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Noboru Toda, Tomio Okamura
Cerebral blood flow is mainly regulated by nitrergic (parasympathetic, postganglionic) nerves and nitric oxide (NO) liberated from endothelial cells in response to shear stress and stretch of vasculature, whereas sympathetic vasoconstrictor control is quite weak. On the other hand, peripheral vascular resistance and blood flow are mainly controlled by adrenergic vasoconstrictor nerves; endothelium-derived NO and nitrergic nerves play some roles as vasodilator factors. Cigarette smoking impairs NO synthesis in cerebral vascular endothelial cells and nitrergic nerves leading to interference with cerebral blood flow and glucose metabolism in the brain...
August 2016: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
Etsuro Mori, Manabu Ikeda, Masaki Nakagawa, Hideaki Miyagishi, Kenji Kosaka
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Based on Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) subitem scores, in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), we aimed to delineate features of cognitive impairment, identify cognitive domains improved by donepezil, and define a pretreatment cognitive profile likely to benefit from donepezil. METHODS: Pooled data were used from two randomized controlled trials of donepezil in DLB (n = 235). Baseline MMSE subitem scores were calculated for all patients. Mean changes in subitem scores at week 12 were compared between the placebo and the active group...
2016: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
Weizhe Li, Hsin-I Tong, Santhi Gorantla, Larisa Y Poluektova, Howard E Gendelman, Yuanan Lu
Maintaining the central nervous system microenvironment after injury, infection, inflammatory and degenerative diseases is contingent upon adequate control of glial homeostatic functions. Disease is caused by microbial, environmental and endogenous factors that compromise ongoing nervous system functions. The final result is neuronal injury, dropout and nerve connection loss, and these underlie the pathobiology of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, stroke, and bacterial, parasitic and viral infections...
September 2016: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
Hossein Mahmoudvand, Vahid Sheibani, Khadijeh Esmaeelpour, Seyed Reza Mirbadie, Saeideh Shojaee, Hamid Daneshvar, Ali Reza Keyhani, Naser Ziaali
Here, we hypothesized that in chronic Toxoplasma gondii infection communication among immune cells promotes neuroinflammation through cytokine networks and potentiate cognitive impairments in BALB/c mice with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The animal model of Toxoplasma infection was established by the intraperitoneal inoculation of 20-25 tissue cysts from Tehran strain of T. gondii. We injected amyloid-beta 1-42 peptide (Aβ1-42, 1 and 2 µL) into the hippocampus of BALB/c mice to establish an animal model of AD...
August 11, 2016: Journal of Parasitology
Eric L Goldwaser, Nimish K Acharya, Abhirup Sarkar, George Godsey, Robert G Nagele
Alzheimer's disease (AD) and diabetes mellitus (DM) are among the most pervasive and devastating disorders that afflict people throughout the world. Although typically associated with older demographics, recent epidemiologic studies have reported parallel trends in decreasing age of onset and increasing incidence of these conditions. Promising research continues to implicate the cerebrovasculature and blood-brain barrier (BBB) as playing key roles in AD pathoetiology. Similarly, complications accompanying DM, such as diabetic nephropathy/retinopathy, cardiovascular disease, and stroke, have been rooted in vascular compromise...
September 6, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Lisa Ronan, Aaron F Alexander-Bloch, Konrad Wagstyl, Sadaf Farooqi, Carol Brayne, Lorraine K Tyler, Paul C Fletcher
Common mechanisms in aging and obesity are hypothesized to increase susceptibility to neurodegeneration, however, direct evidence in support of this hypothesis is lacking. We therefore performed a cross-sectional analysis of magnetic resonance image-based brain structure on a population-based cohort of healthy adults. Study participants were originally part of the Cambridge Centre for Ageing and Neuroscience (Cam-CAN) and included 527 individuals aged 20-87 years. Cortical reconstruction techniques were used to generate measures of whole-brain cerebral white-matter volume, cortical thickness, and surface area...
