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Addiction physiolgical

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176 papers 500 to 1000 followers
By Christopher Cook, BA,CADC, SAP Addiction professional. LPC, CADC, CRNP- student, Interventionist, project manager, owner, Director, eval/refer for SUDs/Eating D/o's
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713341/use-of-telemedicine-in-addiction-treatment-current-practices-and-organizational-implementation-characteristics
#1
Todd Molfenter, Roger Brown, Andrew O'Neill, Ed Kopetsky, Alexander Toy
Telemedicine applications offer innovative approaches for treating and reducing the effects of substance use disorders (SUDs). This analysis assessed the interest in and use of 11 telemedicine applications in a sample of 363 SUD organizations in the United States of America. Fifty percent of the organizations expressed high rates of interest in seven of the telemedicine applications, demonstrating the appeal of telemedicine within this field. The top three self-reported telemedicine applications being used were (1) computerized screening/assessments (44...
2018: International Journal of Telemedicine and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716637/is-intravenously-administered-subdissociative-dose-ketamine-non-inferior-to-morphine-for-prehospital-analgesia-the-ketamorph-study-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#2
Clément Le Cornec, Said Lariby, Vivien Brenckmann, Jean Benoit Hardouin, Claude Ecoffey, Marion Le Pottier, Philippe Fradin, Hélène Broch, Amine Kabbaj, Yannick Auffret, Florence Deciron, Céline Longo, François Javaudin, Quentin Le Bastard, Joël Jenvrin, Emmanuel Montassier
BACKGROUND: Acute pain is a common condition among prehospital patients and prompt management is pivotal. Opioids are the most frequently analgesics used in the prehospital setting. However, opioids are highly addictive, and some patients may develop opioid dependence, even when they are exposed to brief opioid treatments. Therefore, alternative non-opioid analgesia should be developed to manage pain in the prehospital setting. Used at subdissociative doses, ketamine, a noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate and glutamate receptor antagonist, provides analgesic effects accompanied by preservation of protective airway reflexes...
May 2, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751227/ampa-receptor-positive-allosteric-modulators-attenuate-morphine-tolerance-and-dependence
#3
Xiaoyu Hu, Xuebi Tian, Xiao Guo, Ying He, Haijun Chen, Jia Zhou, Zaijie Jim Wang
Development of opioid tolerance and dependence hinders the use of opioids for the treatment of chronic pain. In searching for the mechanism and potential intervention for opioid tolerance and dependence, we studied the action of two positive allosteric modulators of the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR PAMs). In mice treated with morphine (100 mg/kg, s.c.), acute morphine tolerance and dependence developed in 4-6 h. Treatment with aniracetam, a well-established AMPAR PAM, was able to completely prevent and reverse the development of acute antinociceptive tolerance to morphine...
April 25, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29511729/people-control-their-addictions-no-matter-how-much-the-chronic-brain-disease-model-of-addiction-indicates-otherwise-we-know-that-people-can-quit-addictions-with-special-reference-to-harm-reduction-and-mindfulness
#4
REVIEW
Stanton Peele
The world, led by the United States, is hell bent on establishing the absence of choice in addiction, as expressed by the defining statement that addiction is a " chronic relapsing brain disease" (my emphasis). The figure most associated with this model, the director of the American National Institute on Drug Abuse, Nora Volkow, claims that addiction vitiates free will through its effects on the brain. In reality, while by no means a simple task, people regularly quit their substance addictions, often by moderating their consumption, usually through mindfulness-mediated processes (Peele, 2007)...
