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Addiction Treatmsnf possibilities

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11 papers 25 to 100 followers WHY DONT WE KNOW THIS
C Orsini, G F Koob, L Pulvirenti
Decreased motivation to work for a natural reward is a sign of amphetamine withdrawal and is thought to be associated with hypofunction of the mesolimbic dopamine system. During withdrawal from repeated amphetamine administration, rats showed reduced responding for a sweet solution in a progressive ratio schedule. Repeated systemic treatment with terguride (0.2 and 0.4 mg/kg, i.p.) twice daily during the first four days of amphetamine withdrawal reversed the decrease in responding for the sweet solution. These results suggest that dopamine partial agonists, possibly due to their agonistic-like actions under these conditions, are a potential therapeutic approach for the acute withdrawal stage of the amphetamine addition cycle...
November 2001: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Dan Madularu, Praveen Kulkarni, Jason R Yee, William M Kenkel, Waqqas M Shams, Craig F Ferris, Wayne G Brake
The ovarian hormone estrogen has been implicated in schizophrenia symptomatology. Low levels of estrogen are associated with an increase in symptom severity, while exogenous estrogen increases the efficacy of antipsychotic medication, pointing at a possible interaction between estrogen and the dopaminergic system. The aim of this study is to further investigate this interaction in an animal model of some aspects of schizophrenia using awake functional magnetic resonance imaging. Animals receiving 17β-estradiol and haloperidol were scanned and BOLD activity was assessed in response to amphetamine...
June 2016: Hormones and Behavior
Bradley C Stephan, Fereydoun D Parsa
Prescribed opioids are routinely used for many postoperative patients. However, these medications have daunting adverse effects on the body's innate pain management system--the action of the beta-endorphins. The prescribed opioids not only severely impair the function of the mu-opioid receptors, but also inhibit the release of beta-endorphin. This is unfortunate, because beta-endorphin appears to be a much more potent agonist of the mu-opioid receptor than opioids. In addition, beta-endorphin indirectly elevates dopamine, a neurotransmitter related to feelings of euphoria...
March 2016: Hawai'i Journal of Medicine & Public Health: a Journal of Asia Pacific Medicine & Public Health
Xiaochen Huang, Shulan Su, Jin-Ao Duan, Xiuxiu Sha, Kavin Yue Zhu, Jianming Guo, Li Yu, Pei Liu, Erxin Shang, Dawei Qian
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is used under the guidance of the theory of traditional Chinese medical sciences in clinical application. The Chinese herbal formula, Shaofu Zhuyu decoction (SFZYD), is considered as an effective prescription for treating Cold - Stagnation and Blood - Stasis (CSBS) primary dysmenorrhea. The previous studies showed the SFZYD exhibited significant anti-inflammation and analgesic effect. In this present study the metabolomics of CSBS primary dysmenorrhea diseased rats and the cytokine transcription in PHA stimulated-PBMC were investigated to explore the effects and mechanisms...
June 20, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Kenneth M Carpenter, Paul C Amrhein, Krysten W Bold, Kaitlyn Mishlen, Frances R Levin, Wilfrid N Raby, Suzette M Evans, Richard W Foltin, Edward V Nunes
The psycholinguistic analysis of client-counselor interactions indicates that how individuals talk about their substance use is associated with treatment outcome. However, the processes by which client speech influences out-of-session behaviors have not been clearly delineated. This study investigated the relationships between deriving relations-a key behavioral process by which language and cognition may come to influence behavior, shifts in the strength of client talk in favor of change, and treatment outcome among 75 cocaine-dependent participants (23% Female)...
April 2016: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Yi-Ni Tsai, Wen-Yu Tzeng, Chianfang G Cherng, Tien You Liao, Hsin-Hua Wu, Jie-Kuan Lin, Lung Yu
Activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor can facilitate the extinction of various maladaptive memories. Sodium benzoate (NaB) has been known to enhance a naturally occurring full agonist on the glycine binding site of the NMDA receptor. This study aimed to test whether systemic NaB treatment can affect the extinction of a cocaine-supported memory, the cocaine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP). Following the establishment of the cocaine (10 mg/kg/conditioning × 3)-induced CPP, an extinction protocol, consisting of two consecutive extinction training bouts at an 8-h interval, was used...
