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17 papers 0 to 25 followers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905412/planetary-science-pluto-s-telltale-heart
#1
Amy C Barr
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 30, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738015/detection-of-human-adaptation-during-the-past-2000-years
#2
Yair Field, Evan A Boyle, Natalie Telis, Ziyue Gao, Kyle J Gaulton, David Golan, Loic Yengo, Ghislain Rocheleau, Philippe Froguel, Mark I McCarthy, Jonathan K Pritchard
Detection of recent natural selection is a challenging problem in population genetics. Here we introduce the singleton density score (SDS), a method to infer very recent changes in allele frequencies from contemporary genome sequences. Applied to data from the UK10K Project, SDS reflects allele frequency changes in the ancestors of modern Britons during the past ~2000 to 3000 years. We see strong signals of selection at lactase and the major histocompatibility complex, and in favor of blond hair and blue eyes...
November 11, 2016: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651369/high-g-force-rollercoaster-rides-induce-sinus-tachycardia-but-no-cardiac-arrhythmias-in-healthy-children
#3
Guido E Pieles, Victoria Husk, Teresa Blackwell, Deirdre Wilson, Simon M Collin, Craig A Williams, A Graham Stuart
Theme park operators and medical professionals advise children with heart conditions against using rollercoaster rides, but these recommendations are not evidence-based. The underlying assumption is that the combination of adrenergic stimulation through stress and acceleration might trigger arrhythmias in susceptible individuals. We conducted a cross-sectional observational study to assess heart rate and rhythm in healthy children during commercial rollercoaster rides. Twenty healthy children (9 male) aged 11-15 (mean 13...
September 21, 2016: Pediatric Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27580034/rapid-emergence-of-life-shown-by-discovery-of-3-700-million-year-old-microbial-structures
#4
Allen P Nutman, Vickie C Bennett, Clark R L Friend, Martin J Van Kranendonk, Allan R Chivas
Biological activity is a major factor in Earth's chemical cycles, including facilitating CO2 sequestration and providing climate feedbacks. Thus a key question in Earth's evolution is when did life arise and impact hydrosphere-atmosphere-lithosphere chemical cycles? Until now, evidence for the oldest life on Earth focused on debated stable isotopic signatures of 3,800-3,700 million year (Myr)-old metamorphosed sedimentary rocks and minerals from the Isua supracrustal belt (ISB), southwest Greenland. Here we report evidence for ancient life from a newly exposed outcrop of 3,700-Myr-old metacarbonate rocks in the ISB that contain 1-4-cm-high stromatolites-macroscopically layered structures produced by microbial communities...
August 31, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27462056/watching-television-and-risk-of-mortality-from-pulmonary-embolism-among-japanese-men-and-women-the-jacc-study-japan-collaborative-cohort
#5
Toru Shirakawa, Hiroyasu Iso, Kazumasa Yamagishi, Hiroshi Yatsuya, Naohito Tanabe, Satoyo Ikehara, Shigekazu Ukawa, Akiko Tamakoshi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 26, 2016: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27303055/discovery-of-the-interstellar-chiral-molecule-propylene-oxide-ch%C3%A2-chch%C3%A2-o
#6
Brett A McGuire, P Brandon Carroll, Ryan A Loomis, Ian A Finneran, Philip R Jewell, Anthony J Remijan, Geoffrey A Blake
Life on Earth relies on chiral molecules-that is, species not superimposable on their mirror images. This manifests itself in the selection of a single molecular handedness, or homochirality, across the biosphere. We present the astronomical detection of a chiral molecule, propylene oxide (CH3CHCH2O), in absorption toward the Galactic center. Propylene oxide is detected in the gas phase in a cold, extended molecular shell around the embedded, massive protostellar clusters in the Sagittarius B2 star-forming region...
June 17, 2016: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26836220/national-cluster-randomized-trial-of-duty-hour-flexibility-in-surgical-training
#7
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Karl Y Bilimoria, Jeanette W Chung, Larry V Hedges, Allison R Dahlke, Remi Love, Mark E Cohen, David B Hoyt, Anthony D Yang, John L Tarpley, John D Mellinger, David M Mahvi, Rachel R Kelz, Clifford Y Ko, David D Odell, Jonah J Stulberg, Frank R Lewis
BACKGROUND: Concerns persist regarding the effect of current surgical resident duty-hour policies on patient outcomes, resident education, and resident well-being. METHODS: We conducted a national, cluster-randomized, pragmatic, noninferiority trial involving 117 general surgery residency programs in the United States (2014-2015 academic year). Programs were randomly assigned to current Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) duty-hour policies (standard-policy group) or more flexible policies that waived rules on maximum shift lengths and time off between shifts (flexible-policy group)...
