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Neuromyelitis optica 2015

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16 papers 0 to 25 followers
By EFRAIN PAEZ Internal Medicine since 1988. Interested in all aspects of Medicine.
Eoin P Flanagan, Timothy J Kaufmann, Karl N Krecke, Allen J Aksamit, Sean J Pittock, B Mark Keegan, Caterina Giannini, Brian G Weinshenker
OBJECTIVE: To compare longitudinally extensive myelitis in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) and spinal cord sarcoidosis (SCS). METHODS: We identified adult patients evaluated between 1996 and 2015 with SCS or NMOSD whose first myelitis episode was accompanied by a spinal cord lesion spanning ≥3 vertebral segments. All NMOSD patients were positive for aquaporin-4-immunoglobulin G, and all sarcoidosis cases were pathologically confirmed. Clinical characteristics were evaluated...
March 2016: Annals of Neurology
S Jarius, B Wildemann
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO, Devic's disease) is an often severely disabling disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) which mainly affects the optic nerves and spinal cord. NMO was long considered a clinical subform of multiple sclerosis (MS). In 2004, however, Lennon and colleagues described a novel autoantibody in NMO which targets aquaporin-4, the most abundant water channel in the CNS, and which was later shown to be directly pathogenic. This has led to the recognition of NMO as a distinct disease entity in its own right...
November 15, 2015: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Esther Melamed, Michael Levy, Patrick J Waters, Douglas Kazutoshi Sato, Jeffrey L Bennett, Gareth R John, Douglas C Hooper, Albert Saiz, Amit Bar-Or, Ho Jin Kim, Lakha Pandit, Maria Isabel Leite, Nasrin Asgari, Najib Kissani, Rogier Hintzen, Romain Marignier, Sven Jarius, John Marcelletti, Terry J Smith, Michael R Yeaman, May H Han, Orhan Aktas, Metha Apiwattanakul, Brenda Banwell, Denis Bichuetti, Simon Broadley, Philippe Cabre, Tanuja Chitnis, Jerome De Seze, Kazuo Fujihara, Benjamin Greenberg, Kerstin Hellwig, Raffaele Iorio, Sven Jarius, Eric Klawiter, Ingo Kleiter, Marco Lana-Peixoto, Nakashima, Kevin O'Connor, Jacqueline Palace, Friedman Paul, Naraporn Prayoonwiwat, Klemens Ruprecht, Olaf Stuve, Thomas Tedder, Silvia Tenembaum, Juan P Garrahan, Buenos Aires, Katja van Herle, Danielle van Pelt, Pablo Villoslada, Emmanuelle Waubant, Brian Weinshenker, Dean Wingerchuk, Jens Würfel, Scott Zamvil
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) (and NMO spectrum disorder) is an autoimmune inflammatory disease of the CNS primarily affecting spinal cord and optic nerves. Reliable and sensitive biomarkers for onset, relapse, and progression in NMO are urgently needed because of the heterogeneous clinical presentation, severity of neurologic disability following relapses, and variability of therapeutic response. Detecting aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibodies (AQP4-IgG or NMO-IgG) in serum supports the diagnosis of seropositive NMO...
August 2015: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
Jianrui Yin, Youming Long, Fulan Shan, Yongxiang Fan, Linzhan Wu, Rong Zhong, Cong Gao, Xiaohui Chen, Qingchun Gao, Ning Yang
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a severe, idiopathic, immuno-mediated, inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. We examined the clinical features between male and female NMO patients, for which not much data exist. One hundred and eight Chinese Han patients with NMO were analysed retrospectively, all had been detected for the aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibody using a cell-based assay. Of 108 NMO patients, 92 were female and 16 were male (female/male = 5.75). Ninety-four (87%) were positive for the AQP4 antibody in their serum and/or cerebral spinal fluid...
November 2015: Neurological Research
Yeliz Pekcevik, Charles H Mitchell, Maureen A Mealy, Gunes Orman, In H Lee, Scott D Newsome, Carol B Thompson, Carlos A Pardo, Peter A Calabresi, Michael Levy, Izlem Izbudak
BACKGROUND: Although spinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) have been described, there is limited data available that help differentiate NMO from other causes of longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM). OBJECTIVE: To investigate the spinal MRI findings of LETM that help differentiate NMO at the acute stage from multiple sclerosis (MS) and other causes of LETM. METHODS: We enrolled 94 patients with LETM into our study...
