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Dementia

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236 papers 100 to 500 followers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752306/-apoe-%C3%AE%C2%B52%C3%AE%C2%B54-genotype-incident-ad-and-mci-cognitive-decline-and-ad-pathology-in-older-adults
#1
Shahram Oveisgharan, Aron S Buchman, Lei Yu, Jose Farfel, Vladimir Hachinski, Chris Gaiteri, Philip L De Jager, Julie A Schneider, David A Bennett
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of the APOE ε2ε4 genotype with incident Alzheimer disease (AD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), cognitive decline, and AD pathology in older adults. METHODS: We used data from 2,151 older adults of European ancestry who were free of dementia at baseline and underwent structured annual clinical evaluation in a longitudinal study for incident AD and MCI, and cognitive decline. Postmortem examination in decedents documented pathologic AD and quantified β-amyloid and neurofibrillary tangles...
May 11, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737427/serum-neurofilament-light-is-increased-in-multiple-system-atrophy-of-cerebellar-type-and-in-repeat-expansion-spinocerebellar-ataxias-a-pilot-study
#2
Carlo Wilke, Friedemann Bender, Stefanie N Hayer, Kathrin Brockmann, Ludger Schöls, Jens Kuhle, Matthis Synofzik
Blood biomarkers in degenerative ataxias are still largely missing. Here, we aimed to provide piloting proof-of-concept that serum Neurofilament light (NfL) could offer a promising peripheral blood biomarker in degenerative ataxias. Specifically, as a marker of neuronal damage, NfL might (1) help to differentiate multiple system atrophy of cerebellar type (MSA-C) from sporadic adult-onset ataxia (SAOA), and (2) show increases in repeat-expansion spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) which might be amenable to treatment in the future...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734182/a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-the-effectiveness-of-acetylcholinesterase-inhibitors-and-memantine-in-treating-the-cognitive-symptoms-of-dementia
#3
Ruth Knight, Mizanur Khondoker, Nicholas Magill, Robert Stewart, Sabine Landau
BACKGROUND: Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs) and memantine are commonly used in the management of dementia. In routine clinical practice, dementia is often monitored via the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of these drugs on MMSE scores. SUMMARY: Eighty trials were identified. Pooled effect estimates were in favour of both AChEIs and memantine at 6 months. Meta-regression indicated that dementia subtype was a moderator of AChEI treatment effect, with the effect of treatment versus control twice as high for patients with Parkinson disease dementia/ dementia with Lewy bodies (2...
May 7, 2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742332/clinical-features-of-auditory-hallucinations-in-patients-with-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-a-soundtrack-of-visual-hallucinations
#4
Naoko Tsunoda, Mamoru Hashimoto, Tomohisa Ishikawa, Ryuji Fukuhara, Seiji Yuki, Hibiki Tanaka, Yutaka Hatada, Yusuke Miyagawa, Manabu Ikeda
OBJECTIVE: Auditory hallucinations are an important symptom for diagnosing dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), yet they have received less attention than visual hallucinations. We investigated the clinical features of auditory hallucinations and the possible mechanisms by which they arise in patients with DLB. METHODS: We recruited 124 consecutive patients with probable DLB (diagnosis based on the DLB International Workshop 2005 criteria; study period: June 2007-January 2015) from the dementia referral center of Kumamoto University Hospital...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562536/update-on-vascular-cognitive-impairment-associated-with-subcortical-small-vessel-disease
#5
Anders Wallin, Gustavo C Román, Margaret Esiri, Petronella Kettunen, Johan Svensson, George P Paraskevas, Elisabeth Kapaki
Subcortical small-vessel disease (SSVD) is a disorder well characterized from the clinical, imaging, and neuropathological viewpoints. SSVD is considered the most prevalent ischemic brain disorder, increasing in frequency with age. Vascular risk factors include hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, elevated homocysteine, and obstructive sleep apnea. Ischemic white matter lesions are the hallmark of SSVD; other pathological lesions include arteriolosclerosis, dilatation of perivascular spaces, venous collagenosis, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, microbleeds, microinfarcts, lacunes, and large infarcts...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572105/-behavioral-and-psychological-symptoms-of-dementia-bpsd-and-impaired-cognition-reflect-unsuccessful-neuronal-compensation-in-the-pre-plaque-stage-and-serve-as-early-markers-for-alzheimer-s-disease-in-the-app23-mouse-model
#6
Anna Pfeffer, Tonia Munder, Stefanie Schreyer, Charlotte Klein, Justyna Rasińska, York Winter, Barbara Steiner
Recent research on Alzheimer's disease (AD) focuses on processes prior to amyloid-beta plaque deposition accounting for the progress of the disease. However, early mechanisms of AD are still poorly understood and predictors of the disease in the pre-plaque stage essential for initiating an early therapy are lacking. Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) and potentially impaired cognition may serve as predictors and early clinical diagnostic markers for AD. To investigate potential BPSD and cognitive impairments in association with neuronal cell development as such markers for AD in the pre-plaque stage, female APP23 mice at eight, 19 and 31 weeks of age and corresponding control animals were tested for BPSD (elevated zero maze; sucrose preference test), motor coordination (rotarod), spatial memory and reversal learning (Morris water maze) and hippocampal neurogenesis as a neuronal correlate for hippocampus-dependent behavior...