February 25, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27296867/fathers-roles-in-the-care-and-development-of-their-children-the-role-of-pediatricians
#8
Michael Yogman, Craig F Garfield
Fathers' involvement in and influence on the health and development of their children have increased in a myriad of ways in the past 10 years and have been widely studied. The role of pediatricians in working with fathers has correspondingly increased in importance. This report reviews new studies of the epidemiology of father involvement, including nonresidential as well as residential fathers. The effects of father involvement on child outcomes are discussed within each phase of a child's development. Particular emphasis is placed on (1) fathers' involvement across childhood ages and (2) the influence of fathers' physical and mental health on their children...
July 2016: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27225129/genome-wide-association-study-identifies-74-loci-associated-with-educational-attainment
#9
Aysu Okbay, Jonathan P Beauchamp, Mark Alan Fontana, James J Lee, Tune H Pers, Cornelius A Rietveld, Patrick Turley, Guo-Bo Chen, Valur Emilsson, S Fleur W Meddens, Sven Oskarsson, Joseph K Pickrell, Kevin Thom, Pascal Timshel, Ronald de Vlaming, Abdel Abdellaoui, Tarunveer S Ahluwalia, Jonas Bacelis, Clemens Baumbach, Gyda Bjornsdottir, Johannes H Brandsma, Maria Pina Concas, Jaime Derringer, Nicholas A Furlotte, Tessel E Galesloot, Giorgia Girotto, Richa Gupta, Leanne M Hall, Sarah E Harris, Edith Hofer, Momoko Horikoshi, Jennifer E Huffman, Kadri Kaasik, Ioanna P Kalafati, Robert Karlsson, Augustine Kong, Jari Lahti, Sven J van der Lee, Christiaan deLeeuw, Penelope A Lind, Karl-Oskar Lindgren, Tian Liu, Massimo Mangino, Jonathan Marten, Evelin Mihailov, Michael B Miller, Peter J van der Most, Christopher Oldmeadow, Antony Payton, Natalia Pervjakova, Wouter J Peyrot, Yong Qian, Olli Raitakari, Rico Rueedi, Erika Salvi, Börge Schmidt, Katharina E Schraut, Jianxin Shi, Albert V Smith, Raymond A Poot, Beate St Pourcain, Alexander Teumer, Gudmar Thorleifsson, Niek Verweij, Dragana Vuckovic, Juergen Wellmann, Harm-Jan Westra, Jingyun Yang, Wei Zhao, Zhihong Zhu, Behrooz Z Alizadeh, Najaf Amin, Andrew Bakshi, Sebastian E Baumeister, Ginevra Biino, Klaus Bønnelykke, Patricia A Boyle, Harry Campbell, Francesco P Cappuccio, Gail Davies, Jan-Emmanuel De Neve, Panos Deloukas, Ilja Demuth, Jun Ding, Peter Eibich, Lewin Eisele, Niina Eklund, David M Evans, Jessica D Faul, Mary F Feitosa, Andreas J Forstner, Ilaria Gandin, Bjarni Gunnarsson, Bjarni V Halldórsson, Tamara B Harris, Andrew C Heath, Lynne J Hocking, Elizabeth G Holliday, Georg Homuth, Michael A Horan, Jouke-Jan Hottenga, Philip L de Jager, Peter K Joshi, Astanand Jugessur, Marika A Kaakinen, Mika Kähönen, Stavroula Kanoni, Liisa Keltigangas-Järvinen, Lambertus A L M Kiemeney, Ivana Kolcic, Seppo Koskinen, Aldi T Kraja, Martin Kroh, Zoltan Kutalik, Antti Latvala, Lenore J Launer, Maël P Lebreton, Douglas F Levinson, Paul Lichtenstein, Peter Lichtner, David C M Liewald, Anu Loukola, Pamela A Madden, Reedik Mägi, Tomi Mäki-Opas, Riccardo E Marioni, Pedro Marques-Vidal, Gerardus A Meddens, George McMahon, Christa Meisinger, Thomas Meitinger, Yusplitri Milaneschi, Lili Milani, Grant W Montgomery, Ronny Myhre, Christopher P Nelson, Dale R Nyholt, William E R Ollier, Aarno Palotie, Lavinia Paternoster, Nancy L Pedersen, Katja E Petrovic, David J Porteous, Katri Räikkönen, Susan M Ring, Antonietta Robino, Olga Rostapshova, Igor Rudan, Aldo Rustichini, Veikko Salomaa, Alan R Sanders, Antti-Pekka Sarin, Helena Schmidt, Rodney J Scott, Blair H Smith, Jennifer A Smith, Jan A Staessen, Elisabeth Steinhagen-Thiessen, Konstantin Strauch, Antonio Terracciano, Martin D Tobin, Sheila Ulivi, Simona Vaccargiu, Lydia Quaye, Frank J A van Rooij, Cristina Venturini, Anna A E Vinkhuyzen, Uwe Völker, Henry Völzke, Judith M Vonk, Diego Vozzi, Johannes Waage, Erin B Ware, Gonneke Willemsen, John R Attia, David A Bennett, Klaus Berger, Lars Bertram, Hans