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Dementia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863451/cerebral-white-matter-abnormalities-in-patients-with-charcot-marie-tooth-disease
#1
Mina Lee, Chang-Hyun Park, Hwa-Kyung Chung, Hyeon Jin Kim, Yunseo Choi, Jeong Hyun Yoo, Young Chul Yoon, Young Bin Hong, Ki Wha Chung, Byung-Ok Choi, Hyang Woon Lee
Here, we report the structural evidence of cerebral white matter abnormalities in Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) patients and the relationship between these abnormalities and clinical disability. Brain diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was performed in CMT patients with demyelinating (CMT1A/CMT1E), axonal (CMT2A/CMT2E), or intermediate (CMTX1/DI-CMT) peripheral neuropathy. Although all patients had normal brain MRI, all genetic subgroups except CMT1A had abnormal DTI findings indicative of significant cerebral white matter abnormalities: decreased fractional anisotropy and axial diffusivity, and increased radial diffusivity...
November 18, 2016: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920291/teaching-neuroimages-nonfluent-variant-primary-progressive-aphasia-a-distinctive-clinico-anatomical-syndrome
#2
Charles R Marshall, Christopher J D Hardy, Martin N Rossor, Jason D Warren
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 6, 2016: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056460/cerebrospinal-fluid-biomarker-based-diagnosis-of-sporadic-creutzfeldt-jakob-disease-a-validation-study-for-previously-established-cutoffs
#3
Franc Llorens, André Karch, Ewa Golanska, Matthias Schmitz, Peter Lange, Beata Sikorska, Pawel P Liberski, Inga Zerr
BACKGROUND: Several biomarkers have been proposed to discriminate sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) from other dementias and control cases. However, their clinical accuracy depends on the PRNP codon 129 genotype, leaving it unclear how well established markers behave in untested conditions. METHODS: We analyzed 14-3-3, tau, p-tau levels, and the p-tau/tau ratio in a population sample collected from Polish hospitals including nondementia, dementia, and definite sCJD cases and validated their parameters according to previously established cutoffs...
January 6, 2017: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693701/category-and-design-fluency-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-performance-strategy-use-and-neural-correlates
#4
Jessica Peter, Jannis Kaiser, Verena Landerer, Lena Köstering, Christoph P Kaller, Bernhard Heimbach, Michael Hüll, Tobias Bormann, Stefan Klöppel
The exploration and retrieval of words during category fluency involves different strategies to improve or maintain performance. Deficits in that task, which are common in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), mirror either impaired semantic memory or dysfunctional executive control mechanisms. Relating category fluency to tasks that place greater demands on either semantic knowledge or executive functions might help to determine the underlying cognitive process. The aims of this study were to compare performance and strategy use of 20 patients with aMCI to 30 healthy elderly controls (HC) and to identify the dominant component (either executive or semantic) for better task performance in category fluency...
December 2016: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830812/ageing-neurodegeneration-and-brain-rejuvenation
#5
REVIEW
Tony Wyss-Coray
Although systemic diseases take the biggest toll on human health and well-being, increasingly, a failing brain is the arbiter of a death preceded by a gradual loss of the essence of being. Ageing, which is fundamental to neurodegeneration and dementia, affects every organ in the body and seems to be encoded partly in a blood-based signature. Indeed, factors in the circulation have been shown to modulate ageing and to rejuvenate numerous organs, including the brain. The discovery of such factors, the identification of their origins and a deeper understanding of their functions is ushering in a new era in ageing and dementia research...
10, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695623/anticholinergic-medication-use-and-dementia-latest-evidence-and-clinical-implications
#6
REVIEW
Shelly L Gray, Joseph T Hanlon
Use of medications with anticholinergic activity is widespread in older adults. Several studies have highlighted that anticholinergic use may be associated with an increased risk of dementia. The objective of this narrative review is to describe and evaluate studies of anticholinergic medication use and dementia and provide practical suggestions for avoiding use of these medications in older adults. A comprehensive review of the literature, citations from recent reviews and the author's personal files was conducted...
October 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830781/mammalian-prions-and-their-wider-relevance-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#7
REVIEW
John Collinge
Prions are notorious protein-only infectious agents that cause invariably fatal brain diseases following silent incubation periods that can span a lifetime. These diseases can arise spontaneously, through infection or be inherited. Remarkably, prions are composed of self-propagating assemblies of a misfolded cellular protein that encode information, generate neurotoxicity and evolve and adapt in vivo. Although parallels have been drawn with Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative conditions involving the deposition of assemblies of misfolded proteins in the brain, insights are now being provided into the usefulness and limitations of prion analogies and their aetiological and therapeutic relevance...
10, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27672165/the-terrorist-inside-my-husband-s-brain
#8
EDITORIAL
Susan Schneider Williams
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 27, 2016: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025406/teaching-video-neuroimages-purposeless-groaning-in-progressive-supranuclear-palsy
#9
Soon Chai Low, Ai Huey Tan, Shen-Yang Lim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 3, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940456/perioperative-cognitive-protection
#10
C Brown, S Deiner
There is significant evidence that many older surgical patients experience at least a transient decrease in cognitive function. Although there is still equipoise regarding the degree, duration, and mechanism of cognitive dysfunction, there is a concurrent need to provide best-practice clinical evidence. The two major cognitive disorders seen after surgery are postoperative delirium and postoperative cognitive dysfunction. Delirium is a public health problem; millions of dollars are spent annually on delirium-related medical resource use and prolonged hospital stays...
December 2016: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797542/the-effectiveness-and-unique-contribution-of-neuropsychological-tests-and-the-%C3%AE-latent-phenotype-in-the-differential-diagnosis-of-dementia-in-the-uniform-data-set
#11
Samantha E John, Ashita S Gurnani, Cara Bussell, Jessica L Saurman, Jason W Griffin, Brandon E Gavett
OBJECTIVE: Two main approaches to the interpretation of cognitive test performance have been utilized for the characterization of disease: evaluating shared variance across tests, as with measures of severity, and evaluating the unique variance across tests, as with pattern and error analysis. Both methods provide necessary information, but the unique contributions of each are rarely considered. This study compares the 2 approaches on their ability to differentially diagnose with accuracy, while controlling for the influence of other relevant demographic and risk variables...
November 2016: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27530818/cigarette-smoking-impairs-nitric-oxide-mediated-cerebral-blood-flow-increase-implications-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#12
REVIEW
Noboru Toda, Tomio Okamura
Cerebral blood flow is mainly regulated by nitrergic (parasympathetic, postganglionic) nerves and nitric oxide (NO) liberated from endothelial cells in response to shear stress and stretch of vasculature, whereas sympathetic vasoconstrictor control is quite weak. On the other hand, peripheral vascular resistance and blood flow are mainly controlled by adrenergic vasoconstrictor nerves; endothelium-derived NO and nitrergic nerves play some roles as vasodilator factors. Cigarette smoking impairs NO synthesis in cerebral vascular endothelial cells and nitrergic nerves leading to interference with cerebral blood flow and glucose metabolism in the brain...
August 2016: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27537084/pretreatment-cognitive-profile-likely-to-benefit-from-donepezil-treatment-in-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-pooled-analyses-of-two-randomized-controlled-trials
#13
Etsuro Mori, Manabu Ikeda, Masaki Nakagawa, Hideaki Miyagishi, Kenji Kosaka
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Based on Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) subitem scores, in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), we aimed to delineate features of cognitive impairment, identify cognitive domains improved by donepezil, and define a pretreatment cognitive profile likely to benefit from donepezil. METHODS: Pooled data were used from two randomized controlled trials of donepezil in DLB (n = 235). Baseline MMSE subitem scores were calculated for all patients. Mean changes in subitem scores at week 12 were compared between the placebo and the active group...
2016: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27352074/neuropharmacologic-approaches-to-restore-the-brain-s-microenvironment
#14
REVIEW
Weizhe Li, Hsin-I Tong, Santhi Gorantla, Larisa Y Poluektova, Howard E Gendelman, Yuanan Lu
Maintaining the central nervous system microenvironment after injury, infection, inflammatory and degenerative diseases is contingent upon adequate control of glial homeostatic functions. Disease is caused by microbial, environmental and endogenous factors that compromise ongoing nervous system functions. The final result is neuronal injury, dropout and nerve connection loss, and these underlie the pathobiology of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, stroke, and bacterial, parasitic and viral infections...
