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Dementia

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202 papers 100 to 500 followers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095718/the-vascular-facet-of-late-onset-alzheimer-s-disease-an-essential-factor-in-a-complex-multifactorial-disorder
#1
Yasser Iturria-Medina, Vladimir Hachinski, Alan C Evans
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article provides a brief overview of relevant cerebrovascular mechanisms implicated in late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) development, and highlights the main reasons for incorporating novel cerebrovascular biomarkers to the models defining a multifactorial LOAD pathogenesis. We also discuss how novel brain mapping techniques and multifactorial data-driven models are having a critical role on understanding LOAD and may be particularly useful for identifying effective therapeutic agents for this disorder...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302258/mast-cell-activation-in-brain-injury-stress-and-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-and-alzheimer-s-disease-pathogenesis
#2
REVIEW
Duraisamy Kempuraj, Govindhasamy P Selvakumar, Ramasamy Thangavel, Mohammad E Ahmed, Smita Zaheer, Sudhanshu P Raikwar, Shankar S Iyer, Sachin M Bhagavan, Swathi Beladakere-Ramaswamy, Asgar Zaheer
Mast cells are localized throughout the body and mediate allergic, immune, and inflammatory reactions. They are heterogeneous, tissue-resident, long-lived, and granulated cells. Mast cells increase their numbers in specific site in the body by proliferation, increased recruitment, increased survival, and increased rate of maturation from its progenitors. Mast cells are implicated in brain injuries, neuropsychiatric disorders, stress, neuroinflammation, and neurodegeneration. Brain mast cells are the first responders before microglia in the brain injuries since mast cells can release prestored mediators...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298649/an-inflammation-related-nutrient-pattern-is-associated-with-both-brain-and-cognitive-measures-in-a-multiethnic-elderly-population
#3
Yian Gu, Jennifer J Manly, Richard P Mayeux, Adam M Brickman
BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence suggest that dietary factors are associated with Alzheimer's disease, and brain and cognitive health. It is unclear whether inflammation explains this association. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether an inflammation-related nutrient pattern (INP) was associated with neuroimaging and cognitive measures of brain health. METHOD: The current cross-sectional study included 330 non-demented elderly (mean age 79 years at MRI scan) participants in a multi-ethnic, community-based cohort study who had information on nutritional intakes (estimated from food frequency questionnaire), circulating C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 (measured by ELISA), MRI scans, and cognition...
January 1, 2018: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616995/the-hippocampus-and-the-regulation-of-human-food-intake
#4
Richard J Stevenson, Heather M Francis
Human and animal data suggest that the hippocampus plays certain roles in regulating food intake. However, its actual role may be far broader than currently envisaged, a claim suggested by the centrality of the hippocampus to so many aspects of human/animal cognition. Understanding these ingestion-related functions is especially significant. This is because some degree of hippocampal impairment may be quite common, resulting for example from a Western-style diet, insomnia, diabetes, and depression-among many other causes...
October 2017: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220873/effect-of-sleep-on-overnight-csf-amyloid-%C3%AE-kinetics
#5
Brendan P Lucey, Terry J Hicks, Jennifer S McLeland, Cristina D Toedebusch, Jill Boyd, Donald L Elbert, Bruce W Patterson, Jack Baty, John C Morris, Vitaliy Ovod, Kwasi G Mawuenyega, Randall J Bateman
Sleep disturbances are associated with future risk of Alzheimer's disease. Disrupted sleep increases soluble amyloid-β, suggesting a mechanism for sleep disturbances to increase Alzheimer's disease risk. We tested this response in humans using indwelling lumbar catheters to serially sample cerebrospinal fluid while participants were sleep-deprived, treated with sodium oxybate, or allowed to sleep normally. All participants were infused with 13 C6 -leucine to measure amyloid-β kinetics. We found that sleep deprivation increased overnight amyloid-β-38, amyloid-β-40, and amyloid-β-42 levels by 25-30% via increased overnight amyloid-β production relative to sleeping controls...
