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Dermatitis atópica

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38 papers 0 to 25 followers
A Heratizadeh, T Werfel
The pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD) is multi-factorial and complex. Consequently, clinical signs and symptoms vary strongly depending on individually relevant trigger factors and the stage of the disease. So far, treatment of AD was commonly limited to topical treatment or, in more severe cases, to systemic drugs mostly approved for other indications than AD. However, emerging data on new anti-inflammatory agents have been published in the recent years. As these new substances specifically focus on immune responses in AD, these are partially considered as possible "break-through" in the treatment of AD...
October 13, 2016: Allergy
Michele Miraglia Del Giudice, Annalisa Allegorico
The role of vitamin D in calcium and phosphate homeostasis is well known; however, in addition to traditional functions, vitamin D modulates a variety of processes, and evidence shows that it has an important role in different allergic diseases such as asthma, atopic dermatitis, and food allergy. Vitamin D acts by binding to the vitamin D receptor, which is present in a variety of tissues; for this reason it is considered a hormone. One of the most important functions is to modulate the immune system response, both innate and adaptive, by suppressing Th2-type response and increasing natural killer cells...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Yuliya Skabytska, Susanne Kaesler, Thomas Volz, Tilo Biedermann
The skin is the largest organ at the interface between environment and host. It plays a major protective role against pathogens as physical barrier, as site of first recognition, and as orchestrator of consecutive immune responses. In this process, immunological crosstalk between skin-resident and immune cells is required, and fixed innate immune responses were previously believed to orchestrate adaptive immunity of B and T lymphocytes. Today, we understand that diverse qualities of immune responses to different microbes need to be regulated by also varying responses at the level of first microbe recognition through receptors of the innate immune system...
February 2016: Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft, Journal of the German Society of Dermatology: JDDG
W H I McLean
The main proteinaceous component of the keratohyalin granules within the granular layer keratinocytes of the epidermis is the giant, repetitive polyprotein profilaggrin. When granular layer cells commit to terminal differentiation to form the flattened squames of the stratum corneum, profilaggrin is rapidly cleaved into multiple copies of the 37 kDa filaggrin monomer, which binds to and condenses the keratin cytoskeleton, thereby facilitating cellular compression. Within the stratum corneum, filaggrin is broken down to form natural moisturising factor, a pool of amino acids and derivatives thereof that exerts multiple effects...
October 2016: British Journal of Dermatology
Mariana Colombini Zaniboni, Luciana Paula Samorano, Raquel Leão Orfali, Valéria Aoki
Atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease with a complex pathogenesis, where changes in skin barrier and imbalance of the immune system are relevant factors. The skin forms a mechanic and immune barrier, regulating water loss from the internal to the external environment, and protecting the individual from external aggressions, such as microorganisms, ultraviolet radiation and physical trauma. Main components of the skin barrier are located in the outer layers of the epidermis (such as filaggrin), the proteins that form the tight junction (TJ) and components of the innate immune system...
July 2016: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
Jung Eun Kim, Jong Sic Kim, Dae Ho Cho, Hyun Jeong Park
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a multifactorial inflammatory skin disease resulting from interactions between genetic susceptibility and environmental factors. The pathogenesis of AD is poorly understood, and the treatment of recalcitrant AD is still challenging. There is accumulating evidence for new gene polymorphisms related to the epidermal barrier function and innate and adaptive immunity in patients with AD. Newly-found T cells and dendritic cell subsets, cytokines, chemokines and signaling pathways have extended our understanding of the molecular pathomechanism underlying AD...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Baochen Shi, Nathanael J Bangayan, Emily Curd, Patricia A Taylor, Richard L Gallo, Donald Y M Leung, Huiying Li
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Thomas Werfel, Annice Heratizadeh, Werner Aberer, Frank Ahrens, Matthias Augustin, Tilo Biedermann, Thomas Diepgen, Regina Fölster-Holst, Uwe Gieler, Julia Kahle, Alexander Kapp, Alexander Nast, Katja Nemat, Hagen Ott, Bernhard Przybilla, Martin Roecken, Martin Schlaeger, Peter Schmid-Grendelmeier, Jochen Schmitt, Thomas Schwennesen, Doris Staab, Margitta Worm
Atopic dermatitis (AD) represents a pruritic, non-contagious, chronic or chronically relapsing, inflammatory skin disease. The course of the disease may be complicated by bacterial or viral superinfections. The first manifestation of the disease and further flare-ups are due to genetic predisposition and also to a variety of further trigger factors. The therapy regimen should be adapted to disease symptoms that are actually present and consider individual features of the disease as reported by the patients or their parents...