February 29, 2016: Chinese Journal of Physiology
Taban Seif, Jeffrey A Simms, Kelly Lei, Scott Wegner, Antonello Bonci, Robert O Messing, F Woodward Hopf
There is considerable interest in NMDAR modulators to enhance memory and treat neuropsychiatric disorders such as addiction, depression, and schizophrenia. D-serine and D-cycloserine, the NMDAR activators at the glycine site, are of particular interest because they have been used in humans without serious adverse effects. Interestingly, D-serine also inhibits some NMDARs active at hyperpolarized potentials (HA-NMDARs), and we previously found that HA-NMDARs within the nucleus accumbens core (NAcore) are critical for promoting compulsion-like alcohol drinking, where rats consume alcohol despite pairing with an aversive stimulus such as quinine, a paradigm considered to model compulsive aspects of human alcohol use disorders (AUDs)...
September 2015: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Chao-Yu Yang, Ke Yu, Ye Wang, Song-An Chen, Dan-Dan Liu, Zheng-Yang Wang, Yan-Nan Su, Shao-Zhong Yang, Ting-Ting Chen, Itamar Livnat, Ferdinand S Vilim, Elizabeth C Cropper, Klaudiusz R Weiss, Jonathan V Sweedler, Jian Jing
One emerging principle is that neuromodulators, such as neuropeptides, regulate multiple behaviors, particularly motivated behaviors, e.g., feeding and locomotion. However, how neuromodulators act on multiple neural networks to exert their actions remains poorly understood. These actions depend on the chemical form of the peptide, e.g., an alternation of L- to D-form of an amino acid can endow the peptide with bioactivity, as is the case for the Aplysia peptide GdFFD (where dF indicates D-phenylalanine). GdFFD has been shown to act as an extrinsic neuromodulator in the feeding network, while the all L-amino acid form, GFFD, was not bioactive...
2016: PloS One
Michael Soyka
INTRODUCTION: Few pharmacotherapies are available for alcoholism. Numerous studies indicate the involvement of the opioid-endorphin system in mediating the reinforcing effects of alcohol via dopaminergic neurons. The opioid antagonist naltrexone was found to be effective in alcohol treatment, and the European Medicines Agency has now approved the mu-opioid antagonist und partial kappa agonist nalmefene. AREAS COVERED: This article presents background information on the chemistry of nalmefene and pre-clinical and clinical findings...
2016: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Tara Rezapour, Javad Hatami, Ali Farhoudian, Mehmet Sofuoglu, Alireza Noroozi, Reza Daneshmand, Ahmadreza Samiei, Hamed Ekhtiari
Despite extensive evidence for cognitive deficits associated with drug use and multiple publications supporting the efficacy of cognitive rehabilitation treatment (CRT) services for drug addictions, there are a few well-structured tools and organized programs to improve cognitive abilities in substance users. Most published studies on cognitive rehabilitation for drug dependent patients used rehabilitation tools, which have been previously designed for other types of brain injuries such as schizophrenia or traumatic brain injuries and not specifically designed for drug dependent patients...
October 2015: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
Peng Xu, Min Li, Yanping Bai, Wei Lu, Xiaomei Ling, Weidong Li
BACKGROUND: Piracetam is a positive allosteric modulator of the AMPA receptor that has been used in the treatment of cognitive disorders for decades. Recent surveys and drug analyses have demonstrated that a heroin mixture adulterated with piracetam has spread rapidly in heroin addicts in China, but its addictive properties and the damage it causes to the central neural system are currently unknown. METHODS: The effect of piracetam on the reward properties of heroin was assessed by conditioned place preference (CPP)...
May 1, 2015: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
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