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Neurocritical Care

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145 papers 100 to 500 followers
Peter J Hutchinson, Angelos G Kolias, Ivan S Timofeev, Elizabeth A Corteen, Marek Czosnyka, Jake Timothy, Ian Anderson, Diederik O Bulters, Antonio Belli, C Andrew Eynon, John Wadley, A David Mendelow, Patrick M Mitchell, Mark H Wilson, Giles Critchley, Juan Sahuquillo, Andreas Unterberg, Franco Servadei, Graham M Teasdale, John D Pickard, David K Menon, Gordon D Murray, Peter J Kirkpatrick
Background The effect of decompressive craniectomy on clinical outcomes in patients with refractory traumatic intracranial hypertension remains unclear. Methods From 2004 through 2014, we randomly assigned 408 patients, 10 to 65 years of age, with traumatic brain injury and refractory elevated intracranial pressure (>25 mm Hg) to undergo decompressive craniectomy or receive ongoing medical care. The primary outcome was the rating on the Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS-E) (an 8-point scale, ranging from death to "upper good recovery" [no injury-related problems]) at 6 months...
September 22, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
Airton Leonardo de Oliveira Manoel, Alberto Goffi, Fernando Godinho Zampieri, David Turkel-Parrella, Abhijit Duggal, Thomas R Marotta, R Loch Macdonald, Simon Abrahamson
Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), defined as nontraumatic bleeding into the brain parenchyma, is the second most common subtype of stroke, with 5.3 million cases and over 3 million deaths reported worldwide in 2010. Case fatality is extremely high (reaching approximately 60 % at 1 year post event). Only 20 % of patients who survive are independent within 6 months. Factors such as chronic hypertension, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, and anticoagulation are commonly associated with ICH. Chronic arterial hypertension represents the major risk factor for bleeding...
September 18, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Risa B Myers, Christos Lazaridis, Christopher M Jermaine, Claudia S Robertson, Craig G Rusin
OBJECTIVES: To develop computer algorithms that can recognize physiologic patterns in traumatic brain injury patients that occur in advance of intracranial pressure and partial brain tissue oxygenation crises. The automated early detection of crisis precursors can provide clinicians with time to intervene in order to prevent or mitigate secondary brain injury. DESIGN: A retrospective study was conducted from prospectively collected physiologic data. intracranial pressure, and partial brain tissue oxygenation crisis events were defined as intracranial pressure of greater than or equal to 20 mm Hg lasting at least 15 minutes and partial brain tissue oxygenation value of less than 10 mm Hg for at least 10 minutes, respectively...
September 2016: Critical Care Medicine
Justin M Moore, Christoph J Griessenauer, Raghav Gupta, Nimer Adeeb, Apar S Patel, Christopher S Ogilvy, Ajith J Thomas
The management of cerebrovascular disease has advanced considerably in 2015. Five randomized control trials have firmly established the role of endovascular thrombectomy for ischemic strokes due to large vessel occlusion. The randomized trial of intraarterial treatment for acute ischemic stroke (MR CLEAN) (Berkhemer et al. NEJM 2015;372:11-20) was the first of a series on the topic. There was a total of 5 randomized controlled trials published showing benefit in terms of functional outcomes at 90days for mechanical thrombectomy including the Endovascular Therapy for Ischemic stroke with perfusion-imaging selection (EXTEND IA) (Campbell et al...
September 2016: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
Ryosuke Hanaya, Kazunori Arita
The administration of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) is the first treatment of epilepsy, one of the most common neurological diseases. Therapeutic guidelines include newer AEDs as front-line drugs; monotherapy with new AEDs is delivered in Japan. While about 70% of patients obtain good seizure control by taking one to three AEDs, about 60% experience adverse effects and 33% have to change drugs. Compared to traditional AEDs, the prolonged administration of new AEDs elicits fewer adverse effects and fewer drug interactions and their teratogenicity may be lower...
May 15, 2016: Neurologia Medico-chirurgica
Tetsuji Inagawa
OBJECTIVE: To examine the literature on risk factors for cerebral vasospasm (CV), one of the most serious complications following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), with special reference to the definition of CV. METHODS: Using standard search engines, including PubMed, the medical literature on risk factors for CV after SAH was reviewed, and the best definition representative of CV was searched. RESULTS: Severe SAH evident on computed tomography scan was the only consistent risk factor for CV after SAH...