March 20, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610916/should-this-patient-receive-prophylactic-medication-to-prevent-delirium-grand-rounds-discussion-from-beth-israel-deaconess-medical-center
#7
Anjala V Tess, Melissa L P Mattison, Joshua R Leo, Eileen E Reynolds
In 2015, the American Geriatrics Society released recommendations for prevention and management of postoperative delirium, based on a systematic literature review and evaluation of nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic approaches by an expert panel. The guidelines recommend an interdisciplinary focus on nonpharmacologic measures (reorientation, medication management, early mobility, nutrition, and gastointestinal motility) for prevention and consideration of this strategy for acute management. They also recommend optimizing nonopioid medication as a means to manage pain and avoiding benzodiazepines other than to treat substance withdrawal...
April 3, 2018: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527551/moderate-intensity-physical-activity-associates-with-csf-biomarkers-in-a-cohort-at-risk-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#8
Lena L Law, Rachael N Rol, Stephanie A Schultz, Ryan J Dougherty, Dorothy F Edwards, Rebecca L Koscik, Catherine L Gallagher, Cynthia M Carlsson, Barbara B Bendlin, Henrik Zetterberg, Kaj Blennow, Sanjay Asthana, Mark A Sager, Bruce P Hermann, Sterling C Johnson, Dane B Cook, Ozioma C Okonkwo
Introduction: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the presence of amyloid β (Aβ) plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, and neurodegeneration, evidence of which may be detected in vivo via cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) sampling. Physical activity (PA) has emerged as a possible modifier of these AD-related pathological changes. Consequently, the aim of this study was to cross-sectionally examine the relationship between objectively measured PA and CSF levels of Aβ42 and tau in asymptomatic late-middle-aged adults at risk for AD...
2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562533/a-long-journey-into-aging-brain-aging-and-alzheimer-s-disease-following-the-oxidative-stress-tracks
#9
Patrizia Mecocci, Virginia Boccardi, Roberta Cecchetti, Patrizia Bastiani, Michela Scamosci, Carmelinda Ruggiero, Marta Baroni
The Editors of the Journal of Alzheimer's Disease invited Professor Patrizia Mecocci to contribute a review article focused on the importance and implications of her research on aging, brain aging, and senile dementias over the last years. This invitation was based on an assessment that she was one of the journal's top authors and a strong supporter of the concept that oxidative stress is a major contributor to several alterations observed in age-related conditions (sarcopenia, osteoporosis) and, more significantly, in brain aging suggesting a pivotal role in the pathogenesis and progression of one of the most dramatic age-related diseases, Alzheimer's disease (AD)...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579160/data-driven-models-of-dominantly-inherited-alzheimer-s-disease-progression
#10
Neil P Oxtoby, Alexandra L Young, David M Cash, Tammie L S Benzinger, Anne M Fagan, John C Morris, Randall J Bateman, Nick C Fox, Jonathan M Schott, Daniel C Alexander
See Li and Donohue (doi:10.1093/brain/awy089) for a scientific commentary on this article.Dominantly-inherited Alzheimer's disease is widely hoped to hold the key to developing interventions for sporadic late onset Alzheimer's disease. We use emerging techniques in generative data-driven disease progression modelling to characterize dominantly-inherited Alzheimer's disease progression with unprecedented resolution, and without relying upon familial estimates of years until symptom onset. We retrospectively analysed biomarker data from the sixth data freeze of the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network observational study, including measures of amyloid proteins and neurofibrillary tangles in the brain, regional brain volumes and cortical thicknesses, brain glucose hypometabolism, and cognitive performance from the Mini-Mental State Examination (all adjusted for age, years of education, sex, and head size, as appropriate)...