December 8, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706481/adverse-effects-of-the-apolipoprotein-e-%C3%AE%C2%B54-allele-on-episodic-memory-task-switching-and-gray-matter-volume-in-healthy-young-adults
#6
Jianfei Nao, Hongzan Sun, Qiushi Wang, Shuang Ma, Shuo Zhang, Xiaoyu Dong, Ying Ma, Xiaoming Wang, Dongming Zheng
Many studies have shown that healthy elderly subjects and patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) who carry the apolipoprotein E (ApoE) ε4 allele have worse cognitive function and more severe brain atrophy than non-carriers. However, it remains unclear whether this ApoE polymorphism leads to changes of cognition and brain morphology in healthy young adults. In this study, we used an established model to measure verbal episodic memory and core executive function (EF) components (response inhibition, working memory and task switching) in 32 ApoE ε4 carriers and 40 non-carriers between 20 years and 40 years of age...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057628/apraxia-review-and-update
#7
REVIEW
Jung E Park
Praxis, the ability to perform skilled or learned movements is essential for daily living. Inability to perform such praxis movements is defined as apraxia. Apraxia can be further classified into subtypes such as ideomotor, ideational and limb-kinetic apraxia. Relevant brain regions have been found to include the motor, premotor, temporal and parietal cortices. Apraxia is found in a variety of highly prevalent neurological disorders including dementia, stroke and Parkinsonism. Furthermore, apraxia has been shown to negatively affect quality of life...
October 2017: Journal of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061693/alzheimer-s-disease-a-matter-of-blood-brain-barrier-dysfunction
#8
REVIEW
Axel Montagne, Zhen Zhao, Berislav V Zlokovic
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) keeps neurotoxic plasma-derived components, cells, and pathogens out of the brain. An early BBB breakdown and/or dysfunction have been shown in Alzheimer's disease (AD) before dementia, neurodegeneration and/or brain atrophy occur. However, the role of BBB breakdown in neurodegenerative disorders is still not fully understood. Here, we examine BBB breakdown in animal models frequently used to study the pathophysiology of AD, including transgenic mice expressing human amyloid-β precursor protein, presenilin 1, and tau mutations, and apolipoprotein E, the strongest genetic risk factor for AD...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128320/exercise-decreases-bace-and-app-levels-in-the-hippocampus-of-a-rat-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#9
Karim A Alkadhi, An T Dao
We investigated the effect of treadmill exercise training on the levels of Alzheimer's disease (AD)-related protein molecules in the DG and CA1 areas of a rat model of AD, i.c.v. infusion of Aβ1-42 peptide, 2weeks (250pmol/day). Aβ infusion markedly increased protein levels of amyloid precursor protein (APP), the secretase beta-site APP cleaving enzyme-1 (BACE-1) and Aβ in the CA1 and DG areas. The results also revealed that 4weeks of treadmill exercise prevented the increase in the levels of APP, BACE-1 and Aβ proteins in both hippocampal areas...
January 2018: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101940/rem-sleep-behavior-disorder-diagnosis-clinical-implications-and-future-directions
#10
REVIEW
Erik K St Louis, Bradley F Boeve
Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is diagnosed by a clinical history of dream enactment accompanied by polysomnographic rapid eye movement sleep atonia loss (rapid eye movement sleep without atonia). Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder is strongly associated with neurodegenerative disease, especially synucleinopathies such as Parkinson disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, and multiple system atrophy. A history of RBD may begin several years to decades before onset of any clear daytime symptoms of motor, cognitive, or autonomic impairments, suggesting that RBD is the presenting manifestation of a neurodegenerative process...
November 2017: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179578/impact-of-ssri-therapy-on-risk-of-conversion-from-mild-cognitive-impairment-to-alzheimer-s-dementia-in-individuals-with-previous-depression
#11
Claudia Bartels, Michael Wagner, Steffen Wolfsgruber, Hannelore Ehrenreich, Anja Schneider
OBJECTIVE: Depression is associated with an increased risk of Alzheimer's disease. Research has shown that the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) citalopram decreases amyloid-β generation and plaque load. The authors evaluated the impact of SSRI treatment on CSF biomarkers and progression from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer's dementia. METHOD: Data sets from 755 currently nondepressed participants from the longitudinal Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative were evaluated by Kaplan-Meier analysis and analyses of variance and covariance with ApoE4 status and age as covariates...
