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Psychopharmacology

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12 papers 25 to 100 followers
By Abraham Nunes Psychiatry resident interested in computational neuroscience, forensic psychiatry, and neuropsychiatry.
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27388573/clozapine-v-first-and-second-generation-antipsychotics-in-treatment-refractory-schizophrenia-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#1
REVIEW
Dan Siskind, Lara McCartney, Romi Goldschlager, Steve Kisely
BACKGROUND: Although clozapine is the 'gold standard' for treatment-refractory schizophrenia, meta-analyses of clozapine for this condition are lacking. AIMS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of clozapine treatment for people with treatment-refractory schizophrenia. METHOD: We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's trial register, PubMed and EMBASE and hand-searched key papers for randomised controlled trials of clozapine for treatment-refractory schizophrenia...
November 2016: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27367876/effect-of-escitalopram-on-all-cause-mortality-and-hospitalization-in-patients-with-heart-failure-and-depression-the-mood-hf-randomized-clinical-trial
#2
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Christiane E Angermann, Götz Gelbrich, Stefan Störk, Hilka Gunold, Frank Edelmann, Rolf Wachter, Heribert Schunkert, Tobias Graf, Ingrid Kindermann, Markus Haass, Stephan Blankenberg, Sabine Pankuweit, Christiane Prettin, Martin Gottwik, Michael Böhm, Hermann Faller, Jürgen Deckert, Georg Ertl
IMPORTANCE: Depression is frequent in patients with heart failure and is associated with adverse clinical outcomes. Long-term efficacy and safety of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in these patients are unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether 24 months of treatment with escitalopram improves mortality, morbidity, and mood in patients with chronic systolic heart failure and depression. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: The Effects of Selective Serotonin Re-Uptake Inhibition on Morbidity, Mortality, and Mood in Depressed Heart Failure Patients (MOOD-HF) study was a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial conducted at 16 tertiary medical centers in Germany...
June 28, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27222142/systematic-review-of-clozapine-cardiotoxicity
#3
REVIEW
Martina Curto, Nicoletta Girardi, Luana Lionetto, Giuseppino M Ciavarella, Stefano Ferracuti, Ross J Baldessarini
Clozapine is exceptionally effective in psychotic disorders and can reduce suicidal risk. Nevertheless, its use is limited due to potentially life-threatening adverse effects, including myocarditis and cardiomyopathy. Given their clinical importance, we systematically reviewed research on adverse cardiac effects of clozapine, aiming to improve estimates of their incidence, summarize features supporting their diagnosis, and evaluate proposed monitoring procedures. Incidence of early (≤2 months) myocarditis ranges from <0...
July 2016: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27133416/the-american-psychiatric-association-practice-guideline-on-the-use-of-antipsychotics-to-treat-agitation-or-psychosis-in-patients-with-dementia
#4
Victor I Reus, Laura J Fochtmann, A Evan Eyler, Donald M Hilty, Marcela Horvitz-Lennon, Michael D Jibson, Oscar L Lopez, Jane Mahoney, Jagoda Pasic, Zaldy S Tan, Cheryl D Wills, Richard Rhoads, Joel Yager
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26257598/antidepressant-mechanism-of-ketamine-perspective-from-preclinical-studies
#5
REVIEW
Lisa Scheuing, Chi-Tso Chiu, Hsiao-Mei Liao, De-Maw Chuang
A debilitating mental disorder, major depressive disorder is a leading cause of global disease burden. Existing antidepressant drugs are not adequate for the majority of depressed patients, and large clinical studies have demonstrated their limited efficacy and slow response onset. Growing evidence of low-dose ketamine's rapid and potent antidepressant effects offers strong potential for future antidepressant agents. However, ketamine has considerable drawbacks such as its abuse potential, psychomimetic effects, and increased oxidative stress in the brain, thus limiting its widespread clinical use...
2015: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26070753/psychostimulants-basic-and-clinical-pharmacology
#6
REVIEW
Andrew C McCreary, Christian P Müller, Małgorzata Filip
Substance use disorder, and particularly psychostimulant use disorder, has considerable socioeconomic burden globally. The psychostimulants include several chemical classes, being derivatives of benzoylecgonine, phenethylamine, phenylpropanolamine, or aminoaryloxazoline. Psychostimulant drugs activate the brain reward pathways of the mesoaccumbal system, and continued use leads to persistent neuroplastic and dysfunctional changes of a variety of structures involved in learning and memory, habit-forming learning, salience attribution, and inhibitory control...
