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Addiction

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5 papers 0 to 25 followers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21401921/treatment-of-alcohol-dependence-with-low-dose-topiramate-an-open-label-controlled-study
#1
Thomas Paparrigopoulos, Elias Tzavellas, Dimitris Karaiskos, Georgia Kourlaba, Ioannis Liappas
BACKGROUND: GABAergic anticonvulsants have been recommended for the treatment of alcohol dependence and the prevention of relapse. Several studies have demonstrated topiramate's efficacy in improving drinking behaviour and maintaining abstinence. The objective of the present open-label controlled study was to assess efficacy and tolerability of low-dose topiramate as adjunctive treatment in alcohol dependence during the immediate post-detoxification period and during a 16-week follow-up period after alcohol withdrawal...
2011: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26610039/effect-of-high-potency-cannabis-on-corpus-callosum-microstructure
#2
S Rigucci, T R Marques, M Di Forti, H Taylor, F Dell'Acqua, V Mondelli, S Bonaccorso, A Simmons, A S David, P Girardi, C M Pariante, R M Murray, P Dazzan
BACKGROUND: The use of cannabis with higher Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol content has been associated with greater risk, and earlier onset, of psychosis. However, the effect of cannabis potency on brain morphology has never been explored. Here, we investigated whether cannabis potency and pattern of use are associated with changes in corpus callosum (CC) microstructural organization, in patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP) and individuals without psychosis, cannabis users and non-users...
March 2016: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23493539/fructose-it-s-alcohol-without-the-buzz
#3
Robert H Lustig
What do the Atkins Diet and the traditional Japanese diet have in common? The Atkins Diet is low in carbohydrate and usually high in fat; the Japanese diet is high in carbohydrate and usually low in fat. Yet both work to promote weight loss. One commonality of both diets is that they both eliminate the monosaccharide fructose. Sucrose (table sugar) and its synthetic sister high fructose corn syrup consist of 2 molecules, glucose and fructose. Glucose is the molecule that when polymerized forms starch, which has a high glycemic index, generates an insulin response, and is not particularly sweet...
March 1, 2013: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26276628/the-brain-on-drugs-from-reward-to-addiction
#4
REVIEW
Nora D Volkow, Marisela Morales
Advances in neuroscience identified addiction as a chronic brain disease with strong genetic, neurodevelopmental, and sociocultural components. We here discuss the circuit- and cell-level mechanisms of this condition and its co-option of pathways regulating reward, self-control, and affect. Drugs of abuse exert their initial reinforcing effects by triggering supraphysiologic surges of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens that activate the direct striatal pathway via D1 receptors and inhibit the indirect striato-cortical pathway via D2 receptors...
August 13, 2015: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26235449/circuitry-of-self-control-and-its-role-in-reducing-addiction
#5
Yi-Yuan Tang, Michael I Posner, Mary K Rothbart, Nora D Volkow
We discuss the idea that addictions can be treated by changing the mechanisms involved in self-control with or without regard to intention. The core clinical symptoms of addiction include an enhanced incentive for drug taking (craving), impaired self-control (impulsivity and compulsivity), negative mood, and increased stress re-activity. Symptoms related to impaired self-control involve reduced activity in control networks including anterior cingulate (ACC), adjacent prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and striatum. Behavioral training such as mindfulness meditation can increase the function of control networks and may be a promising approach for the treatment of addiction, even among those without intention to quit...
August 2015: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
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