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Exosomes and cancer

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12 papers 0 to 25 followers
Nobuyoshi Kosaka
One of the recent outstanding developments in cancer biology is the emergence of extracellular vesicles (EVs). EVs, which are small membrane vesicles that contain proteins, mRNAs, long non-coding RNAs, and microRNAs (miRNAs), are secreted by a variety of cells and have been revealed to play an important role in intercellular communications. These molecules function in the recipient cells; this has brought new insight into cell-cell communication. Recent reports have shown that EVs contribute to cancer cell development, including tumor initiation, angiogenesis, immune surveillance, drug resistance, invasion, metastasis, maintenance of cancer stem cells, and EMT phenotype...
February 4, 2016: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Lingeng Lu, Harvey A Risch
Progress in the treatment of patients with pancreatic cancer at earlier stages has motivated research in identifying novel noninvasive or minimally invasive biomarkers for early detection. Exosomes, which contain bioactive molecules (such as proteins, RNAs and lipids), are membrane-structured nanovesicles that are secreted from living cells and are found in human body fluids. As functional mediators, exosomes play key roles in cell-cell communications, regulating diverse biological processes. Here we aim to examine recent findings in the potential diagnostic value of serum exosomes in pancreatic cancer...
2016: Future Oncology
Yu Fujita, Yusuke Yoshioka, Takahiro Ochiya
Extracellular vesicles (EV), known as exosomes and microvesicles, serve as versatile intercellular communication vehicles. Increasing evidence has shown that cancer cell-derived EV carry pathogenic components, such as proteins, messenger RNA (mRNA), microRNA (miRNA), DNA, lipids and transcriptional factors, that can mediate paracrine signaling in the tumor microenvironment. These data suggest that EV transfer of cancer pathogenic components enable long-distance crosstalk between cancer cells and distant organs, resulting in the promotion of the initial steps for pre-metastatic niche formation...
April 2016: Cancer Science
Wiktoria M Suchorska, Michal S Lach
Tumor cells have developed various mechanisms in defense against applied treatment, which prevent their total elimination from an organism. One of the underestimated mechanisms of defense is secretion of highly specialized double-membrane structures called exosomes. They play a crucial role in the control of the local microenvironment and intracellular communication. It has been shown that the exosomes can be carriers of various proteins, lipids, miRNAs and mRNAs. There are extensive data concerning the influence and participation by exosomes in metastasis and cancer progression...
March 2016: Oncology Reports
Aman Sharma, Zamila Khatun, Anjali Shiras
Nanosized (30-150 nm) extracellular vesicles 'exosomes' are secreted by cells for intercellular communication during normal and pathological conditions. Exosomes carry biomacromolecules from cell-of-origin and, therefore, represent molecular bioprint of the cell. Tumor-derived exosomes or TDEx modulate tumor microenvironment by transfer of macromolecules locally as well as at distant metastatic sites. Due to their biological stability, TDEx are rich source of biomarkers in cancer patients. TDEx focused cancer diagnosis allows liquid biopsy-based tumor typing and may facilitate therapy response monitoring by developing novel exosomes diagnostics...
February 2016: Nanomedicine
Farah Fatima, Muhammad Nawaz
Stem cells are known to maintain stemness at least in part through secreted factors that promote stem-like phenotypes in resident cells. Accumulating evidence has clarified that stem cells release nano-vesicles, known as exosomes, which may serve as mediators of cell-to-cell communication and may potentially transmit stem cell phenotypes to recipient cells, facilitating stem cell maintenance, differentiation, self-renewal, and repair. It has become apparent that stem cell-derived exosomes mediate interactions among stromal elements, promote genetic instability in recipient cells, and induce malignant transformation...