May 1, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29632177/%C3%AE-amyloid-accumulation-in-the-human-brain-after-one-night-of-sleep-deprivation
#11
Ehsan Shokri-Kojori, Gene-Jack Wang, Corinde E Wiers, Sukru B Demiral, Min Guo, Sung Won Kim, Elsa Lindgren, Veronica Ramirez, Amna Zehra, Clara Freeman, Gregg Miller, Peter Manza, Tansha Srivastava, Susan De Santi, Dardo Tomasi, Helene Benveniste, Nora D Volkow
The effects of acute sleep deprivation on β-amyloid (Aβ) clearance in the human brain have not been documented. Here we used PET and 18 F-florbetaben to measure brain Aβ burden (ABB) in 20 healthy controls tested after a night of rested sleep (baseline) and after a night of sleep deprivation. We show that one night of sleep deprivation, relative to baseline, resulted in a significant increase in Aβ burden in the right hippocampus and thalamus. These increases were associated with mood worsening following sleep deprivation, but were not related to the genetic risk (APOE genotype) for Alzheimer's disease...
April 24, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643512/innate-immune-memory-in-the-brain-shapes-neurological-disease-hallmarks
#12
Ann-Christin Wendeln, Karoline Degenhardt, Lalit Kaurani, Michael Gertig, Thomas Ulas, Gaurav Jain, Jessica Wagner, Lisa M Häsler, Katleen Wild, Angelos Skodras, Thomas Blank, Ori Staszewski, Moumita Datta, Tonatiuh Pena Centeno, Vincenzo Capece, Md Rezaul Islam, Cemil Kerimoglu, Matthias Staufenbiel, Joachim L Schultze, Marc Beyer, Marco Prinz, Mathias Jucker, André Fischer, Jonas J Neher
Innate immune memory is a vital mechanism of myeloid cell plasticity that occurs in response to environmental stimuli and alters subsequent immune responses. Two types of immunological imprinting can be distinguished-training and tolerance. These are epigenetically mediated and enhance or suppress subsequent inflammation, respectively. Whether immune memory occurs in tissue-resident macrophages in vivo and how it may affect pathology remains largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that peripherally applied inflammatory stimuli induce acute immune training and tolerance in the brain and lead to differential epigenetic reprogramming of brain-resident macrophages (microglia) that persists for at least six months...
April 11, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541536/reduced-vascular-risk-factors-in-parkinson-s-disease-dementia-and-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-compared-to-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
Po-Chi Chan, Cheng-Yu Wei, Guang-Uei Hung, Pai-Yi Chiu
Objectives: The association of vascular risk factors (VRFs) with incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD) has been well studied. However, the association between VRFs and non-AD dementia is seldom investigated. In this study, we aim to compare the concurrence of VRFs of Lewy body dementia (LBD) to AD. Materials & Methods: We consecutively enrolled patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD), and AD, and the prevalence of arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, hyperlipidemia, smoking, and obesity was assessed and compared...