2016: Allergo Journal International
L T Zane, S Chanda, K Jarnagin, D B Nelson, L Spelman, Lf Stein Gold
Atopic dermatitis (AD), a chronic, relapsing, inflammatory skin disease that is characterized by intense pruritus and eczematous lesions with up to 90% of patients presenting with mild to moderate disease. Current topical treatments for AD have not changed in over 15 years and are associated with safety concerns. In AD, overactivity of phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4), leads to inflammation and disease exacerbation. Crisaborole Topical Ointment, 2%, is a novel, nonsteroidal, topical anti-inflammatory PDE4 inhibitor currently being investigated for the treatment of mild to moderate AD...
July 2016: Immunotherapy
Elaine C Siegfried, Jennifer C Jaworski, Jennifer D Kaiser, Adelaide A Hebert
BACKGROUND: Many clinicians have concerns about the safety of atopic dermatitis (AD) treatments, particularly in children requiring long-term daily maintenance therapy. Topical corticosteroids (TCS) have been widely used for >5 decades. Long-term TCS monotherapy has been associated with adverse cutaneous effects including atrophy, rebound flares, and increased percutaneous absorption with potential for adverse systemic effects. Topical calcineurin inhibitors (TCIs), tacrolimus and pimecrolimus, available for 1-2 decades, are not associated with atrophy or increased percutaneous absorption after prolonged use and have much lower potential for systemic effects...
2016: BMC Pediatrics
Jonathan I Silverberg, Diane B Nelson, Gil Yosipovitch
Atopic dermatitis (AD), a chronic inflammatory skin disease affecting children and adults, presents as mild-to-moderate disease in the majority of patients. Pruritus, one of the key diagnostic criteria for AD, is associated with reduced quality of life and disease aggravation. Current treatments include emollients and topical pharmaceutical agents. Topical corticosteroids (TCSs) are commonly used, but are associated with safety concerns with cutaneous and systemic side effects. Topical calcineurin inhibitors (TCIs) inhibit T-lymphocyte activation, but their use is limited because of application-site infections and a boxed warning for potential malignancy risk...
May 11, 2016: Journal of Dermatological Treatment
Tatiana A Slavyanakaya, Vladislava V Derkach, Revaz I Sepiashvili
Allergen specific immunotherapy (AIT) has been the only pathogenetically relevant treatment of IgE-mediated allergic diseases (ADs) for many years. The use of AIT for atopic dermatitis (AD) treatment is dubious and has both followers and opponents. The improvement of subcutaneous AIT (SCIT) and introduction of Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) gives prospects of their application both for adults and children suffering from AD. This review presents results of scientific research, system and meta-analyses that confirm the clinical efficacy of AIT for children with AD who has the sensitization to allergens of house dust mite, grass and plant pollen suffering from co-occurring respiratory ADs and with moderate and severe course of allergic AD...
2016: World Allergy Organization Journal
David N Ginsberg, Lawrence F Eichenfield
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common chronic skin condition in children that has a proven association with other atopic conditions and allergies. These associations, like the general pathophysiology of AD, are complex and not fully understood. While there is evidence for the efficacy of specific immunotherapy (SIT) in pediatric asthma and allergic rhinitis (AR), there is a lack of strong data to support its use in AD. IgE has been shown to be elevated in many patients with AD, but it is an unreliable biomarker due to variability and great fluctuation over time, poor positive predictive value for clinically relevant allergy, and poor correlation with disease state...
2016: World Allergy Organization Journal
Kurt Jarnagin, Sanjay Chanda, Dina Coronado, Vic Ciaravino, Lee T Zane, Emma Guttman-Yassky, Mark G Lebwohl
Crisaborole topical ointment, 2% (formerly known as AN2728) is a benzoxaborole, nonsteroidal, topical, anti-inflammatory phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitor investigational compound that recently completed phase 3 studies for the treatment of mild to moderate atopic dermatitis (AD). The unique configuration of boron within the crisaborole molecule enables selective targeting and inhibition of PDE4, an enzyme that converts the intracellular second messenger 3'5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) into the active metabolite adenosine monophosphate (AMP)...