November 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
Pamela L Lutsey, Faye L Norby, Rebecca F Gottesman, Thomas Mosley, Richard F MacLehose, Naresh M Punjabi, Eyal Shahar, Clifford R Jack, Alvaro Alonso
BACKGROUND: A growing body of literature has suggested that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and habitual short sleep duration are linked to poor cognitive function. Neuroimaging studies may provide insight into this relation. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypotheses that OSA and habitual short sleep duration, measured at ages 54-73 years, would be associated with adverse brain morphology at ages 67-89 years. METHODS: Included in this analysis are 312 ARIC study participants who underwent in-home overnight polysomnography in 1996-1998 and brain MRI scans about 15 years later (2012-2013)...
2016: PloS One
Richard M Ransohoff
Neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and frontotemporal lobar dementia are among the most pressing problems of developed societies with aging populations. Neurons carry out essential functions such as signal transmission and network integration in the central nervous system and are the main targets of neurodegenerative disease. In this Review, I address how the neuron's environment also contributes to neurodegeneration. Maintaining an optimal milieu for neuronal function rests with supportive cells termed glia and the blood-brain barrier...
August 19, 2016: Science
J Mendiola-Precoma, L C Berumen, K Padilla, G Garcia-Alcocer
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia associated with a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, with a prevalence of 44 million people throughout the world in 2015, and this figure is estimated to double by 2050. This disease is characterized by blood-brain barrier disruption, oxidative stress, mitochondrial impairment, neuroinflammation, and hypometabolism; it is related to amyloid-β peptide accumulation and tau hyperphosphorylation as well as a decrease in acetylcholine levels and a reduction of cerebral blood flow...
2016: BioMed Research International
Hui-Li Feng, Hui-Zi Dang, Hui Fan, Xiao-Pei Chen, Ying-Xue Rao, Ying Ren, Jin-Duo Yang, Jing Shi, Peng-Wen Wang, Jin-Zhou Tian
Deficits in glucose, impaired insulin signalling and brain insulin resistance are common in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD); therefore, some scholars even called AD type 3 diabetes mellitus. Curcumin can reduce the amyloid pathology in AD. Moreover, it is a well-known fact that curcumin has anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. However, whether or not curcumin could regulate the insulin signal transduction pathway in AD remains unclear. In this study, we used APPswe/PS1dE9 double transgenic mice as the AD model to investigate the mechanisms and the effects of curcumin on AD...
July 27, 2016: International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology
Vanita Rani, Rahul Deshmukh, Priya Jaswal, Puneet Kumar, Jitender Bariwal
Alzheimer's disease (AD) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) are the two major health issues affecting millions of elderly people worldwide, with major impacts in the patient's daily life. Numerous studies have demonstrated that patients with diabetes have an increased risk of developing AD compared with healthy individuals. The principal biological mechanisms that associate with the progression of diabetes and AD are not completely understood. Impaired insulin signaling, uncontrolled glucose metabolism, oxidative stress, abnormal protein processing, and the stimulation of inflammatory pathways are common features to both AD and T2DM...
October 1, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
Stephanie Cosentino, Adam M Brickman, Erica Griffith, Christian Habeck, Sarah Cines, Meagan Farrell, Danielle Shaked, Edward D Huey, Tamara Briner, Yaakov Stern
Unawareness of memory loss is a challenging characteristic of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other age-related neurodegenerative conditions at their earliest stages, adversely affecting important outcomes such as patient decision making and safety. The basis of this metacognitive disturbance has been elusive; however it is almost certainly determined in part by compromise to brain regions critical for self-assessment. The subjectivity of traditional measurements of self-awareness in dementia has likely limited the rigor with which its neuroanatomic correlates can be established...
August 2015: Neuropsychologia
Zhen Zhao, Amy R Nelson, Christer Betsholtz, Berislav V Zlokovic
Structural and functional brain connectivity, synaptic activity, and information processing require highly coordinated signal transduction between different cell types within the neurovascular unit and intact blood-brain barrier (BBB) functions. Here, we examine the mechanisms regulating the formation and maintenance of the BBB and functions of BBB-associated cell types. Furthermore, we discuss the growing evidence associating BBB breakdown with the pathogenesis of inherited monogenic neurological disorders and complex multifactorial diseases, including Alzheimer's disease...
