underlying drivers of violence has helped to direct treatment and management efforts toward psychotic, predatory, and impulsively violent psychopathology. This article describes a series of cases in which clozapine provided adequate control of psychosis in women suffering schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. Nevertheless, impulsive violence remained problematic. Add-on methylphenidate was found to be safe and effective in curbing impulsive violent behavior in this select group of patients...
May 16, 2016: CNS Spectrums
Amy F T Arnsten, Ragy R Girgis, David L Gray, Richard B Mailman
Schizophrenia is characterized by profound cognitive deficits that are not alleviated by currently available medications. Many of these cognitive deficits involve dysfunction of the newly evolved, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC). The brains of patients with schizophrenia show evidence of dlPFC pyramidal cell dendritic atrophy, likely reductions in cortical dopamine, and possible changes in dopamine D1 receptors (D1R). It has been appreciated for decades that optimal levels of dopamine are essential for dlPFC working memory function, with many beneficial actions arising from D1R stimulation...
January 18, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
M-A Lodovighi, A Palomba, R Belzeaux, M Adida, J-M Azorin
The management of negative symptoms appears to be a major challenge because of functional disability induced by these symptoms and their relative resistance to treatments currently on the market. The aim of this article is to review new approaches that may enable optimal management of these symptoms. First, we describe the methodological difficulties that hindered the development and evaluation of specific treatment, and objectives currently defined to enable the development of new pharmacological approaches...
December 2015: L'Encéphale
Kazuaki Kawaura, Jun-Ichi Karasawa, Hirohiko Hikichi
BACKGROUND: Negative symptoms of schizophrenia are poorly managed using the currently available antipsychotics. Previous studies indicate that agonists of the metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) 2/3 receptors may provide a novel approach for the treatment of schizophrenia. However, the effects of mGlu2/3 receptor agonists or mGlu2 receptor positive allosteric modulators have not yet been clearly elucidated in animal models of the negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Recently, we reported that the forced swimming test in rats treated with subchronic MK-801, an NMDA receptor antagonist, may be regarded as a useful test to evaluate the activities of drugs against the negative symptoms of schizophrenia...
February 2016: Pharmacological Reports: PR
Chittaranjan Andrade
Modafinil or armodafinil (ar/mod) augmentation of antipsychotic medication in schizophrenia patients may be considered with a view to reduce negative symptoms associated with the illness or excessive daytime drowsiness due to any cause. The available data suggest that there is no role for ar/mod in reducing negative symptom burden. A recent pharmacokinetic (PK) study suggested that armodafinil (250 mg/d) reduces key PK parameters of risperidone by about 50%, and key PK parameters of 9-hydroxyrisperidone (paliperidone) by about 20%-30%, probably through induction of CYP3A4...
December 2015: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Saeed Shoja Shafti, Sasan Akbari
OBJECTIVES: Negative symptoms are a significant barrier to successful functional outcome and recovery in individuals with schizophrenia, and their management is not easy. Prior tryouts with antidepressants and some cognitive enhancers were not really encouraging, and experiments with modafinil had mixed and indecisive results. The objective of the present study was to assess modafinil's efficacy on subjective and objective aspects of negative symptoms of schizophrenia. METHODS: This study was an 8-week randomized, placebo-controlled trial of modafinil, as an adjective to haloperidol, in treatment of 50 schizophrenic patients...
February 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
Y Chudasama, T W Robbins
RATIONALE: In schizophrenia, attentional disturbance is a core feature which may not only accompany the disorder, but may precede the onset of psychiatric symptoms. OBJECTIVES: The five-choice serial reaction time task (5CSRTT) is a test of visuo-spatial attention that has been used extensively in rats for measuring the effects of systemic and central neurochemical manipulations on various aspects of attentional performance, including selective attention, vigilance and executive control...
June 2004: Psychopharmacology
Danielle C Turner, Luke Clark, Edith Pomarol-Clotet, Peter McKenna, Trevor W Robbins, Barbara J Sahakian
Modafinil, a novel cognitive enhancer, selectively improves neuropsychological task performance in healthy volunteers and adult patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It has been argued that persistent cognitive deficits in patients with schizophrenia are responsible for the failure of many patients to rehabilitate socially even when psychotic symptoms are in remission. The present study examined the potential of modafinil as a cognitive enhancer in schizophrenia. Twenty chronic patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia were entered into a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study using a 200 mg dose of modafinil...
July 2004: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Murray H Rosenthal, Sharon L Bryant
Patients with schizophrenia experience cognitive impairments associated with hypofunctioning of the frontal cortex. Modafinil, a novel wake-promoting agent, works through the sleep-wake centers of the brain to activate the cortex. This 4-week, open-label, pilot study evaluated adjunct modafinil in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Eleven patients received once-daily oral doses of modafinil (100 mg/day, days 1-14; 100 or 200 mg/day, days 15-28) in addition to antipsychotic therapy. Modafinil significantly improved patients' global functioning as assessed by a blinded clinician (week 2, P = 0...
January 2004: Clinical Neuropharmacology
Sean A Spence, Russell D Green, Iain D Wilkinson, Mike D Hunter
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is associated with widespread cognitive deficits that have an impact on social function. Modafinil promotes wakefulness and is reported to enhance cognition. AIMS: To study the acute effects of modafinil administration upon brain activity and cognitive performance in people with chronic schizophrenia. METHOD: In a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled crossover design, 19 patients received either modafinil (100 mg) or placebo prior to undertaking a working memory task with functional magnetic resonance imaging...