March 2016: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
Rafael Ruiz-Gaviria, Ivan Baracaldo, Camilo Castañeda, Alejandro Ruiz-Patiño, Andres Acosta-Hernandez, Diego Rosselli
OBJECTIVE: Antibodies against water channel protein aquaporin 4 (AQP4) in astrocytes play a role in the etiology and physiopathology of neuromyelitis optica (NMO); detection of this immunoglobulin in serum is highly suggestive of this diagnosis. There are several immunoassays to detect the antibody with different sensitivities and specificities. We conducted a meta-analysis to determine the overall diagnostic accuracy from these tests. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review in five different electronic databases: Pubmed, Embase, The Cochrane Library, Scopus, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effect (DARE) and Lilacs...
July 2015: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Anastasia Zekeridou, Vanda A Lennon
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and a related spectrum of inflammatory CNS disorders are unified by detection of a serum autoantibody specific for the aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channel, which is abundant in astrocytic foot processes. The classic clinical manifestations of NMO are optic neuritis and longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis. Newly recognized manifestations of AQP4 autoimmunity include lesions of circumventricular organs and skeletal muscle. NMO is commonly relapsing, is frequently accompanied by other autoimmune disorders, and sometimes occurs in a paraneoplastic context...
August 2015: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
Dean M Wingerchuk, Brenda Banwell, Jeffrey L Bennett, Philippe Cabre, William Carroll, Tanuja Chitnis, Jérôme de Seze, Kazuo Fujihara, Benjamin Greenberg, Anu Jacob, Sven Jarius, Marco Lana-Peixoto, Michael Levy, Jack H Simon, Silvia Tenembaum, Anthony L Traboulsee, Patrick Waters, Kay E Wellik, Brian G Weinshenker
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an inflammatory CNS syndrome distinct from multiple sclerosis (MS) that is associated with serum aquaporin-4 immunoglobulin G antibodies (AQP4-IgG). Prior NMO diagnostic criteria required optic nerve and spinal cord involvement but more restricted or more extensive CNS involvement may occur. The International Panel for NMO Diagnosis (IPND) was convened to develop revised diagnostic criteria using systematic literature reviews and electronic surveys to facilitate consensus. The new nomenclature defines the unifying term NMO spectrum disorders (NMOSD), which is stratified further by serologic testing (NMOSD with or without AQP4-IgG)...
July 14, 2015: Neurology
Wildéa Lice de Carvalho Jennings Pereira, Edna Maria Vissoci Reiche, Ana Paula Kallaur, Damacio Ramón Kaimen-Maciel
The aim of this study was to review the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and the immunopathological mechanisms involved in the neuronal damage. NMO is an inflammatory demyelinating autoimmune disease of the central nervous system that most commonly affects the optic nerves and spinal cord. NMO is thought to be more prevalent among non-Caucasians and where multiple sclerosis (MS) prevalence is low. NMO follows a relapsing course in more than 80-90% of cases, which is more commonly in women...
August 15, 2015: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Brian G Weinshenker, Gerard Barron, Jacinta M Behne, Jeffery L Bennett, Peter S Chin, Bruce A C Cree, Jerome de Seze, Armando Flor, Kazuo Fujihara, Benjamin Greenberg, Sayumi Higashi, William Holt, Omar Khan, Volker Knappertz, Michael Levy, Angela T Melia, Jacqueline Palace, Terry J Smith, Maria Pia Sormani, Katja Van Herle, Susan VanMeter, Pablo Villoslada, Marc K Walton, Warren Wasiewski, Dean M Wingerchuk, Michael R Yeaman
Current management of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is noncurative and only partially effective. Immunosuppressive or immunomodulatory agents are the mainstays of maintenance treatment. Safer, better-tolerated, and proven effective treatments are needed. The perceived rarity of NMO has impeded clinical trials for this disease. However, a diagnostic biomarker and recognition of a wider spectrum of NMO presentations has expanded the patient population from which study candidates might be recruited. Emerging insights into the pathogenesis of NMO have provided rationale for exploring new therapeutic targets...