September 14, 2015: Chinese Journal of Cancer
Jin Feng, Chao Huang, Jonathan D Wren, Dao-Wen Wang, Jizhou Yan, Jiexin Zhang, Yujie Sun, Xiao Han, Xin A Zhang
Tetraspanin CD82 suppresses the progression and metastasis of a wide range of solid malignant tumors. However, its roles in tumorigenesis and hematopoietic malignancy remain unclear. Ubiquitously expressed CD82 restrains cell migration and cell invasion by modulating both cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesiveness and confining outside-in pro-motility signaling. This restraint at least contributes to, if not determines, the metastasis-suppressive activity and, also likely, the physiological functions of CD82. As a modulator of cell membrane heterogeneity, CD82 alters microdomains, trafficking, and topography of the membrane by changing the membrane molecular landscape...
December 2015: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
Y Yang, X Yang, Y Yang, H Zhu, X Chen, H Zhang, F Wang, Q Qin, H Cheng, X Sun
As a significant tumor feature, hypoxia can trigger cancer adaptive processes, induce malignant phenotype development, and promote drug resistance. Previous studies demonstrated that exosomes are critical during these procedures. Exosomes are small vesicles formed in vesicular bodies in the endosomal network. These small vesicles are mainly involved in the transport of bioactive molecules between cells. Exosomes are also involved in the mediation of some cellular communications depending on derived donor cells; thus, recipient cells undergo phenotypic changes...
2015: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Xu Zhang, Xiao Yuan, Hui Shi, Lijun Wu, Hui Qian, Wenrong Xu
Exosomes have emerged as a novel mode of intercellular communication. Exosomes can shuttle bioactive molecules including proteins, DNA, mRNA, as well as non-coding RNAs from one cell to another, leading to the exchange of genetic information and reprogramming of the recipient cells. Increasing evidence suggests that tumor cells release excessive amount of exosomes, which may influence tumor initiation, growth, progression, metastasis, and drug resistance. In addition, exosomes transfer message from tumor cells to immune cells and stromal cells, contributing to the escape from immune surveillance and the formation of tumor niche...
2015: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
Theresa L Whiteside
Tumor-derived exosomes (TEX) are emerging as a new type of cancer biomarker. TEX are membrane-bound, virus-size vesicles of endocytic origin present in all body fluids of cancer patients. Based on the expanding albeit incomplete knowledge of their biogenesis, secretion by tumor cells and cancer cell-specific molecular and genetic contents, TEX are viewed as promising, clinically-relevant surrogates of cancer progression and response to therapy. Preliminary proteomic, genetic and functional profiling of tumor cell-derived or cancer plasma-derived exosomes confirms their unique characteristics...
2015: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
Dan-dan Yu, Ying Wu, Hong-yu Shen, Meng-meng Lv, Wei-xian Chen, Xiao-hui Zhang, Shan-liang Zhong, Jin-hai Tang, Jian-hua Zhao
Transport through the cell membrane can be divided into active, passive and vesicular types (exosomes). Exosomes are nano-sized vesicles released by a variety of cells. Emerging evidence shows that exosomes play a critical role in cancers. Exosomes mediate communication between stroma and cancer cells through the transfer of nucleic acid and proteins. It is demonstrated that the contents and the quantity of exosomes will change after occurrence of cancers. Over the last decade, growing attention has been paid to the role of exosomes in the development of breast cancer, the most life-threatening cancer in women...
August 2015: Cancer Science
Dinari A Harris, Sajni H Patel, Marjan Gucek, An Hendrix, Wendy Westbroek, Justin W Taraska
For metastasis to occur cells must communicate with to their local environment to initiate growth and invasion. Exosomes have emerged as an important mediator of cell-to-cell signalling through the transfer of molecules such as mRNAs, microRNAs, and proteins between cells. Exosomes have been proposed to act as regulators of cancer progression. Here, we study the effect of exosomes on cell migration, an important step in metastasis. We performed cell migration assays, endocytosis assays, and exosome proteomic profiling on exosomes released from three breast cancer cell lines that model progressive stages of metastasis...
2015: PloS One
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