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Plant based

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77 papers 0 to 25 followers
C K Yao, J G Muir, P R Gibson
BACKGROUND: Beneficial effects of carbohydrate fermentation on gastrointestinal health are well established. Conversely, protein fermentation generates harmful metabolites but their relevance to gastrointestinal health is poorly understood. AIM: To review the effects of increased protein fermentation on biomarkers of colonic health, factors influencing fermentative activity and potential for dietary modulation to minimise detrimental effects. METHODS: A literature search was performed in PubMed, Medline, EMBASE and Google scholar for clinical and pre-clinical studies using search terms - 'dietary protein', 'fermentation', 'putrefaction', 'phenols', 'sulphide', 'branched-chain fatty acid', 'carbohydrate fermentation', 'gastrointestinal'...
January 2016: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
João Graça, Maria Manuela Calheiros, Abílio Oliveira
In response to calls to expand knowledge on consumer willingness to reduce meat consumption and to adopt a more plant-based diet, this work advances the construct of meat attachment and the Meat Attachment Questionnaire (MAQ). The MAQ is a new measure referring to a positive bond towards meat consumption. It was developed and validated through three sequential studies following from an in-depth approach to consumer representations of meat. The construct and initial pool of items were firstly developed drawing on qualitative data from 410 participants in a previous work on consumers' valuation of meat...
December 2015: Appetite
Ru-Yi Huang, Chuan-Chin Huang, Frank B Hu, Jorge E Chavarro
BACKGROUND: Vegetarian diets may promote weight loss, but evidence remains inconclusive. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE and UpToDate databases were searched through September 22, 2014, and investigators extracted data regarding study characteristics and assessed study quality among selected randomized clinical trials. Population size, demographic (i.e., gender and age) and anthropometric (i.e., body mass index) characteristics, types of interventions, follow-up periods, and trial quality (Jadad score) were recorded...
January 2016: Journal of General Internal Medicine
Roman Pawlak
The goal of this paper is to describe the role of vitamin B12 deficiency in cardiovascular disease development among vegetarians. Vegetarians have a high prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency. Deficiency of this vitamin is associated with a variety of atherogenic processes that are mainly, but not exclusively, due to vitamin B12 deficiency-induced hyperhomocysteinemia. Each 5-μmol/L increase above 10 μmol/L of serum homocysteine is associated with a 20% increased risk of circulatory health problems. Mean homocysteine concentration >10 μmol/L among vegetarians was reported in 32 of 34 reports...
June 2015: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Chelsea M Clinton, Shanley O'Brien, Junwen Law, Colleen M Renier, Mary R Wendt
Objective. To evaluate the effectiveness of a whole-foods, plant-based diet (WFPB) to reduce symptoms of osteoarthritis. Methods. Six-week, prospective randomized open-label study of patients aged 19-70 with osteoarthritis. Participants were randomized to a WFPB (intervention) or continuing current diet (control). Outcomes were assessed by mixed models analysis of participant self-assessed weekly SF-36v2 domain t scores, weekly Patient Global Impression of Change (PGIC) scales, and mean weekly Visual Analog Scale (VAS) pain assessment...
2015: Arthritis
Vincent Lee, Taylor McKay, Chris I Ardern
Objective. To assess awareness, barriers, and promoters of plant-based diet use for management of type 2 diabetes (T2D) for the development of an appropriate educational program. Design. Cross-sectional study of patients and healthcare providers. Setting. Regional Diabetes Education Centre in ON, Canada. Participants. n = 98 patients attending the Diabetes Education Centre and n = 25 healthcare providers. Variables Measures. Patient questionnaires addressed demographics, health history, and eating patterns, as well as current knowledge, confidence levels, barriers to, promoters of, and interests in plant-based diets...
2015: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
Daniele Massera, Tarique Zaman, Grace E Farren, Robert J Ostfeld
A 60-year-old man presented with typical angina and had a positive stress test. He declined both drug therapy and invasive testing. Instead, he chose to adopt a whole-food plant-based diet, which consisted primarily of vegetables, fruits, whole grains, potatoes, beans, legumes, and nuts. His symptoms improved rapidly, as well as his weight, blood pressure, and cholesterol levels. Plant-based diets have been associated with improved plasma lipids, diabetes control, coronary artery disease and with a reduction in mortality...
2015: Case Reports in Cardiology
Brook E Harmon, Carol J Boushey, Yurii B Shvetsov, Reynolette Ettienne, Jill Reedy, Lynne R Wilkens, Loic Le Marchand, Brian E Henderson, Laurence N Kolonel
BACKGROUND: Healthy dietary patterns have been linked positively with health and longevity. However, prospective studies in diverse populations in the United States addressing dietary patterns and mortality are limited. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the ability of the following 4 diet-quality indexes [the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010), the Alternative HEI-2010 (AHEI-2010), the alternate Mediterranean diet score (aMED), and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH)] to predict the reduction in risk of mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer...
March 2015: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Michael Macknin, Tammie Kong, Adam Weier, Sarah Worley, Anne S Tang, Naim Alkhouri, Mladen Golubic
OBJECTIVE: To perform a randomized trial to determine whether there is cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk reduction from a plant-based (PB), no-added-fat diet and the American Heart Association (AHA) diet in children. STUDY DESIGN: A 4-week (April 20, 2013 to May 18, 2013), prospective randomized trial was undertaken in a large, Midwestern hospital system's predominantly middle class outpatient pediatric practices. Thirty children (9-18 years of age) parent pairs with a last recorded child body mass index >95th percentile and child cholesterol >169 mg/dL were randomized to PB or AHA with weekly 2-hour classes of nutrition education...
