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By EFRAIN PAEZ Internal Medicine since 1988. Interested in all aspects of Medicine.
Loren Laine
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 16, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
D A Butt, P J Harvey
Hypertension is highly prevalent in older age and accounts for a large proportion of cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality worldwide. Isolated systolic hypertension is more common in the elderly than younger adults and associated with poor outcomes such as cerebrovascular disease and acute coronary events. International guidelines are inconsistent in providing recommendations on optimal blood pressure targets in hypertensive elderly patients as a result of the limited evidence in this population. Evidence from clinical trials supports the use of antihypertensive drugs in hypertensive elderly patients due to benefits in reducing CV disease and mortality...
December 2015: Journal of Internal Medicine
Patrick M Honore, Rita Jacobs, Inne Hendrickx, Sean M Bagshaw, Olivier Joannes-Boyau, Willem Boer, Elisabeth De Waele, Viola Van Gorp, Herbert D Spapen
Sepsis-induced acute kidney injury (SAKI) remains an important challenge in critical care medicine. We reviewed current available evidence on prevention and treatment of SAKI with focus on some recent advances and developments. Prevention of SAKI starts with early and ample fluid resuscitation preferentially with crystalloid solutions. Balanced crystalloids have no proven superior benefit. Renal function can be evaluated by measuring lactate clearance rate, renal Doppler, or central venous oxygenation monitoring...
December 2015: Annals of Intensive Care
Sefer Varol, Hasan Huseyin Ozdemir, Esref Akil, Demet Arslan, M Ufuk Aluclu, Caner F Demir, Yavuz Yucel
OBJECTIVE: Facial diplegia (FD) is a rare neurological manifestation with diverse causes. This article aims to systematically evaluate the etiology, diagnostic evaluation and treatment of FD. METHOD: The study was performed retrospectively and included 17 patients with a diagnosis of FD. RESULTS: Patients were diagnosed with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) (11), Bickerstaff's brainstem encephalitis (1), neurosarcoidosis (1), non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (1), tuberculous meningitis (1) herpes simplex reactivation (1) and idiopathic (1)...
December 2015: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
Philip Toner, Danny Francis McAuley, Murali Shyamsundar
Sepsis is a common condition that is associated with significant morbidity, mortality and health-care cost. Pulmonary and non-pulmonary sepsis are common causes of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The mortality from ARDS remains high despite protective lung ventilation, and currently there are no specific pharmacotherapies to treat sepsis or ARDS. Sepsis and ARDS are characterised by activation of the inflammatory cascade. Although there is much focus on the study of the dysregulated inflammation and its suppression, the associated activation of the haemostatic system has been largely ignored until recently...
October 23, 2015: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Brian B Agbor-Etang, John F Setaro
Ischemic heart disease (IHD) affects about 16 million adults in the USA. Many more individuals likely harbor subclinical coronary disease. Hypertension (HTN) continues to be a potent and widespread risk factor for IHD. Among other Framingham risk factors of tobacco use, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and left ventricular hypertrophy, HTN plays an independent role in augmenting IHD risk, as well as a multiplicative role with respect to adverse outcomes when HTN is present concurrently with the other major IHD risk factors listed above...
December 2015: Current Cardiology Reports
Neil F Goodman, Rhoda H Cobin, Walter Futterweit, Jennifer S Glueck, Richard S Legro, Enrico Carmina
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is recognized as the most common endocrine disorder of reproductive-aged women around the world. This document, produced by the collaboration of the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) and the Androgen Excess and PCOS Society (AES) aims to highlight the most important clinical issues confronting physicians and their patients with PCOS. It is a summary of current best practices in 2015. PCOS has been defined using various criteria, including menstrual irregularity, hyperandrogenism, and polycystic ovary morphology (PCOM)...
November 2015: Endocrine Practice
L Tuchscherr, C A Kreis, V Hoerr, L Flint, M Hachmeister, J Geraci, S Bremer-Streck, M Kiehntopf, E Medina, M Kribus, M Raschke, M Pletz, G Peters, B Löffler
OBJECTIVES: Staphylococcus aureus osteomyelitis often develops to chronicity despite antimicrobial treatments that have been found to be susceptible in in vitro tests. The complex infection strategies of S. aureus, including host cell invasion and intracellular persistence via the formation of dynamic small colony variant (SCV) phenotypes, could be responsible for therapy-refractory infection courses. METHODS: To analyse the efficacy of antibiotics in the acute and chronic stage of bone infections, we established long-term in vitro and in vivo osteomyelitis models...
February 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
John T O'Brien, Alan Thomas
Vascular dementia is one of the most common causes of dementia after Alzheimer's disease, causing around 15% of cases. However, unlike Alzheimer's disease, there are no licensed treatments for vascular dementia. Progress in the specialty has been difficult because of uncertainties over disease classification and diagnostic criteria, controversy over the exact nature of the relation between cerebrovascular pathology and cognitive impairment, and the paucity of identifiable tractable treatment targets. Although there is an established relation between vascular and degenerative Alzheimer's pathology, the mechanistic link between the two has not yet been identified...
October 24, 2015: Lancet
Amol Deshpande, Angela Mailis-Gagnon, Nivan Zoheiry, Shehnaz Fatima Lakha
OBJECTIVE: To determine if medical marijuana provides pain relief for patients with chronic noncancer pain (CNCP) and to determine the therapeutic dose, adverse effects, and specific indications. DATA SOURCES: In April 2014, MEDLINE and EMBASE searches were conducted using the terms chronic noncancer pain, smoked marijuana or cannabinoids, placebo and pain relief, or side effects or adverse events. STUDY SELECTION: An article was selected for inclusion if it evaluated the effect of smoked or vaporized cannabinoids (nonsynthetic) for CNCP; it was designed as a controlled study involving a comparison group, either concurrently or historically; and it was published in English in a peer-review journal...