January 2016: World Neurosurgery
George Lominadze, Samantha Lessen, Adam Keene
Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is associated with high mortality. The initial hemorrhage causes death in approximately 25% of patients, with most subsequent mortality being attributable to delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI). Delayed cerebral ischemia generally occurs on post-bleed days 4 through 20, with the incidence peaking at day 8. Because of the risks of DCI, patients with SAH are usually monitored in an intensive care unit (ICU) for 14 to 21 days. Unfortunately, prolonged ICU admissions are expensive and are associated with well-documented risks to patients...
January 2016: Neurohospitalist
Ramazan Jabbarli, Matthias Reinhard, Mukesch Shah, Roland Roelz, Wolf-Dirk Niesen, Klaus Kaier, Christian Taschner, Astrid Weyerbrock, Vera Van Velthoven
BACKGROUND: Cerebral vasospasm usually develops several days after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and is generally acknowledged as a strong outcome predictor. In contrast, much less is known about the nature and eventual consequences of early angiographic vasospasm (EAVS) seen on admission digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Therefore, we aimed at identifying the risk factors and clinical impact of EAVS after SAH. METHODS: Five hundred and thirty-one SAH patients with admission DSA performed within 72 h after the bleeding event were selected from a comprehensive database containing all consecutive SAH patients treated at our institution between January 2005 and December 2012...
2016: Cerebrovascular Diseases
Arvind K Sharma, Lokesh Bathala, Amit Batra, Man Mohan Mehndiratta, Vijay K Sharma
Transcranial Doppler (TCD) is the only diagnostic tool that can provide continuous information about cerebral hemodynamics in real time and over extended periods. In the previous paper (Part 1), we have already presented the basic ultrasound physics pertaining to TCD, insonation methods, and various flow patterns. This article describes various advanced applications of TCD such as detection of right-to-left shunt, emboli monitoring, vasomotor reactivity (VMR), monitoring of vasospasm in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), monitoring of intracranial pressure, its role in stoke prevention in sickle cell disease, and as a supplementary test for confirmation of brain death...
January 2016: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
Lokesh Bathala, Man Mohan Mehndiratta, Vijay K Sharma
Transcranial Doppler (TCD) can be aptly called as the doctor's stethoscope of the brain. Since its introduction in 1982, by Rune Aaslid, TCD has evolved as a diagnostic, monitoring, and therapeutic tool. During evaluation of patients with acute ischemic stroke, TCD combined with cervical duplex ultrasonography provides physiological information on the cerebral hemodynamics, which is often complementary to structural imaging. Currently, TCD is the only diagnostic tool that can provide real time information about cerebral hemodynamics and can detect embolization to the cerebral vessels...
April 2013: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
Joshua D Hughes, Alejandro A Rabinstein
BACKGROUND: Paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity (PSH) is a complication of acquired brain injury manifesting with episodic tachycardia, tachypnea, hypertension, diaphoresis, hypertonia, and posturing. No universally accepted diagnostic criteria exist and diagnosis is often delayed until the rehabilitation phase. METHODS: Electronic records were screened to identify consecutive cases of PSH diagnosed in an intensive care unit (ICU) between 1/2006 and 8/2012 and assess the validity of early clinical diagnosis against formal diagnostic criteria...
June 2014: Neurocritical Care
Axel Petzold, Armand Girbes
The core challenge of pain management in neurocritical care is to keep the patient comfortable without masking or overlooking any neurological deterioration. Clearly in patients with a neurological problem there is a conflict of clinical judgement and adequate pain relief. Here we review the presentation, assessment, and development of pain in the clinical spectrum of patients with associated neurological problems seen in a general intensive care setting. Many conditions predispose to the development of chronic pain...
October 2013: Neurocritical Care
Aziz S Alali, Victoria A McCredie, Eyal Golan, Prakesh S Shah, Avery B Nathens
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with a systemic hyperadrenergic state. Through activation of beta adrenoreceptors, catecholamines may induce hypermetabolism and increase both cardiac and cerebral oxygen demands. We conducted a systematic review to appraise the available evidence examining the safety and efficacy of beta blockers in patients with acute TBI. METHODS: We systematically searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE and the reference lists of relevant articles from database inception until March 19, 2013...
June 2014: Neurocritical Care
David B Kurland, Ariana Khaladj-Ghom, Jesse A Stokum, Brianna Carusillo, Jason K Karimy, Volodymyr Gerzanich, Juan Sahuquillo, J Marc Simard
Decompressive craniectomy (DC) has been used for many years in the management of patients with elevated intracranial pressure and cerebral edema. Ongoing clinical trials are investigating the clinical and cost effectiveness of DC in trauma and stroke. While DC has demonstrable efficacy in saving life, it is accompanied by a myriad of non-trivial complications that have been inadequately highlighted in prospective clinical trials. Missing from our current understanding is a comprehensive analysis of all potential complications associated with DC...