Bisgaard, Dorret I Boomsma, Ingrid B Borecki, Ute Bültmann, Christopher F Chabris, Francesco Cucca, Daniele Cusi, Ian J Deary, George V Dedoussis, Cornelia M van Duijn, Johan G Eriksson, Barbara Franke, Lude Franke, Paolo Gasparini, Pablo V Gejman, Christian Gieger, Hans-Jörgen Grabe, Jacob Gratten, Patrick J F Groenen, Vilmundur Gudnason, Pim van der Harst, Caroline Hayward, David A Hinds, Wolfgang Hoffmann, Elina Hyppönen, William G Iacono, Bo Jacobsson, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, Karl-Heinz Jöckel, Jaakko Kaprio, Sharon L R Kardia, Terho Lehtimäki, Steven F Lehrer, Patrik K E Magnusson, Nicholas G Martin, Matt McGue, Andres Metspalu, Neil Pendleton, Brenda W J H Penninx, Markus Perola, Nicola Pirastu, Mario Pirastu, Ozren Polasek, Danielle Posthuma, Christine Power, Michael A Province, Nilesh J Samani, David Schlessinger, Reinhold Schmidt, Thorkild I A Sørensen, Tim D Spector, Kari Stefansson, Unnur Thorsteinsdottir, A Roy Thurik, Nicholas J Timpson, Henning Tiemeier, Joyce Y Tung, André G Uitterlinden, Veronique Vitart, Peter Vollenweider, David R Weir, James F Wilson, Alan F Wright, Dalton C Conley, Robert F Krueger, George Davey Smith, Albert Hofman, David I Laibson, Sarah E Medland, Michelle N Meyer, Jian Yang, Magnus Johannesson, Peter M Visscher, Tõnu Esko, Philipp D Koellinger, David Cesarini, Daniel J Benjamin
Educational attainment is strongly influenced by social and other environmental factors, but genetic factors are estimated to account for at least 20% of the variation across individuals. Here we report the results of a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for educational attainment that extends our earlier discovery sample of 101,069 individuals to 293,723 individuals, and a replication study in an independent sample of 111,349 individuals from the UK Biobank. We identify 74 genome-wide significant loci associated with the number of years of schooling completed...
May 11, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27174967/plant-science-how-the-venus-flytrap-acquired-its-taste-for-meat
#10
Erik Stokstad
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 13, 2016: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27151873/nongenetic-functions-of-the-genome
#11
REVIEW
Michael Bustin, Tom Misteli
The primary function of the genome is to store, propagate, and express the genetic information that gives rise to a cell's architectural and functional machinery. However, the genome is also a major structural component of the cell. Besides its genetic roles, the genome affects cellular functions by nongenetic means through its physical and structural properties, particularly by exerting mechanical forces and by serving as a scaffold for binding of cellular components. Major cellular processes affected by nongenetic functions of the genome include establishment of nuclear structure, signal transduction, mechanoresponses, cell migration, and vision in nocturnal animals...
May 6, 2016: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27013737/design-and-synthesis-of-a-minimal-bacterial-genome
#12
Clyde A Hutchison, Ray-Yuan Chuang, Vladimir N Noskov, Nacyra Assad-Garcia, Thomas J Deerinck, Mark H Ellisman, John Gill, Krishna Kannan, Bogumil J Karas, Li Ma, James F Pelletier, Zhi-Qing Qi, R Alexander Richter, Elizabeth A Strychalski, Lijie Sun, Yo Suzuki, Billyana Tsvetanova, Kim S Wise, Hamilton O Smith, John I Glass, Chuck Merryman, Daniel G Gibson, J Craig Venter
We used whole-genome design and complete chemical synthesis to minimize the 1079-kilobase pair synthetic genome of Mycoplasma mycoides JCVI-syn1.0. An initial design, based on collective knowledge of molecular biology combined with limited transposon mutagenesis data, failed to produce a viable cell. Improved transposon mutagenesis methods revealed a class of quasi-essential genes that are needed for robust growth, explaining the failure of our initial design. Three cycles of design, synthesis, and testing, with retention of quasi-essential genes, produced JCVI-syn3...