November 28, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067348/lower-brain-and-blood-nutrient-status-in-alzheimer-s-disease-results-from-meta-analyses
#12
REVIEW
Martijn C de Wilde, Bruno Vellas, Elodie Girault, Aysun Cetinyurek Yavuz, John W Sijben
INTRODUCTION: Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients are at risk of nutritional insufficiencies because of physiological and psychological factors. Recently, we showed the results of the meta-analyses indicating lower plasma levels of vitamins A, B12, C, E, and folate in AD patients compared with cognitively intact elderly controls (controls). Now, additional and more extensive literature searches were performed selecting studies which compare blood and brain/cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of vitamins, minerals, trace elements, micronutrients, and fatty acids in AD patients versus controls...
September 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638987/leukodystrophies-a-proposed-classification-system-based-on-pathological-changes-and-pathogenetic-mechanisms
#13
REVIEW
Marjo S van der Knaap, Marianna Bugiani
Leukodystrophies are genetically determined disorders characterized by the selective involvement of the central nervous system white matter. Onset may be at any age, from prenatal life to senescence. Many leukodystrophies are degenerative in nature, but some only impair white matter function. The clinical course is mostly progressive, but may also be static or even improving with time. Progressive leukodystrophies are often fatal, and no curative treatment is known. The last decade has witnessed a tremendous increase in the number of defined leukodystrophies also owing to a diagnostic approach combining magnetic resonance imaging pattern recognition and next generation sequencing...
June 21, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26639982/orthostatic-hypotension-cerebral-hypoperfusion-and-visuospatial-deficits-in-lewy-body-disorders
#14
Andrew D Robertson, Michelle A Messner, Zahra Shirzadi, Galit Kleiner-Fisman, Joyce Lee, Julia Hopyan, Anthony E Lang, Sandra E Black, Bradley J MacIntosh, Mario Masellis
BACKGROUND: Orthostatic hypotension and cognitive impairment are two non-motor attributes of Lewy body spectrum disorders that impact independence. This proof-of-concept study examined cerebral blood flow (perfusion) as a mediator of orthostatic hypotension and cognition. METHODS: In fifteen patients with Lewy body disorders, we estimated regional perfusion using pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling MRI, and quantified orthostatic hypotension from the change in systolic blood pressure between supine and standing positions...
January 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25977316/new-insights-into-orthostatic-hypotension-in-multiple-system-atrophy-a-european-multicentre-cohort-study
#15
MULTICENTER STUDY
A Pavy-Le Traon, A Piedvache, S Perez-Lloret, G Calandra-Buonaura, V Cochen-De Cock, C Colosimo, P Cortelli, R Debs, S Duerr, A Fanciulli, A Foubert-Samier, A Gerdelat, T Gurevich, F Krismer, W Poewe, F Tison, C Tranchant, G Wenning, O Rascol, W G Meissner
OBJECTIVES: Orthostatic hypotension (OH) is a key feature of multiple system atrophy (MSA), a fatal progressive neurodegenerative disorder associated with autonomic failure, parkinsonism and ataxia. This study aims (1) to determine the clinical spectrum of OH in a large European cohort of patients with MSA and (2) to investigate whether a prolonged postural challenge increases the sensitivity to detect OH in MSA. METHODS: Assessment of OH during a 10 min orthostatic test in 349 patients with MSA from seven centres of the European MSA-Study Group (age: 63...
May 2016: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27727284/orthostatic-hypotension-and-the-long-term-risk-of-dementia-a-population-based-study
#16
Frank J Wolters, Francesco U S Mattace-Raso, Peter J Koudstaal, Albert Hofman, M Arfan Ikram
BACKGROUND: Orthostatic hypotension (OH) is a common cause of transient cerebral hypoperfusion in the population. Cerebral hypoperfusion is widely implicated in cognitive impairment, but whether OH contributes to cognitive decline and dementia is uncertain. We aimed to determine the association between OH and the risk of developing dementia in the general population. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Between 4 October 1989 and 17 June 1993, we assessed OH in non-demented, stroke-free participants of the population-based Rotterdam Study...