September 2016: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27513205/toxoplasma-gondii-infection-potentiates-cognitive-impairments-of-alzheimer-s-disease-in-the-balb-c-mice
#15
Hossein Mahmoudvand, Vahid Sheibani, Khadijeh Esmaeelpour, Seyed Reza Mirbadie, Saeideh Shojaee, Hamid Daneshvar, Ali Reza Keyhani, Naser Ziaali
Here, we hypothesized that in chronic Toxoplasma gondii infection communication among immune cells promotes neuroinflammation through cytokine networks and potentiate cognitive impairments in BALB/c mice with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The animal model of Toxoplasma infection was established by the intraperitoneal inoculation of 20-25 tissue cysts from Tehran strain of T. gondii. We injected amyloid-beta 1-42 peptide (Aβ1-42, 1 and 2 µL) into the hippocampus of BALB/c mice to establish an animal model of AD...
August 11, 2016: Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27497477/breakdown-of-the-cerebrovasculature-and-blood-brain-barrier-a-mechanistic-link-between-diabetes-mellitus-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#16
Eric L Goldwaser, Nimish K Acharya, Abhirup Sarkar, George Godsey, Robert G Nagele
Alzheimer's disease (AD) and diabetes mellitus (DM) are among the most pervasive and devastating disorders that afflict people throughout the world. Although typically associated with older demographics, recent epidemiologic studies have reported parallel trends in decreasing age of onset and increasing incidence of these conditions. Promising research continues to implicate the cerebrovasculature and blood-brain barrier (BBB) as playing key roles in AD pathoetiology. Similarly, complications accompanying DM, such as diabetic nephropathy/retinopathy, cardiovascular disease, and stroke, have been rooted in vascular compromise...
September 6, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27562529/obesity-associated-with-increased-brain-age-from-midlife
#17
Lisa Ronan, Aaron F Alexander-Bloch, Konrad Wagstyl, Sadaf Farooqi, Carol Brayne, Lorraine K Tyler, Paul C Fletcher
Common mechanisms in aging and obesity are hypothesized to increase susceptibility to neurodegeneration, however, direct evidence in support of this hypothesis is lacking. We therefore performed a cross-sectional analysis of magnetic resonance image-based brain structure on a population-based cohort of healthy adults. Study participants were originally part of the Cambridge Centre for Ageing and Neuroscience (Cam-CAN) and included 527 individuals aged 20-87 years. Cortical reconstruction techniques were used to generate measures of whole-brain cerebral white-matter volume, cortical thickness, and surface area...
November 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27415826/sleep-apnea-sleep-duration-and-brain-mri-markers-of-cerebral-vascular-disease-and-alzheimer-s-disease-the-atherosclerosis-risk-in-communities-study-aric
#18
Pamela L Lutsey, Faye L Norby, Rebecca F Gottesman, Thomas Mosley, Richard F MacLehose, Naresh M Punjabi, Eyal Shahar, Clifford R Jack, Alvaro Alonso
BACKGROUND: A growing body of literature has suggested that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and habitual short sleep duration are linked to poor cognitive function. Neuroimaging studies may provide insight into this relation. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypotheses that OSA and habitual short sleep duration, measured at ages 54-73 years, would be associated with adverse brain morphology at ages 67-89 years. METHODS: Included in this analysis are 312 ARIC study participants who underwent in-home overnight polysomnography in 1996-1998 and brain MRI scans about 15 years later (2012-2013)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27540165/how-neuroinflammation-contributes-to-neurodegeneration
#19
REVIEW
Richard M Ransohoff
Neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and frontotemporal lobar dementia are among the most pressing problems of developed societies with aging populations. Neurons carry out essential functions such as signal transmission and network integration in the central nervous system and are the main targets of neurodegenerative disease. In this Review, I address how the neuron's environment also contributes to neurodegeneration. Maintaining an optimal milieu for neuronal function rests with supportive cells termed glia and the blood-brain barrier...
August 19, 2016: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27547756/therapies-for-prevention-and-treatment-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#20
REVIEW
J Mendiola-Precoma, L C Berumen, K Padilla, G Garcia-Alcocer
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia associated with a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, with a prevalence of 44 million people throughout the world in 2015, and this figure is estimated to double by 2050. This disease is characterized by blood-brain barrier disruption, oxidative stress, mitochondrial impairment, neuroinflammation, and hypometabolism; it is related to amyloid-β peptide accumulation and tau hyperphosphorylation as well as a decrease in acetylcholine levels and a reduction of cerebral blood flow...
2016: BioMed Research International
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