April 2015: Journal of Pediatrics
Tammy T Hshieh, Andrew B Petrone, J Michael Gaziano, Luc Djoussé
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested that nut consumption is associated with beneficial cardiovascular outcomes. However, limited data are available on the association between nut intake and all-cause mortality. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to test the hypothesis that nut consumption is inversely associated with the risk of all-cause mortality. DESIGN: In this prospective cohort study in 20,742 male physicians, we assessed nut intake between 1999 and 2002 via a food-frequency questionnaire and ascertained deaths through an endpoint committee...
February 2015: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Gabrielle M Turner-McGrievy, Charis R Davidson, Ellen E Wingard, Sara Wilcox, Edward A Frongillo
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of plant-based diets on weight loss. METHODS: Participants were enrolled in a 6-mo, five-arm, randomized controlled trial in 2013 in South Carolina. Participants attended weekly group meetings, with the exception of the omnivorous group, which served as the control and attended monthly meetings augmented with weekly e-mail lessons. All groups attended monthly meetings for the last 4 mo of the study. Diets did not emphasize caloric restriction...
February 2015: Nutrition
Gabrielle M Turner-McGrievy, Michael D Wirth, Nitin Shivappa, Ellen E Wingard, Raja Fayad, Sara Wilcox, Edward A Frongillo, James R Hébert
Studies have examined nutrient differences among people following different plant-based diets. However, all of these studies have been observational. The aim of the present study was to examine differences in nutrient intake and Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) scores among overweight and obese (body mass index 25.0-49.9 kg/m(2)) adults randomized to receive dietary instruction on a vegan (n = 12), vegetarian (n = 13), pescovegetarian (n = 13), semivegetarian (n = 13), or omnivorous (n = 12) diet during a 6-month randomized controlled trial...
February 2015: Nutrition Research
Glenna J Hughes, Kathleen S Kress, Eric S Armbrecht, Ratna Mukherjea, Mildred Mattfeldt-Beman
Interest in plant-based diets is increasing, evidenced by scientific and regulatory recommendations, including Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Dietitians provide guidance in dietary protein selection but little is known about how familiar dietitians are with the quality of plant versus animal proteins or methods for measuring protein quality. Likewise, there is a need to explore their beliefs related to dietary recommendations. The aim of this study was to assess dietitians' perceptions of plant-based protein quality and to determine if these are affected by demographic factors such as age and dietary practice group (DPG) membership...
July 2014: Food Science & Nutrition
Phillip Tuso, Scott R Stoll, William W Li
A plant-based diet is increasingly becoming recognized as a healthier alternative to a diet laden with meat. Atherosclerosis associated with high dietary intake of meat, fat, and carbohydrates remains the leading cause of mortality in the US. This condition results from progressive damage to the endothelial cells lining the vascular system, including the heart, leading to endothelial dysfunction. In addition to genetic factors associated with endothelial dysfunction, many dietary and other lifestyle factors, such as tobacco use, high meat and fat intake, and oxidative stress, are implicated in atherogenesis...
2015: Permanente Journal
Anthony Fardet, Yves Boirie
Associations between food and beverage groups and the risk of diet-related chronic disease (DRCD) have been the subject of intensive research in preventive nutrition. Pooled/meta-analyses and systematic reviews (PMASRs) aim to better characterize these associations. To date, however, there has been no attempt to synthesize all PMASRs that have assessed the relationship between food and beverage groups and DRCDs. The objectives of this review were to aggregate PMASRs to obtain an overview of the associations between food and beverage groups (n = 17) and DRCDs (n = 10) and to establish new directions for future research needs...
December 2014: Nutrition Reviews
Rosemary A Stanton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 19, 2013: Medical Journal of Australia
Sue Radd, Kate A Marsh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 19, 2013: Medical Journal of Australia
Marian Glick-Bauer, Ming-Chin Yeh
This review examines whether there is evidence that a strict vegan diet confers health advantages beyond that of a vegetarian diet or overall healthy eating. Few studies include vegan subjects as a distinct experimental group, yet when vegan diets are directly compared to vegetarian and omnivorous diets, a pattern of protective health benefits emerges. The relatively recent inclusion of vegan diets in studies of gut microbiota and health allows us the opportunity to assess whether the vegan gut microbiota is distinct, and whether the health advantages characteristic of a vegan diet may be partially explained by the associated microbiota profile...
October 31, 2014: Nutrients
Mitsuro Chiba, Tatsuya Yoshida, Masafumi Komatsu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2014: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Michael J Orlich, Karen Jaceldo-Siegl, Joan Sabaté, Jing Fan, Pramil N Singh, Gary E Fraser
Vegetarian dietary patterns have been reported to be associated with a number of favourable health outcomes in epidemiological studies, including the Adventist Health Study 2 (AHS-2). Such dietary patterns may vary and need further characterisation regarding foods consumed. The aims of the present study were to characterise and compare the food consumption patterns of several vegetarian and non-vegetarian diets. Dietary intake was measured using an FFQ among more than 89 000 members of the AHS-2 cohort. Vegetarian dietary patterns were defined a priori, based on the absence of certain animal foods in the diet...
November 28, 2014: British Journal of Nutrition
2015-09-23 00:53:30
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