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Diabetes in Pregnancy

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18 papers 0 to 25 followers
By Alyssa Shariff GIM Fellow
Zoe A Stewart, Malgorzata E Wilinska, Sara Hartnell, Rosemary C Temple, Gerry Rayman, Katharine P Stanley, David Simmons, Graham R Law, Eleanor M Scott, Roman Hovorka, Helen R Murphy
BACKGROUND: In patients with type 1 diabetes who are not pregnant, closed-loop (automated) insulin delivery can provide better glycemic control than sensor-augmented pump therapy, but data are lacking on the efficacy, safety, and feasibility of closed-loop therapy during pregnancy. METHODS: We performed an open-label, randomized, crossover study comparing overnight closed-loop therapy with sensor-augmented pump therapy, followed by a continuation phase in which the closed-loop system was used day and night...
August 18, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
Nina Øyen, Lars J Diaz, Elisabeth Leirgul, Heather A Boyd, James Priest, Elisabeth R Mathiesen, Thomas Quertermous, Jan Wohlfahrt, Mads Melbye
BACKGROUND: Maternal diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased risk of offspring congenital heart defects (CHD); however, the causal mechanism is poorly understood. We further investigated this association in a Danish nationwide cohort. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a national cohort study, we identified 2 025 727 persons born from 1978 to 2011; among them were 7296 (0.36%) persons exposed to maternal pregestational diabetes mellitus. Pregestational diabetes mellitus was identified by using the National Patient Register and individual-level information on all prescriptions filled in Danish pharmacies...
June 7, 2016: Circulation
Ulla Kampmann, Lene Ring Madsen, Gitte Oeskov Skajaa, Ditte Smed Iversen, Niels Moeller, Per Ovesen
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is increasing in prevalence in tandem with the dramatic increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in women of childbearing age. Much controversy surrounds the diagnosis and management of gestational diabetes, emphasizing the importance and relevance of clarity and consensus. If newly proposed criteria are adopted universally a significantly growing number of women will be diagnosed as having GDM, implying new therapeutic challenges to avoid foetal and maternal complications related to the hyperglycemia of gestational diabetes...
July 25, 2015: World Journal of Diabetes
James R Priest, Wei Yang, Gerald Reaven, Joshua W Knowles, Gary M Shaw
IMPORTANCE: There is a well-described association between maternal diabetes mellitus and risk of congenital heart disease (CHD) in offspring. Although the clinical diagnoses of type 2 diabetes or gestational diabetes are strong risk factors for CHD, subclinical abnormalities of glucose and insulin metabolism are common within the general population and could also confer risk for CHD. We hypothesize that continuous measures of blood analytes related to maternal diabetes are related to odds of cardiac malformations...
December 2015: JAMA Pediatrics
Baha M Sibai, Oscar A Viteri
Pregnancies complicated by diabetic ketoacidosis are associated with increased rates of perinatal morbidity and mortality. A high index of suspicion is required, because diabetic ketoacidosis onset in pregnancy can be insidious, usually at lower glucose levels, and often progresses more rapidly as compared with nonpregnancy. Morbidity and mortality can be reduced with early detection of precipitating factors (ie, infection, intractable vomiting, inadequate insulin management or inappropriate insulin cessation, β-sympathomimetic use, steroid administration for fetal lung maturation), prompt hospitalization, and targeted therapy with intensive monitoring...
January 2014: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Michael J A Maresh, Valerie A Holmes, Christopher C Patterson, Ian S Young, Donald W M Pearson, James D Walker, David R McCance
OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between second and third trimester glycemic control and adverse outcomes in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes, as uncertainty exists about optimum glycemic targets. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Pregnancy outcomes were assessed prospectively in 725 women with type 1 diabetes from the Diabetes and Pre-eclampsia Intervention Trial. HbA1c (A1C) values at 26 and 34 weeks' gestation were categorized into five groups, the lowest, <6...
January 2015: Diabetes Care
H Ijäs, M Vääräsmäki, T Saarela, R Keravuo, T Raudaskoski
OBJECTIVE: To compare the growth and development of children born to mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) requiring pharmacological treatment, and randomised to treatment with metformin or insulin. DESIGN: Follow-up of a randomised controlled trial (RCT) comparing metformin and insulin treatment of GDM. SETTING: Data were gathered during routine visits to child welfare clinics at the ages of 6, 12, and 18 months, including weight and height measurements, and assessment of motor, social, and linguistic development...
June 2015: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
R Callec, E Perdriolle-Galet, G-A Sery, O Morel
An observational study was performed to assess the prevalence of fetal malformations and the level of preconception care in women with Type 2 diabetes. Pregnant women with Type 2 diabetes who delivered between 2002 and 2010 were recruited to the study. The fetal malformation rate of patients with Type 2 diabetes was compared with the rate in a control group; the general population. The malformation rate was 3.2 (7.2-2.2%; p < 0.0001) greater in the diabetes group. In addition, only 4% of women with Type 2 diabetes had preconception care...
October 2014: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Jerrie S Refuerzo, Rose Gowen, Claudia Pedroza, Maria Hutchinson, Sean C Blackwell, Susan Ramin
OBJECTIVE: Few studies support oral diabetic treatment in pregnant women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The objective of this study was to compare the effects of metformin versus insulin on achieving glycemic control and improving maternal and neonatal outcomes in pregnant women with T2DM. STUDY DESIGN: A pilot randomized, controlled trial was conducted of metformin versus insulin for the treatment of T2DM during pregnancy. The primary outcome was glycemic control measured with hemoglobin A1c < 7% at delivery...
