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Doping athletics

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By Christopher Cook, BA,CADC, SAP Addiction professional. LPC, CADC, CRNP- student, Interventionist, project manager, owner, Director, eval/refer for SUDs/Eating D/o's
Bridg'ette B Israel, Syreeta L Tilghman, Kitani Parker-Lemieux, Florastina Payton-Stewart
Females with early-stage metastatic, estrogen-dependent breast cancer are generally treated with surgery, radiation and chemotherapy, or with more targeted approaches such as aromatase inhibitors (anastrozole or letrozole) or anti-estrogens (tamoxifen). Despite widespread successful usage of these agents for the treatment of breast cancer, resistance, tumor relapse and metastasis remain the principal causes of mortality for patients with breast cancer. While numerous groups have made major contributions toward an improved understanding of resistance mechanisms, the currently insufficient grasp of the most critical pathways involved in resistance is evident in the inability to adequately treat and drastically improve patient outcomes in females with hormone-refractory breast cancer, including triple negative breast cancer...
May 2018: Oncology Letters
S Bajusz, T Janaky, V J Csernus, L Bokser, M Fekete, G Srkalovic, T W Redding, A V Schally
The nitrogen mustard derivatives of 4-phenylbutyric acid and L-phenylalanine, called chlorambucil (Chl) and melphalan (Mel), respectively, have been incorporated into several peptide hormones, including luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH). The alkylating analogues of LH-RH were prepared by linking Chl, as an N-acyl moiety, to the complete amino acid sequence of agonistic and antagonistic analogues. These compounds, in particular the antagonistic analogues, showed much lower potency than their congeners carrying other acyl groups...
August 1989: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
J Kong, J Chuddy, I A Stock, P M Loria, S V Straub, C Vage, K O Cameron, S K Bhattacharya, K Lapham, K F McClure, Y Zhang, V M Jackson
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Ghrelin increases growth hormone secretion, gastric acid secretion, gastric motility and hunger but decreases glucose-dependent insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity in humans. Antagonizing the ghrelin receptor has potential as a therapeutic approach in the treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Therefore, the aim was to pharmacologically characterize the novel small-molecule antagonist PF-05190457 and assess translational pharmacology ex vivo. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Radioligand binding in filter and scintillation proximity assay formats were used to evaluate affinity, and europium-labelled GTP to assess functional activity...
May 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
Paola Frati, Chrystalla Kyriakou, Alessandro Del Rio, Enrico Marinelli, Gianluca Montanari Vergallo, Simona Zaami, Francesco P Busardò
Cognitive enhancement can be defined as the use of drugs and/or other means with the aim to improve the cognitive functions of healthy subjects in particular memory, attention, creativity and intelligence in the absence of any medical indication. Currently, it represents one of the most debated topics in the neuroscience community. Human beings always wanted to use substances to improve their cognitive functions, from the use of hallucinogens in ancient civilizations in an attempt to allow them to better communicate with their gods, to the widespread use of caffeine under various forms (energy drinks, tablets, etc...
January 2015: Current Neuropharmacology
John A Cunningham, Christian S Hendershot, Michelle Murphy, Clayton Neighbors
BACKGROUND: There is a growing body of evidence indicating that web-based personalized feedback interventions can reduce the amount of alcohol consumed in problem drinking college students. This study sought to evaluate whether providing voluntary access to such an intervention would have an impact on drinking. METHODS: College students responded to an email inviting them to participate in a short drinking survey. Those meeting criteria for risky drinking (and agreeing to participate in a follow-up) were randomized to an intervention condition where they were offered to participate in a web-based personalized feedback intervention or to a control condition (intervention not offered)...
October 10, 2012: Addiction Science & Clinical Practice
Silvia Camporesi, Michael J McNamee
In light of the World Anti Doping Agency's 2013 Code Revision process, we critically explore the applicability of two of three criteria used to determine whether a method or substance should be considered for their Prohibited List, namely its (potential) performance enhancing effects and its (potential) risk to the health of the athlete. To do so, we compare two communities of human guinea pigs: (i) individuals who make a living out of serial participation in Phase 1 pharmacology trials; and (ii) elite athletes who engage in what is effectively 'unregulated clinical research' by using untested prohibited or non-prohibited performance enhancing substances and methods, alone or in combination...
February 5, 2014: Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine: PEHM
Wenqing Gao, James T Dalton
Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) are a novel class of androgen receptor (AR) ligands that might change the future of androgen therapy dramatically. With improved pharmacokinetic characteristics and tissue-selective pharmacological activities, SARMs are expected to greatly extend the clinical applications of androgens to osteoporosis, muscle wasting, male contraception and diseases of the prostate. Mechanistic studies with currently available SARMs will help to define the contributions of differential tissue distribution, tissue-specific expression of 5alpha-reductase, ligand-specific regulation of gene expression and AR interactions with tissue-specific coactivators to their observed tissue selectivity, and lead to even greater expansion of selective anabolic therapies...
March 2007: Drug Discovery Today
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