October 2016: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914354/comorbidity-of-dementia-with-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-als-insights-from-a-large-multicenter-italian-cohort
#17
Francesca Trojsi, Mattia Siciliano, Cinzia Femiano, Gabriella Santangelo, Christian Lunetta, Andrea Calvo, Cristina Moglia, Kalliopi Marinou, Nicola Ticozzi, Gianluca Drago Ferrante, Carlo Scialò, Gianni Sorarù, Amelia Conte, Yuri M Falzone, Rosanna Tortelli, Massimo Russo, Valeria Ada Sansone, Adriano Chiò, Gabriele Mora, Barbara Poletti, Paolo Volanti, Claudia Caponnetto, Giorgia Querin, Mario Sabatelli, Nilo Riva, Giancarlo Logroscino, Sonia Messina, Antonio Fasano, Maria Rosaria Monsurrò, Gioacchino Tedeschi, Jessica Mandrioli
To assess the association, at diagnosis, between amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and dementia in a large cohort of well-characterized Italian patients. We investigated the phenotypic profile of 1638 incident patients with definite, probable or laboratory-supported probable ALS, diagnosed from January 2009 to December 2013 in 13 Italian Referral Centers, located in 10 Italian Regions, and classified in two independent subsamples accounting for presence or not of dementia. The collected ALS features, including survival and other follow-up data, were compared between the two subgroups using a one-way analysis of variance and Chi-square test, as appropriate, logistic regression models and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis...
November 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890168/sleep-disturbances-increase-the-risk-of-dementia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
REVIEW
Le Shi, Si-Jing Chen, Meng-Ying Ma, Yan-Ping Bao, Ying Han, Yu-Mei Wang, Jie Shi, Michael V Vitiello, Lin Lu
Sleep disturbances and dementia are two common and significant health problems in older adults. Investigations suggest that sleep disturbances might increase the risk of dementia. The aim of the present study was to systematically review and meta-analyze the predictive roles of overall sleep disturbances, their subtypes (e.g., insomnia, sleep disordered breathing [SDB]), and other sleep problems (e.g., excessive daytime sleepiness, sleep-related movement disorder, circadian rhythm sleep disorder, and nonspecific sleep problems) in incident all-cause dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia subtypes...
July 6, 2017: Sleep Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844041/how-to-use-pen-and-paper-tasks-to-aid-tremor-diagnosis-in-the-clinic
#19
EDITORIAL
Jane Alty, Jeremy Cosgrove, Deborah Thorpe, Peter Kempster
When a patient presents with tremor, it can be useful to perform a few simple pen and paper tests. In this article, we explain how to maximise the value of handwriting and of drawing Archimedes spirals and straight lines as clinical assessments. These tasks take a matter of seconds to complete but provide a wealth of information that supplements the standard physical examination. They aid the diagnosis of a tremor disorder and can contribute to its longitudinal monitoring. Watching the patient's upper limb while they write and draw may reveal abnormalities such as bradykinesia, dystonic posturing and distractibility...
December 2017: Practical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800330/pet-tau-and-amyloid-%C3%AE-burden-in-mild-alzheimer-s-disease-divergent-relationship-with-age-cognition-and-cerebrospinal-fluid-biomarkers
#20
Ivan Koychev, Roger N Gunn, Azadeh Firouzian, Jennifer Lawson, Giovanna Zamboni, Basil Ridha, Barbara J Sahakian, James B Rowe, Alan Thomas, Lynn Rochester, Dominic Ffytche, Robert Howard, Henrik Zetterberg, Clare MacKay, Simon Lovestone
BACKGROUND: Combining PET amyloid-β (Aβ) and tau imaging may be critical for tracking disease progression in Alzheimer's disease (AD). OBJECTIVE: We sought to characterize the relationship between Aβ and tau ligands as well as with other measures of pathology. METHODS: We conducted a multi-center observational study in early AD (MMSE >20) participants aged 50 to 85 y. The schedule included cognitive assessments (ADAS-Cog) and CSF measurement of Aβ and tau at baseline and 6 months; PET-CT imaging with Aβ ([18F]AV45) and tau ([18F]AV1451) ligands at baseline...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
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