2015: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26003379/long-term-effects-of-lithium-on-renal-thyroid-and-parathyroid-function-a-retrospective-analysis-of-laboratory-data
#7
Brian Shine, Rebecca F McKnight, Laurence Leaver, John R Geddes
BACKGROUND: Lithium is a widely used and highly effective treatment for mood disorders, but causes poorly characterised adverse effects in kidney and endocrine systems. We aimed to analyse laboratory information system data to determine the incidence of renal, thyroid, and parathyroid dysfunction associated with lithium use. METHODS: In a retrospective analysis of laboratory data from Oxford University Hospitals National Health Service Trust (Oxfordshire, UK), we investigated the incidence of renal, thyroid, and parathyroid dysfunction in patients (aged ≥18 years) who had at least two creatinine, thyrotropin, calcium, glycated haemoglobin, or lithium measurements between Oct 1, 1982, and March 31, 2014, compared with controls who had not had lithium measurements taken...
August 1, 2015: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25499957/the-cognition-enhancing-effects-of-psychostimulants-involve-direct-action-in-the-prefrontal-cortex
#8
REVIEW
Robert C Spencer, David M Devilbiss, Craig W Berridge
Psychostimulants are highly effective in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. The clinical efficacy of these drugs is strongly linked to their ability to improve cognition dependent on the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and extended frontostriatal circuit. The procognitive actions of psychostimulants are only associated with low doses. Surprisingly, despite nearly 80 years of clinical use, the neurobiology of the procognitive actions of psychostimulants has only recently been systematically investigated...
June 1, 2015: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25467702/ketamine-and-other-potential-glutamate-antidepressants
#9
REVIEW
Arpan Dutta, Shane McKie, J F William Deakin
The need for rapid acting antidepressants is widely recognised. There has been much interest in glutamate mechanisms in major depressive disorder (MDD) as a promising target for the development of new antidepressants. A single intravenous infusion of ketamine, a N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist anaesthetic agent, can alleviate depressive symptoms in patients within hours of administration. The mechanism of action appears to be in part through glutamate release onto non-NMDA receptors including α-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) and metabotropic receptors...
January 30, 2015: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25120365/a-systematic-review-of-randomized-controlled-trials-of-bupropion-versus-methylphenidate-in-the-treatment-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#10
Narong Maneeton, Benchalak Maneeton, Suthi Intaprasert, Pakapan Woottiluk
BACKGROUND: Some trials have suggested that bupropion, as well as methylphenidate, is beneficial in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this systematic review was to summarize the efficacy, acceptability, and tolerability of bupropion in comparison with methylphenidate for ADHD treatment. Included studies were randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared bupropion and methylphenidate. Clinical studies conducted between January 1991 and January 2014 were reviewed...
2014: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24909990/crystal-structure-of-a-human-gabaa-receptor
#11
Paul S Miller, A Radu Aricescu
Type-A γ-aminobutyric acid receptors (GABAARs) are the principal mediators of rapid inhibitory synaptic transmission in the human brain. A decline in GABAAR signalling triggers hyperactive neurological disorders such as insomnia, anxiety and epilepsy. Here we present the first three-dimensional structure of a GABAAR, the human β3 homopentamer, at 3 Å resolution. This structure reveals architectural elements unique to eukaryotic Cys-loop receptors, explains the mechanistic consequences of multiple human disease mutations and shows an unexpected structural role for a conserved N-linked glycan...
August 21, 2014: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22275848/pharmacotherapy-of-anxiety-disorders-a-critical-review
#12
REVIEW
Nastassja Koen, Dan J Stein
Given the enormous contribution of anxiety disorders to the burden of disease, it is key to optimize their prevention and treatment. In this critical review we assess advances in the pharmacotherapy of anxiety disorders, as well as remaining challenges, in recent decades, the field has seen rigorous clinical trial methods to quantify the efficacy and safety of serendipitously discovered agents, more focused development of medications with selective mechanisms of action, and the gradual translation of insights from laboratory research into proof-of-principle clinical trials...
2011: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
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