April 2016: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
N Fyhrquist, A Salava, P Auvinen, A Lauerma
The cutaneous microbiome has been investigated broadly in recent years and some traditional perspectives are beginning to change. A diverse microbiome exists on human skin and has a potential to influence pathogenic microbes and modulate the course of skin disorders, e.g. atopic dermatitis. In addition to the known dysfunctions in barrier function of the skin and immunologic disturbances, evidence is rising that frequent skin disorders, e.g. atopic dermatitis, might be connected to a dysbiosis of the microbial community and changes in the skin microbiome...
May 2016: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
Hidehisa Saeki, Takeshi Nakahara, Akio Tanaka, Kenji Kabashima, Makoto Sugaya, Hiroyuki Murota, Tamotsu Ebihara, Yoko Kataoka, Michiko Aihara, Takafumi Etoh, Norito Katoh
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a disease characterized by relapsing eczema with pruritus as a primary lesion. Most patients have an atopic predisposition. The definitive diagnosis of AD requires the presence of all three features: (i) pruritus; (ii) typical morphology and distribution of the eczema; and (iii) chronic and chronically relapsing course. The current strategies to treat AD in Japan from the perspective of evidence-based medicine consist of three primary measures: (i) the use of topical corticosteroids and tacrolimus ointment as the main treatment for the inflammation; (ii) topical application of emollients to treat the cutaneous barrier dysfunction; and (iii) avoidance of apparent exacerbating factors, psychological counseling and advice about daily life...
April 14, 2016: Journal of Dermatology
Akio Kihara
Ceramide (Cer) is a structural backbone of sphingolipids and is composed of a long-chain base and a fatty acid. Existence of a variety of Cer species, which differ in chain-length, hydroxylation status, and/or double bond number of either of their hydrophobic chains, has been reported. Ceramide is produced by Cer synthases. Mammals have six Cer synthases (CERS1-6), each of which exhibits characteristic substrate specificity toward acyl-CoAs with different chain-lengths. Knockout mice for each Cer synthase show corresponding, isozyme-specific phenotypes, revealing the functional differences of Cers with different chain-lengths...
July 2016: Progress in Lipid Research
L A A Gerbens, J R Chalmers, N K Rogers, H Nankervis, P I Spuls
'Symptoms' is a core outcome domain for atopic eczema (AE) trials, agreed by consensus as part of the Harmonising Outcome Measures for Eczema (HOME) initiative. To standardize and validate the core domain symptoms and symptom instruments for AE trials the HOME roadmap is followed. Its first step is to establish if and how symptoms have been measured in published AE treatment trials. Therefore the Global Resource for Eczema Trials database was used to collect all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of treatments for AE between January 2000 and April 2014...
October 2016: British Journal of Dermatology
Pascale Bianchi, Jennifer Theunis, Christiane Casas, Cecile Villeneuve, Annalisa Patrizi, Chloe Phulpin, Adeline Bacquey, Daniel Redoulès, Valerie Mengeaud, Anne-Marie Schmitt
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The use of emollients is widely recommended for the management of atopic dermatitis (AD), especially between flares. An imbalance of skin microflora is suspected of playing a key role in exacerbations of AD. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of a new emollient balm on clinical parameters (SCORing Atopic Dermatitis [SCORAD], xerosis, pruritus), skin barrier function (transepidermal water loss and loricrin, filaggrin, corneodesmosin, and involucrin expression], skin microflora biodiversity, and Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis balance in children with mild AD...
March 2016: Pediatric Dermatology
Hani A Al-Shobaili, Ahmed A Ahmed, Naief Alnomair, Zeiad Abdulaziz Alobead, Zafar Rasheed
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic multifactorial inflammatory skin disease. The pathogenesis of AD remains unclear, but the disease results from dysfunctions of skin barrier and immune response, where both genetic and environmental factors play a key role. Recent studies demonstrate the substantial evidences that show a strong genetic association with AD. As for example, AD patients have a positive family history and have a concordance rate in twins. Moreover, several candidate genes have now been suspected that play a central role in the genetic background of AD...
January 2016: International Journal of Health Sciences
2016-03-25 23:58:51
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