November 19, 2015: Cell
Samuel E Marsh, Edsel M Abud, Anita Lakatos, Alborz Karimzadeh, Stephen T Yeung, Hayk Davtyan, Gianna M Fote, Lydia Lau, Jason G Weinger, Thomas E Lane, Matthew A Inlay, Wayne W Poon, Mathew Blurton-Jones
The innate immune system is strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In contrast, the role of adaptive immunity in AD remains largely unknown. However, numerous clinical trials are testing vaccination strategies for AD, suggesting that T and B cells play a pivotal role in this disease. To test the hypothesis that adaptive immunity influences AD pathogenesis, we generated an immune-deficient AD mouse model that lacks T, B, and natural killer (NK) cells. The resulting "Rag-5xfAD" mice exhibit a greater than twofold increase in β-amyloid (Aβ) pathology...
March 1, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Subbiah Pugazhenthi, Limei Qin, P Hemachandra Reddy
Cognitive decline in chronic diabetic patients is a less investigated topic. Diabetes and obesity are among the modifiable risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common form of dementia. Studies have identified several overlapping neurodegenerative mechanisms, including oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and inflammation that are observed in these disorders. Advanced glycation end products generated by chronic hyperglycemia and their receptor RAGE provide critical links between diabetes and AD...
May 6, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Hee-Jin Kim, Hyung Kyun Im, Juhan Kim, Jee-Young Han, Mony de Leon, Anup Deshpande, Won-Jin Moon
BACKGROUND: Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) may present as an early manifestation of an evolving neurodegenerative disorder with alpha-synucleinopathy. OBJECTIVE: We investigated that dementia with RBD might show distinctive cortical atrophic patterns. METHODS: A total of 31 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD), 23 with clinically probable Alzheimer's disease (AD), and 36 healthy controls participated in this study...
April 5, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Stefano Delli Pizzi, Raffaella Franciotti, Giovanna Bubbico, Astrid Thomas, Marco Onofrj, Laura Bonanni
The hippocampus and adjacent extrahippocampal structures are organized in distinct and specialized regions which process heterogeneous functions, including memory, and visuospatial functions. Specific alterations of the different hippocampal subfields and adjacent extrahippocampal structures could differently contribute to the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Based on visual symptoms which characterize DLB patients, the hippocampal subfields and the adjacent extrahippocampal structures which are mainly involved in the visual functions could be impaired in DLB and preserved in AD...
April 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
Claudia Rodríguez-Aranda, Knut Waterloo, Stein Harald Johnsen, Petter Eldevik, Sigurd Sparr, Gry C Wikran, Marit Herder, Torgil Riise Vangberg
Verbal fluency (VF) impairments occur early in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and to a lesser extent also in normal aging. However, the neural underpinnings of these impairments are not fully understood. The present study evaluated whether VF impairments in early AD and normal aging rely upon common or different neuroanatomical correlates. We examined the association between VF performance and brain structure in 18 mild AD patients and 24 healthy elderly. Linear regressions were performed between accuracy and time intervals in VF scores and structural measurements of cerebral gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) using MRI...
April 2016: Brain and Language
Wei-Wei Chen, Xia Zhang, Wen-Juan Huang
The benefits of physical exercise on the brain and general wellness are well recognised, but not particularly well known to the general public. Understanding the importance of integrating active behavior for overall health is crucial at any age and particularly for the elderly who are at risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD), a disease mainly affecting individuals aged >65 years. AD is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by extracellular senile plaques of amyloid-β, intracellular neurofibrillary tangles of the protein tau, brain atrophy and dementia...
April 2016: Biomedical Reports
Kenichi Ota, Naoya Oishi, Kengo Ito, Hidenao Fukuyama
BACKGROUND: Prediction of progression to Alzheimer's disease (AD) in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is challenging because of its heterogeneity. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a stratification method on different cohorts and to investigate whether stratification in amnestic MCI could improve prediction accuracy. METHODS: We identified 80 and 79 patients with amnestic MCI from different cohorts, respectively. They underwent baseline magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) scans...
April 12, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
2016-05-08 08:32:27
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