February 2015: American Journal of Perinatology
Matteo Cassina, Marta Donà, Elena Di Gianantonio, Pietro Litta, Maurizio Clementi
BACKGROUND: Metformin is generally considered a non-teratogenic drug; however, only a few studies specifically designed to assess the rate of congenital anomalies after metformin use have been published in the literature. The objects of the present study were to review all of the prospective and retrospective studies reporting on women treated with metformin at least during the first trimester of their pregnancy and to estimate the overall rate of major birth defects. METHODS: Databases were searched for English language articles until December 2013...
September 2014: Human Reproduction Update
Pedro Marques, Maria Raquel Carvalho, Luísa Pinto, Sílvia Guerra
OBJECTIVE: The use of metformin in pregnant women is still controversial, despite the increasing reports on metformin's safety and effectiveness. We aimed to evaluate the maternal and neonatal safety of metformin in subjects with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical records of 186 pregnancies complicated with GDM surveilled at Hospital de Santa Maria, Lisboa, between 2011 and 2012. The maternal and neonatal outcomes of 32 females who took metformin during pregnancy were compared with 121 females controlled with diet and 33 insulin-treated females...
October 2014: Endocrine Practice
D F Su, X Y Wang
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of metformin compared with insulin in achieving glycemic control and investigate the maternal and neonatal outcomes in gestational diabetes mellitus. METHODS: We searched four electronic databases from inception through December 2012. Terms for Gestational diabetes/gestational diabetes mellitus/diabetes pregnancy AND/OR Metformin/hypoglycemic drugs/Hypoglycemic Agents/Antidiabetic Medications were used in the search. Two investigators independently reviewed titles and abstracts, performed data abstraction on full articles, and assessed study quality...
June 2014: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
R I G Holt, K D Lambert
While insulin has been the treatment of choice when lifestyle measures do not maintain glycaemic control during pregnancy, recent studies have suggested that certain oral hypoglycaemic agents may be safe and acceptable alternatives. With the exception of metformin and glibenclamide (glyburide), there are insufficient data to recommend treatment with any other oral hypoglycaemic agent during pregnancy. There are no serious safety concerns with metformin, despite it crossing the placenta. When used in the first trimester, there is no increase in congenital abnormalities and there appears to be a reduction in miscarriage, pre-eclampsia and subsequent gestational diabetes...
March 2014: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
Seema Waheed, Farhat Perveen Malik, Syeda Batool Mazhar
OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of metformin with insulin in the management of pregnancy with diabetes. STUDY DESIGN: Randomized clinical trial. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Maternal and Child Health Centre (MCH), Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad, from May 2010 to January 2011. METHODOLOGY: A total of 68 pregnant patients with diabetes were included in this study...
December 2013: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
Moustafa Ibrahim Ibrahim, Ahmed Hamdy, Adel Shafik, Salah Taha, Mohammed Anwar, Mohammed Faris
PURPOSE: The aim of the present study is to assess the impact of adding oral metformin to insulin therapy in pregnant women with insulin-resistant diabetes mellitus. METHODS: The current non-inferiority randomized controlled trial was conducted at Ain Shams University Maternity Hospital. The study included pregnant women with gestational or pre-existing diabetes mellitus at gestations between 20 and 34 weeks, who showed insulin resistance (defined as poor glycemic control at a daily dose of ≥1...
May 2014: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
Erica K Berggren, Kim A Boggess
In gestational diabetes (GDM), achieving euglycemia through treatment decreases the risk of adverse outcomes associated with hyperglycemia. Treatment starts with diet and nutritional counseling; however, up to 50% of women will require pharmacologic therapy to meet glucose goals. Although insulin remains the only Federal Drug Administration-approved agent to treat GDM, oral hypoglycemic agents are an attractive and increasingly common alternative. Research suggests that glyburide and metformin can each effectively manage hyperglycemia in pregnancy...
December 2013: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
Cristiane Pavão Spaulonci, Lisandra Stein Bernardes, Thatianne Coutheux Trindade, Marcelo Zugaib, Rossana Pulcineli Vieira Francisco
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate glycemic control in women receiving metformin or insulin for gestational diabetes, and to identify factors predicting the need for supplemental insulin in women initially treated with metformin. STUDY DESIGN: Women with gestational diabetes who failed to achieve glycemic control with diet and exercise were randomized to receive metformin (n = 47) or insulin (n = 47). Criteria for inclusion were singleton pregnancy, diet, and exercise for a minimum period of 1 week without satisfactory glycemic control, absence of risk factors for lactic acidosis, and absence of anatomic and/or chromosome anomalies of the conceptus...
July 2013: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
M Ashley Hickman, Ryan McBride, Kim A Boggess, Robert Strauss
OBJECTIVE: To compare the safety and tolerability of metformin to insulin for glycemic control among women with preexisting type 2 and early A2 gestational diabetes. STUDY DESIGN: Women with preexisting type 2 diabetes and those diagnosed with gestational diabetes who required medical management prior to 20 weeks were randomly assigned to metformin or insulin. Glycemic control, defined as >50% capillary blood glucose within target range, was compared between groups...
June 2013: American Journal of Perinatology
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