October 2015: Neurocritical Care
Manoj K Mittal, Alejandro A Rabinstein, Sara E Hocker, Sean J Pittock, Eelco F M Wijdicks, Andrew McKeon
BACKGROUND: To report the clinical and laboratory characteristics, clinical courses, and outcomes of Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, ICU-managed autoimmune encephalitis patients (January 1st 2003-December 31st 2012). METHODS: Based on medical record review, twenty-five patients were assigned to Group 1 (had ≥1 of classic autoimmune encephalitis-specific IgGs, n = 13) or Group 2 (had ≥3 other characteristics supporting autoimmunity, n = 12). RESULTS: Median admission age was 47 years (range 22-88); 17 were women...
April 2016: Neurocritical Care
Paul Nyquist, Cynthia Bautista, Draga Jichici, Joseph Burns, Sanjeev Chhangani, Michele DeFilippis, Fernando D Goldenberg, Keri Kim, Xi Liu-DeRyke, William Mack, Kim Meyer
The risk of death from venous thromboembolism (VTE) is high in intensive care unit patients with neurological diagnoses. This is due to an increased risk of venous stasis secondary to paralysis as well as an increased prevalence of underlying pathologies that cause endothelial activation and create an increased risk of embolus formation. In many of these diseases, there is an associated risk from bleeding because of standard VTE prophylaxis. There is a paucity of prospective studies examining different VTE prophylaxis strategies in the neurologically ill...
February 2016: Neurocritical Care
Herbert I Fried, Barnett R Nathan, A Shaun Rowe, Joseph M Zabramski, Norberto Andaluz, Adarsh Bhimraj, Mary McKenna Guanci, David B Seder, Jeffrey M Singh
External ventricular drains (EVDs) are commonly placed to monitor intracranial pressure and manage acute hydrocephalus in patients with a variety of intracranial pathologies. The indications for EVD insertion and their efficacy in the management of these various conditions have been previously addressed in guidelines published by the Brain Trauma Foundation, American Heart Association and combined committees of the American Association of Neurological Surgeons and the Congress of Neurological Surgeons. While it is well recognized that placement of an EVD may be a lifesaving intervention, the benefits can be offset by procedural and catheter-related complications, such as hemorrhage along the catheter tract, catheter malposition, and CSF infection...
February 2016: Neurocritical Care
Jennifer A Frontera, John J Lewin, Alejandro A Rabinstein, Imo P Aisiku, Anne W Alexandrov, Aaron M Cook, Gregory J del Zoppo, Monisha A Kumar, Ellinor I B Peerschke, Michael F Stiefel, Jeanne S Teitelbaum, Katja E Wartenberg, Cindy L Zerfoss
BACKGROUND: The use of antithrombotic agents, including anticoagulants, antiplatelet agents, and thrombolytics has increased over the last decade and is expected to continue to rise. Although antithrombotic-associated intracranial hemorrhage can be devastating, rapid reversal of coagulopathy may help limit hematoma expansion and improve outcomes. METHODS: The Neurocritical Care Society, in conjunction with the Society of Critical Care Medicine, organized an international, multi-institutional committee with expertise in neurocritical care, neurology, neurosurgery, stroke, hematology, hemato-pathology, emergency medicine, pharmacy, nursing, and guideline development to evaluate the literature and develop an evidence-based practice guideline...
February 2016: Neurocritical Care
Dan C Nichols, Pramit A Nadpara, Perry D Taylor, Gretchen M Brophy
BACKGROUND: Acetaminophen (APAP) is used in neurocritical care (NCC) patients for analgesia without sedation or antiplatelet activity. Research suggests that intravenous (IV) APAP produces earlier and higher serum levels compared to oral (PO) APAP. This retrospective study evaluates the associated analgesic effects of IV and PO APAP and use of adjunctive opioids in NCC patients with moderate-severe pain. METHODS: Patients admitted to the neuroscience intensive care unit (NSICU) between May 2012 and April 2013 who received ≥1 dose of IV APAP were included in the study...
December 2016: Neurocritical Care
Bellal Joseph, Ansab Haider, Peter Rhee
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Over the last decade, several advancements have been made in the field of TBI all aimed at improving outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: Advancements in the management of TBI have been made possible through improved understanding of basic pathophysiology associated with this condition. The aim of this review is to briefly highlight the underlying pathophysiology of TBI and the most recent advancements and novel strategies being used in its treatment...
December 2015: Current Opinion in Critical Care
2016-07-03 04:24:50
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