April 28, 2015: Neurology
Jose Torres, Amy Pruitt, Laura Balcer, Steven Galetta, Clyde Markowitz, Nabila Dahodwala
BACKGROUND: Treatment options for neuromyelitis optica (NMO) are currently based on small retrospective case series and open label studies, ranging from 10 to 103 patients. OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy and tolerability of azathioprine, cyclophosphamide, mycophenolate, and rituximab in patients with neuromyelitis optica. METHODS: This is a retrospective chart review and telephone follow-up study of 71 patients with NMO or NMO spectrum disorder, 54 of whom were treated with the study drugs...
April 15, 2015: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Ho Jin Kim, Friedemann Paul, Marco A Lana-Peixoto, Silvia Tenembaum, Nasrin Asgari, Jacqueline Palace, Eric C Klawiter, Douglas K Sato, Jérôme de Seze, Jens Wuerfel, Brenda L Banwell, Pablo Villoslada, Albert Saiz, Kazuo Fujihara, Su-Hyun Kim
Since its initial reports in the 19th century, neuromyelitis optica (NMO) had been thought to involve only the optic nerves and spinal cord. However, the discovery of highly specific anti-aquaporin-4 antibody diagnostic biomarker for NMO enabled recognition of more diverse clinical spectrum of manifestations. Brain MRI abnormalities in patients seropositive for anti-aquaporin-4 antibody are common and some may be relatively unique by virtue of localization and configuration. Some seropositive patients present with brain involvement during their first attack and/or continue to relapse in the same location without optic nerve and spinal cord involvement...
March 17, 2015: Neurology
R Bernard-Valnet, R S Liblau, S Vukusic, R Marignier
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a rare inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system. The hallmark of NMO is the presence of specific autoantibodies directed against aquaporin 4 (AQP4-IgG). AQP4-IgG, included in diagnostic criteria, has enlarged the clinical spectrum of NMO and serves to predict relapses. Moreover AQP4-IgG has provided unprecedented insight in the immunopathology of NMO, representing a rationale for therapeutic intervention with relevant novel treatment strategies specific for NMO. However, some patients remain seronegative for AQP4-IgG despite a definite diagnosis of NMO and the use of the finest methods for antibody detection...
December 2015: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Nirmeen A Kishk, Noha T Abokrysha, Laila Rashed, Nagwa Ahmed
Neuromyelitis optica immunoglobulin G (NMO-IgG) binds selectively to aquaporin 4 (AQP4). We aimed to evaluate the frequency of AQP4 antibody in Egyptian patients. We retrospectively evaluated 39 consecutive Egyptian patients with suspected idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating central nervous system disease (IIDCD) who visited the multiple sclerosis clinic at Kaser Al-Aini Hospital. The patients were diagnosed with NMO, other NMO spectrum disorders, or multiple sclerosis using the respective current diagnostic criteria...
April 2015: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Aya Koda, Satoshi Kaneko, Shinya Asayama, Kengo Fujita, Hirofumi Kusaka
A 39-year-old woman initially developed vomiting and intractable hiccup, followed by progressive dysphagia, dysarthria and hypoglossal nerve palsy. She was admitted to our department on the 30th day of illness. MRI-FLAIR images of the brain revealed a hyperintense lesion in the dorsal medulla. A diagnosis of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) was entertained according to the clinical course and the MRI images. The dysphagia was intractable to methylprednisolone pulse therapy, and so a course of plasma exchange therapy was initiated on the 32nd day of illness...
2015: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
Kunihiro Ichinose, Kazuhiko Arima, Takeshi Ushigusa, Ayako Nishino, Yoshikazu Nakashima, Takahisa Suzuki, Yoshiro Horai, Hideki Nakajima, Shin-Ya Kawashiri, Naoki Iwamoto, Mami Tamai, Hideki Nakamura, Tomoki Origuchi, Masakatsu Motomura, Atsushi Kawakami
Neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE) is a serious complication in SLE. Although the mechanism of NPSLE remains unclear, cytokines and chemokines are considered to be involved in their pathogenesis. Here we used Bio-Plex Pro assays to examine 27 types of cytokines and chemokines in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 32 NPSLE patients. We used the CSF of 20 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and 22 patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO) as a disease control group. Fourteen of 27 cytokines/chemokines were significantly higher in the NPSLE patients compared to the MS/NMO patients...
April 2015: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
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