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Elson Asevedo, Ana C Mendes, Michael Berk, Elisa Brietzke
OBJECTIVE: To conduct the first systematic literature review of clinical trials of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) for the treatment of substance abuse disorders and addictive behaviors. METHODS: A search of the MEDLINE, Embase and PsycINFO databases was conducted. The inclusion criteria for the review were clinical trials that used NAC in the treatment of a disorder related to substance use and/or addictive behaviors, limited to texts in English, Spanish, or French. The selected studies were evaluated with respect to type of trial, sample size, diagnostic input, intervention, length of follow-up, outcome variables, and results...
April 2014: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
Richard C Dart, Andrew R Erdman, Kent R Olson, Gwenn Christianson, Anthony S Manoguerra, Peter A Chyka, E Martin Caravati, Paul M Wax, Daniel C Keyes, Alan D Woolf, Elizabeth J Scharman, Lisa L Booze, William G Troutman
The objective of this guideline is to assist poison center personnel in the appropriate out-of-hospital triage and initial management of patients with suspected ingestions of acetaminophen. An evidence-based expert consensus process was used to create this guideline. This guideline applies to ingestion of acetaminophen alone and is based on an assessment of current scientific and clinical information. The expert consensus panel recognizes that specific patient care decisions may be at variance with this guideline and are the prerogative of the patient and the health professionals providing care...
2006: Clinical Toxicology
Morteza Azhdarzadeh, Amir Ata Saei, Shahriar Sharifi, Mohammad J Hajipour, Alaaldin M Alkilany, Mohammad Sharifzadeh, Fatemeh Ramazani, Sophie Laurent, Alireza Mashaghi, Morteza Mahmoudi
As research progresses, nanoparticles (NPs) are becoming increasingly promising tools for medical diagnostics and therapeutics. Despite this rise, their potential risks to human health, together with environmental issues, has led to increasing concerns regarding their use. As such, a comprehensive understanding of the interactions that occur at the nano-bio interface is required in order to design safe, reliable and efficient NPs for biomedical applications. To this end, extensive studies have been dedicated to probing the factors that define various properties of the nano-bio interface...
2015: Nanomedicine
Todd Matthew Felix, Kelly Dowhower Karpa, Peter R Lewis
Dietary supplement-induced adverse effects often resolve quickly after discontinuation of the offending product, especially in younger patients. The potential for unwanted outcomes can be amplified in elderly patients or those taking multiple prescription drugs, especially where interactions exist with drugs metabolized by cytochrome P450 enzymes. Attributing injury or illness to a specific supplement can be challenging, especially in light of multi-ingredient products, product variability, and variability in reporting, as well as the vast underreporting of adverse drug reactions...
September 2015: FP Essentials
Juliana Garcia, Vera M Costa, Alexandra Carvalho, Paula Baptista, Paula Guedes de Pinho, Maria de Lourdes Bastos, Félix Carvalho
Amanita phalloides, also known as 'death cap', is one of the most poisonous mushrooms, being involved in the majority of human fatal cases of mushroom poisoning worldwide. This species contains three main groups of toxins: amatoxins, phallotoxins, and virotoxins. From these, amatoxins, especially α-amanitin, are the main responsible for the toxic effects in humans. It is recognized that α-amanitin inhibits RNA polymerase II, causing protein deficit and ultimately cell death, although other mechanisms are thought to be involved...
December 2015: Food and Chemical Toxicology
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