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Hepatitis b

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Tram T Tran
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is estimated to affect >350 million people worldwide and represents a significant cause of morbidity and mortality related to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HBV remains an important source of incident cases of HBV. Current barriers to eradication of incident HBV infections via MTCT include underutilization of immunoprophylaxis with hepatitis B vaccination and hepatitis B immune globulin in certain endemic regions as well as failure of immunoprophylaxis...
June 1, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Calvin Q Pan, Zhong-Ping Duan, Kalyan R Bhamidimarri, Huai-Bin Zou, Xiao-Feng Liang, Jie Li, Myron J Tong
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Despite immunoprophylaxis, mother to child transmission (MTCT) of hepatitis B virus (HBV) still occurs in infants born to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive mothers. We analyzed methods of risk assessment and interventions for MTCT. METHODS: We reviewed 63 articles and abstracts published from 1975-2011 that were relevant to MTCT; articles were identified using the PubMed bibliographic database. RESULTS: Administration of HB immunoglobulin and HB vaccine to infants at birth (within 12 hours), followed by 2 additional doses of vaccines within 6-12 months, prevented approximately 95% of HBV transmission from HBsAg-positive mothers to their infants...
May 2012: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Evangelos Cholongitas, Konstantinos Tziomalos, Chrysoula Pipili
The development of effective nucleos(t)ide analogs (NAs) against hepatitis B virus (HBV) has improved the outcome of patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). This review updates issues related to the management of CHB patients included in special populations. Entecavir (ETV) and tenofovir (TDF) represent the currently recommended first-line NAs in patients with HBV decompensated cirrhosis. The combination of HBV immunoglobulin (usually for a finite duration) and NA is considered the standard of care for prophylaxis against HBV recurrence after liver transplantation...
February 14, 2015: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Jean Jacques N Noubiap, Jobert Richie N Nansseu, Shalom Tchokfe Ndoula, Jean Joel R Bigna, Ahmadou M Jingi, Joël Fokom-Domgue
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological data on hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection among pregnant women in Cameroon are very scarce, especially in the rural milieu. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with HBV infection, and the infectivity of rural pregnant women in the Far North Region of Cameroon. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in three rural health facilities of the Guidiguis health district between December 2013 and March 2014...
2015: BMC Public Health
Yu-Hong Hu, Min Liu, Wei Yi, Yan-Jun Cao, Hao-Dong Cai
AIM: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of tenofovir monotherapy in pregnant females resistant to lamivudine or telbivudine. The effect of tenofovir on the fetus was also assessed. METHODS: The clinical data of 17 females were reviewed in this study. Adverse events and pregnancy outcomes from January 1, 2011 to June 30, 2013 were evaluated in the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics of Beijing Ditan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China. These pregnant females developed lamivudine (LAM)- or telbivudine (LdT)-resistant chronic hepatitis B and received tenofovir (TDF) therapy (300 mg/d), and its curative effect, maternal and perinatal adverse events, fetal growth and development, and neonatal prognosis were evaluated...
February 28, 2015: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
J C Dunkelberg, E M F Berkley, K W Thiel, K K Leslie
Our objective was to provide a comprehensive review of the current knowledge regarding pregnancy and hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection as well as recent efforts to reduce the rate of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT). Maternal infection with either HBV or HCV has been linked to adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes, including MTCT. MTCT for HBV has been reduced to approximately 5% overall in countries including the US that have instituted postpartum neonatal HBV vaccination and immunoprophylaxis with hepatitis B immune globulin...
December 2014: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
Pai-Jong Stacy Tsai, Ann Chang, Seiji Yamada, Naoky Tsai, Marguerite Lisa Bartholomew
BACKGROUND: Antiviral therapy in addition to immunoprophylaxis at birth has been shown to further reduce perinatal transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in highly viremic women. AIMS: The aim of this study was to describe the use of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) prophylaxis to reduce maternal HBV DNA levels and potentially vertical transmission in highly viremic women. METHODS: After receiving IRB approval, we performed a retrospective chart review of mothers positive for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) who delivered between 2009 and 2012...
November 2014: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Astrid-Jane Greenup, Pok Kern Tan, Vi Nguyen, Anne Glass, Scott Davison, Ushmi Chatterjee, Susan Holdaway, Dev Samarasinghe, Kathy Jackson, Stephen A Locarnini, Miriam T Levy
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Perinatal transmission of hepatitis B virus still occurs despite immunoprophylaxis in approximately 9% of children from highly viraemic mothers. Antiviral therapy in this setting has been suggested, however with limited evidence to direct agent choice. METHODS: We conducted a multi-centre, prospective, opt-in observational study of antiviral safety and efficacy in pregnant women with high viral load (>7 log IU/ml); lamivudine was used from 2007 to 2010 and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) from late 2010...
September 2014: Journal of Hepatology
James Fung, Wai-Kay Seto, Ching-Lung Lai, Man-Fung Yuen
Oral nucleoside/nucleotide analogues (NAs) are the mainstay of therapy for patients with chronic hepatitis B and are generally well tolerated. Despite this, the safety profile of NAs is of paramount importance since the majority of patients will require long-term treatment. All NAs can potentially affect human DNA polymerase with decrease in mitochondrial DNA, leading to manifestations of mitochondrial toxicity. As a class effect, therefore, NAs can potentially cause extrahepatic conditions, such as myopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy, and lactic acidosis...
March 2014: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Liming Wang, Athena P Kourtis, Sascha Ellington, Jennifer Legardy-Williams, Marc Bulterys
Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) safety during pregnancy has important public health implications. This review summarizes TDF safety during pregnancy, focusing on pregnancy outcomes, congenital anomaly risk, and other potential toxicities on neonates. Although information is limited, TDF appears to be safe during pregnancy. In 6 studies of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (and/or hepatitis B virus)-infected women receiving TDF during pregnancy, adverse events were mild to moderate; none were considered to be TDF-related...
December 2013: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Calvin Q Pan, Hannah M Lee
The management of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) during pregnancy remains a challenge and involves various aspects of maternal-fetal care. Despite the standard immunoprophylaxis, a significant portion of infants born to highly viremic mothers remain infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV). Emerging data suggest that antiviral therapy in the third trimester can prevent immunoprophylaxis failure. To minimize fetal exposure to antiviral agents, antiviral therapy during pregnancy should be reserved for mothers with advanced disease or who are at risk for hepatic decompensation...
May 2013: Seminars in Liver Disease
Anfumbom Kw Kfutwah, Mathurin Cyrille Tejiokem, Richard Njouom
BACKGROUND: Transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) from HBV-positive mothers to their infants is common and usually occurs when the mother is hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) positive and/or has a high HBV DNA load. In this study, we determined the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and HBeAg among pregnant women with known HIV status. FINDINGS: A total of 650 pregnant women with a mean age of 26.2 years including 301 HIV-positives and 349 HIV-negatives were screened for HBsAg (Monolisa AgHBs Plus Biorad, France)...
2012: Virology Journal
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