March 25, 2016: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26953612/polymorphism-identification-and-cardiac-gene-expression-analysis-of-the-calsequestrin-2-gene-in-broiler-chickens-with-sudden-death-syndrome
#13
M Basaki, K Asasi, M R Tabandeh, M Aminlari
Sudden death syndrome (SDS) in broilers is a cardiac disease associated with ventricular tachycardia (VT) and ventricular fibrillation (VF); however, its pathogenesis at the molecular level is not precisely determined. Downregulation and mutations of calsequestrin 2 (CASQ2), a major intracellular Ca(2+) buffer, have been associated with VT and sudden cardiac death (SCD) in humans but in chickens there is no report describing CASQ2 abnormalities in cardiac diseases. In order to better understand the molecular mechanisms predisposing the myocardium to fatal arrhythmia in broilers, the mRNA expression level of chicken CASQ2 gene (chCASQ2) in the left ventricle of dead broilers with SDS was determined and compared to healthy broilers using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR)...
April 2016: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26943128/randomized-trial-of-introduction-of-allergenic-foods-in-breast-fed-infants
#14
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Michael R Perkin, Kirsty Logan, Anna Tseng, Bunmi Raji, Salma Ayis, Janet Peacock, Helen Brough, Tom Marrs, Suzana Radulovic, Joanna Craven, Carsten Flohr, Gideon Lack
BACKGROUND: The age at which allergenic foods should be introduced into the diet of breast-fed infants is uncertain. We evaluated whether the early introduction of allergenic foods in the diet of breast-fed infants would protect against the development of food allergy. METHODS: We recruited, from the general population, 1303 exclusively breast-fed infants who were 3 months of age and randomly assigned them to the early introduction of six allergenic foods (peanut, cooked egg, cow's milk, sesame, whitefish, and wheat; early-introduction group) or to the current practice recommended in the United Kingdom of exclusive breast-feeding to approximately 6 months of age (standard-introduction group)...
May 5, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26658468/comprehensive-multilevel-in-vivo-and-in-vitro-analysis-of-heart-rate-fluctuations-in-mice-by-ecg-telemetry-and-electrophysiology
#15
Stefanie Fenske, Rasmus Pröbstle, Franziska Auer, Sami Hassan, Vanessa Marks, Danius H Pauza, Martin Biel, Christian Wahl-Schott
The normal heartbeat slightly fluctuates around a mean value; this phenomenon is called physiological heart rate variability (HRV). It is well known that altered HRV is a risk factor for sudden cardiac death. The availability of genetic mouse models makes it possible to experimentally dissect the mechanism of pathological changes in HRV and its relation to sudden cardiac death. Here we provide a protocol that allows for a comprehensive multilevel analysis of heart rate (HR) fluctuations. The protocol comprises a set of techniques that include in vivo telemetry and in vitro electrophysiology of intact sinoatrial network preparations or isolated single sinoatrial node (SAN) cells...
January 2016: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26572796/association-of-coffee-consumption-with-total-and-cause-specific-mortality-in-3-large-prospective-cohorts
#16
Ming Ding, Ambika Satija, Shilpa N Bhupathiraju, Yang Hu, Qi Sun, Jiali Han, Esther Lopez-Garcia, Walter Willett, Rob M van Dam, Frank B Hu
BACKGROUND: The association between consumption of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee and risk of mortality remains inconclusive. METHODS AND RESULTS: We examined the associations of consumption of total, caffeinated, and decaffeinated coffee with risk of subsequent total and cause-specific mortality among 74,890 women in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS), 93,054 women in the Nurses' Health Study II, and 40,557 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Coffee consumption was assessed at baseline using a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire...
December 15, 2015: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26332548/in-flight-medical-emergencies-during-commercial-travel
#17
REVIEW
Jose V Nable, Christina L Tupe, Bruce D Gehle, William J Brady
Physicians who travel may be asked to render care to a passenger who is having a medical emergency during a commercial flight. A considerable proportion of passengers in whom medical issues develop during travel require hospitalization. Therefore, health care providers should understand which in..
September 3, 2015: New England Journal of Medicine
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