August 2015: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
Steven Karceski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 24, 2015: Neurology
C Robert Horsburgh, Clifton E Barry, Christoph Lange
Tuberculosis, a scourge since prehistoric times, affects more than 9 million people and causes the death of 1.5 million people each year. Effective treatment has been available for 60 years, but such treatment takes at least 6 months, and resistance to the drugs, which is increasing throughout the..
November 26, 2015: New England Journal of Medicine
B K Pedersen, B Saltin
This review provides the reader with the up-to-date evidence-based basis for prescribing exercise as medicine in the treatment of 26 different diseases: psychiatric diseases (depression, anxiety, stress, schizophrenia); neurological diseases (dementia, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis); metabolic diseases (obesity, hyperlipidemia, metabolic syndrome, polycystic ovarian syndrome, type 2 diabetes, type 1 diabetes); cardiovascular diseases (hypertension, coronary heart disease, heart failure, cerebral apoplexy, and claudication intermittent); pulmonary diseases (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, cystic fibrosis); musculo-skeletal disorders (osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, back pain, rheumatoid arthritis); and cancer...
December 2015: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Luisa Soares-Miranda, David S Siscovick, Bruce M Psaty, W T Longstreth, Dariush Mozaffarian
BACKGROUND: Although guidelines suggest that older adults engage in regular physical activity (PA) to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD), surprisingly few studies have evaluated this relationship, especially in those >75 years. In addition, with advancing age the ability to perform some types of PA might decrease, making light-moderate exercise such as walking especially important to meet recommendations. METHODS AND RESULTS: Prospective cohort analysis among 4207 US men and women of a mean age of 73 years (standard deviation=6) who were free of CVD at baseline in the Cardiovascular Health Study were followed from 1989 to 1999...
January 12, 2016: Circulation
Ravina Kullar, George Sakoulas, Stan Deresinski, Sebastiaan J van Hal
MRSA bacteraemia (MRSAB), including infective endocarditis, carries a high mortality rate, with up to 50% of patients failing initial therapy with vancomycin and requiring salvage therapy. Persistent MRSAB can be difficult to successfully eliminate, especially when source control is not possible due to an irremovable focus or the bacteraemia still persists despite surgical intervention. Although vancomycin and daptomycin are the only two antibiotics approved by the US FDA for the treatment of patients with MRSAB as monotherapy, the employment of novel strategies is required to effectively treat patients with persistent MRSAB and these may frequently involve combination drug therapy...
March 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Emily L Heil, Ashleigh V Lowery, Kerri A Thom, David P Nicolau
In the management of multidrug-resistant infections in critically ill patients with multiorgan dysfunction, consideration must be given to the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of an antimicrobial agent to optimize dosing. We describe a 25-year-old woman who was undergoing thrice-weekly hemodialysis and developed multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteremia secondary to infected left and right ventricular assist devices. After multiple courses of antibiotics, her blood cultures revealed that the infecting organism was becoming progressively more resistant to antibiotic options...
January 2015: Pharmacotherapy
Igor N Sergeev
The vitamin D hormone 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3)-induced cellular Ca(2+) signals regulate apoptosis in adipocytes and insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells, and low vitamin D status is considered a risk factor for obesity and type 2 diabetes. The anti-obesity effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 in mature adipocytes are determined by its activity to generate, via multiple Ca(2+) signaling pathways, a sustained increase in intracellular Ca(2+) followed by activation of the Ca(2+)-dependent initiators and effectors of apoptosis...
November 23, 2015: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Xinfang Xie, Emily Atkins, Jicheng Lv, Alexander Bennett, Bruce Neal, Toshiharu Ninomiya, Mark Woodward, Stephen MacMahon, Fiona Turnbull, Graham S Hillis, John Chalmers, Jonathan Mant, Abdul Salam, Kazem Rahimi, Vlado Perkovic, Anthony Rodgers
BACKGROUND: Recent hypertension guidelines have reversed previous recommendations for lower blood pressure targets in high-risk patients, such as those with cardiovascular disease, renal disease, or diabetes. This change represents uncertainty about whether more intensive blood pressure-lowering strategies are associated with greater reductions in risk of major cardiovascular and renal events. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of intensive blood pressure-lowering strategies. METHODS: For this updated systematic review and meta-analysis, we systematically searched MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Library for trials published between Jan 1, 1950, and Nov 3, 2015...
January 30, 2016: Lancet
Asla Pitkänen, Reina Roivainen, Katarzyna Lukasiuk
For about 30% of patients with epilepsy the cause is unknown. Even in patients with a known risk factor for epilepsy, such as ischaemic stroke, only a subpopulation of patients develops epilepsy. Factors that contribute to the risk for epileptogenesis in a given individual generally remain unknown. Studies in the past decade on epilepsy in patients with ischaemic stroke suggest that, in addition to the primary ischaemic injury, existing difficult-to-detect microscale changes in blood vessels and white matter present as epileptogenic pathologies...
November 13, 2015: Lancet Neurology
Steven-Huy Han, Tram T Tran
Despite the introduction of hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination programs, chronic hepatitis B (CHB) remains an important disease burden worldwide and in the United States. A number of clinical practice guidelines are available to assist in the clinical management of CHB by providing recommendations regarding screening and diagnosis, treatment indications, and the choice, duration, and monitoring of treatment. Adherence to these guidelines has proven beneficial in terms of better treatment compliance, improved clinical outcomes, and lower likelihoods of emergency admission...
November 2015: Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine: JABFM
2015-12-04 13:28:34
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