March 2018: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497190/early-stages-of-alzheimer-s-disease-are-alarming-signs-in-injury-deaths-caused-by-traffic-accidents-in-elderly-people-%C3%A2-60-years-of-age-a-neuropathological-study
#14
Printha Wijesinghe, Catherine Gorrie, S K Shankar, Yasha T Chickabasaviah, Dhammika Amaratunga, Sanjayah Hulathduwa, K Sunil Kumara, Kamani Samarasinghe, Yoo-Hun Suh, H W M Steinbusch, K Ranil D De Silva
Background: There is little information available in the literature concerning the contribution of dementia in injury deaths in elderly people (≥60 years). Aim: This study was intended to investigate the extent of dementia-related pathologies in the brains of elderly people who died in traffic accidents or by suicide and to compare our findings with age- and sex-matched natural deaths in an elderly population. Materials and Methods: Autopsy-derived human brain samples from nine injury death victims (5 suicide and 4 traffic accidents) and nine age- and sex-matched natural death victims were screened for neurodegenerative and cerebrovascular pathologies using histopathological and immunohistochemical techniques...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703214/stop-alzheimer-s-before-it-starts
#15
Eric McDade, Randall J Bateman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 12, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21537570/sleep-disorders-in-cerebellar-ataxias
#16
REVIEW
José L Pedroso, Pedro Braga-Neto, André C Felício, Camila C H Aquino, Lucila B Fernandes do Prado, Gilmar Fernandes do Prado, Orlando G P Barsottini
Cerebellar ataxias comprise a wide range of etiologies leading to central nervous system-related motor and non-motor symptoms. Recently, a large body of evidence has demonstrated a high frequency of non-motor manifestations in cerebellar ataxias, specially in autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxias (SCA). Among these non-motor dysfunctions, sleep disorders have been recognized, although still under or even misdiagnosed. In this review, we highlight the main sleep disorders related to cerebellar ataxias focusing on REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD), restless legs syndrome (RLS), periodic limb movement in sleep (PLMS), excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), insomnia and sleep apnea...
April 2011: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/11335703/sporadic-cerebellar-ataxia-associated-with-gluten-sensitivity
#17
REVIEW
K Bürk, S Bösch, C A Müller, A Melms, C Zühlke, M Stern, I Besenthal, M Skalej, P Ruck, S Ferber, T Klockgether, J Dichgans
A total of 104 patients with sporadic cerebellar ataxia were tested for antigliadin and antiendomysium antibodies. Twelve individuals (11.5%) with gluten sensitivity underwent duodenal biopsy and extensive clinical, electrophysiological, neuropsychological, radiological and laboratory investigations including human leucocyte antigen (HLA) typing. Two patients showed typical changes of gluten-sensitive enteropathy with crypt hyperplasia and mucosal flattening. In five patients, the intraepithelial lymphocyte count was elevated...
May 2001: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25192506/genetic-cerebellar-ataxias
#18
REVIEW
Elsdon Storey
This review broadly covers the commoner genetic ataxias, concentrating on their clinical features. Over the last two decades there has been a potentially bewildering profusion of newly described genetic ataxias. However, at least half of dominant ataxias (SCAs) are caused by (CAG)n repeat expansions resulting in expanded polyglutamine tracts (SCAs 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 17, and DRPLA), although of the remainder only SCAs 8, 10, 12, 14, 15/16, and 31 are frequent enough that the described phenotype is probably representative...
July 2014: Seminars in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177818/treatment-of-cerebellar-ataxia-in-the-context-of-systemic-diseases
#19
REVIEW
Malcolm Proudfoot, Alastair Wilkins
Purpose of review The purpose of this review is to assess the evidence behind treatment regimens for cerebellar ataxias occurring in the context of systemic disease. We will address systemic conditions which are associated with specific involvement of the cerebellum (rather than widespread nervous system involvement) and those conditions for which some degree of evidence of treatment response exists. Recent findings We have divided systemic disorders affecting the cerebellum into systemic immunological disorders, endocrine and metabolic disorders and paraneoplastic...
November 25, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29272039/calcium-channel-autoimmunity-cerebellar-ataxia-and-lambert-eaton-syndrome-coexisting
#20
Nicholas Zalewski, Vanda A Lennon, Sean J Pittock, Andrew Mckeon
INTRODUCTION: Neuronal calcium channel antibodies are a biomarker of Lambert-Eaton syndrome (LES) and cerebellar ataxia. We have encountered several patients with LES and cerebellar ataxia coexisting, and we sought to further define this association. METHODS: We reviewed records of patients at our institution with a diagnosis of "Lambert-Eaton syndrome" and "cerebellar ataxia." RESULTS: Seventeen patients were identified with LES and ataxia...
December 22, 2017: Muscle & Nerve
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