July 2005: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
Serge Sevy, Murray H Rosenthal, Jose Alvir, Sabina Meyer, Hema Visweswaraiah, Handan Gunduz-Bruce, Nina R Schooler
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of modafinil on fatigue, symptoms, attention, working memory, and executive functioning in schizophrenia patients treated with psychotropic medications. METHOD: Twenty-four patients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (10 men and 14 women) were randomly assigned to modafinil up to 200 mg a day (N = 13) or placebo (N = 11) as an adjunct therapy in an 8-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Data were collected from May 18, 2001 to September 11, 2003...
July 2005: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Ira D Glick, Diana Pham, John M Davis
BACKGROUND: There are virtually no controlled data suggesting that concomitant psychotropic medications (CPMs) improve outcome in schizophrenia after the acute phase. Despite that, polypharmacy (with all of its disadvantages) is far more common than monotherapy. To our knowledge, there have been no published reports of prospective systematic investigations of the efficacy of unrestricted CPM use in nonacute schizophrenia. METHOD: This was a naturalistic, systematic study using a sample of 53 stabilized patients with DSM-IV-TR schizophrenia from 1 clinical practice setting including both private patients and patients from controlled research studies of the effectiveness of antipsychotics...
August 2006: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Tom F D Farrow, Michael D Hunter, Rozana Haque, Sean A Spence
Avolition affects quality of life in chronic schizophrenia. We investigated the effect of modafinil upon unconstrained motor activity in 18 male patients. In a randomised crossover design study, wrist-worn actigraphic monitors were used to objectively record motor activity over a 20 h period. Patients' total activity was significantly greater when given the drug. These data suggest that modafinil increases quantifiable motor behaviour in schizophrenia and may have an impact on avolition.
November 2006: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
Michael D Hunter, Venkatasubramanian Ganesan, Iain D Wilkinson, Sean A Spence
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effects of modafinil on prefrontal activation and cognitive control of motor activity in people with schizophrenia and prominent negative symptoms. METHOD: In a crossover design, 12 subjects with schizophrenia were studied twice, receiving either modafinil or placebo prior to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Inside the scanner, they performed a task probing cognitive control that required deliberate variation of motor activity in time...
December 2006: American Journal of Psychiatry
Joseph M Pierre, John H Peloian, Donna A Wirshing, William C Wirshing, Stephen R Marder
OBJECTIVE: Negative symptoms are core features of schizophrenia that are functionally debilitating, associated with poor outcomes, and resistant to existing pharmacotherapies. We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of modafinil, a medication approved for the treatment of excessive daytime sleepiness, to explore its efficacy as an adjunctive therapy for negative symptoms in schizophrenia. METHOD: Twenty subjects with DSM-IV schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were randomly assigned to double-blind treatment with modafinil or placebo for 8 weeks...
May 2007: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
José A Apud, Daniel R Weinberger
In the last two decades, understanding of the dynamics of dopamine function in the prefrontal cortex and its role in prefrontal cortex physiology has opened up new avenues for therapeutic interventions in conditions in which prefrontal cortex function is compromised. Neuropsychological and imaging studies of prefrontal information processing have confirmed specific cognitive and neurophysiological abnormalities in individuals with schizophrenia. Because such findings are also observed in the healthy siblings of patients with schizophrenia, they may represent intermediate phenotypes related to schizophrenia susceptibility genes...
2007: CNS Drugs
Sharon Morein-Zamir, Danielle C Turner, Barbara J Sahakian
Modafinil, a wake-promoting agent believed to operate via the hypocretin/orexin system, has a similar clinical profile to that of conventional, dopaminergic stimulants but different biochemical and pharmacological properties. There is increasing interest in the use of modafinil to improve cognition in schizophrenia as well as in other disorders such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Recent research has focused on enhancing cognition in patients with schizophrenia because of the association between cognitive performance and functional outcome...
November 2007: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Pascal Goetghebeur, Rebecca Dias
RATIONALE: Selective cognitive impairments, including those of executive function as assessed using the Wisconsin Card Sort Test or intradimensional-extradimensional (ID-ED) tests, are a key feature of schizophrenia but remain inadequately treated by existing therapies. Recently, however, modafinil has been shown to improve attentional set-shifting performance in patients with schizophrenia. OBJECTIVE: The present study evaluated the recently described analogous rat ID-ED attentional set-shifting task by investigating the effects of various pharmacological challenges to a phencyclidine (PCP)-induced ED shift impairment, namely, haloperidol, risperidone, sertindole, and modafinil...
January 2009: Psychopharmacology
Carlos Saavedra-Velez, Anna Yusim, Deepti Anbarasan, Jean-Pierre Lindenmayer
OBJECTIVE: Given recent reports about the off-label use of modafinil as an adjuvant for the treatment of antipsychotic-associated sedation in schizophrenia patients and the recent interest in its putative cognitive-enhancing effects in this population, we present a systematic review of available data on trials of modafinil as an adjuvant in the treatment of cognitive deficits, negative symptoms, and antipsychotic-induced fatigue, and its tolerability. DATA SOURCES: PubMed was searched for trials published in English up to January 2008 evaluating modafinil's effects on fatigue, negative symptoms, and cognition in schizophrenia with combinations of the following terms: schizophrenia, modafinil, cognition, negative symptoms, and fatigue...
January 2009: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
2015-10-03 15:27:50
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