December 2016: Addictive Behaviors Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946762/cannabis-use-and-risk-of-prescription-opioid-use-disorder-in-the-united-states
#5
Mark Olfson, Melanie M Wall, Shang-Min Liu, Carlos Blanco
OBJECTIVE: The authors sought to determine whether cannabis use is associated with a change in the risk of incident nonmedical prescription opioid use and opioid use disorder at 3-year follow-up. METHOD: The authors used logistic regression models to assess prospective associations between cannabis use at wave 1 (2001-2002) and nonmedical prescription opioid use and prescription opioid use disorder at wave 2 (2004-2005) of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/16010543/ultra-low-dose-naltrexone-suppresses-rewarding-effects-of-opiates-and-aversive-effects-of-opiate-withdrawal-in-rats
#6
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Mary C Olmstead, Lindsay H Burns
RATIONALE: Ultra-low-dose opioid antagonists enhance opiate analgesia and attenuate tolerance and withdrawal. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether ultra-low-dose naltrexone (NTX) coadministration alters the rewarding effects of opiates or the aversive effects of opiate withdrawal. METHODS: We used the conditioned place preference (CPP) and conditioned place aversion (CPA) paradigms to assess whether ultra-low-dose NTX alters the acute rewarding effects of oxycodone or morphine, or the aversive aspect of withdrawal from either drug...
September 2005: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/17685875/oxytrex-an-oxycodone-and-ultra-low-dose-naltrexone-formulation
#7
REVIEW
Lynn R Webster
Oxytrex (Pain Therapeutics, Inc.) is an oral opioid that combines a therapeutic amount of oxycodone with an ultra-low dose of the antagonist naltrexone. Animal data indicate that this combination minimizes the development of physical dependence and analgesic tolerance while prolonging analgesia. Oxytrex is in late-stage clinical development by Pain Therapeutics for the treatment of moderate-to-severe chronic pain. To evaluate the safety and efficacy of the oxycodone/naltrexone combination, three clinical studies have been conducted, one in healthy volunteers and the other two in patients with chronic pain...
August 2007: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708940/street-like-synthesis-of-krokodil-results-in-the-formation-of-an-enlarged-cluster-of-known-and-new-morphinans
#8
José Xavier Soares, Emanuele Amorim Alves, André M N Silva, Natália Guimarães de Figueiredo, João F Neves, Sara Manuela Cravo, Maria Rangel, Annibal Duarte Pereira Netto, Félix Carvalho, Ricardo Jorge Dinis-Oliveira, Carlos Manuel Afonso
"Krokodil" is the street name for a homemade injectable drug that has been used as a cheap substitute for heroin. Codeine is the opioid starting material for krokodil synthesis, and desomorphine is claimed to be the main opioid of krokodil and the main component responsible for its addictive and psychoactive characteristics. However, due to its peculiar manufacture, using cheap raw materials, krokodil is composed of a large and complex mixture of different substances. In order to shed some light upon the chemical complexity of krokodil, its profiling was conducted by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography coupled to a photodiode array detector (RP-HPLC-DAD) and by liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-IT-Orbitrap-MS)...
August 21, 2017: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29478698/genome-wide-association-study-identifies-a-regulatory-variant-of-rgma-associated-with-opioid-dependence-in-european-americans
#9
Zhongshan Cheng, Hang Zhou, Richard Sherva, Lindsay A Farrer, Henry R Kranzler, Joel Gelernter
BACKGROUND: Opioid dependence (OD) is at epidemic levels in the United States. Genetic studies can provide insight into its biology. METHODS: We completed an OD genome-wide association study in 3058 opioid-exposed European Americans, 1290 of whom met criteria for a DSM-IV diagnosis of OD. Analysis used DSM-IV criterion count. RESULTS: By meta-analysis of four cohorts, Yale-Penn 1 (n = 1388), Yale-Penn 2 (n = 996), Yale-Penn 3 (n = 98), and SAGE (Study of Addiction: Genetics and Environment) (n = 576), we identified a variant on chromosome 15, rs12442183, near RGMA, associated with OD (p = 1...
January 11, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29552089/-i-don-t-have-to-know-why-it-snows-i-just-have-to-shovel-it-addiction-recovery-genetic-frameworks-and-biological-citizenship
#10
Molly J Dingel, Jenny Ostergren, Kathleen Heaney, Barbara A Koenig, Jennifer McCormick
The gene has infiltrated the way citizens perceive themselves and their health. However, there is scant research that explores the ways genetic conceptions infiltrate individuals' understanding of their own health as it relates to a behavioral trait, like addiction. Do people seeking treatment for addiction ground their self-perception in biology in a way that shapes their experiences? We interviewed 63 participants in addiction treatment programs, asking how they make meaning of a genetic understanding of addiction in the context of their recovery, and in dealing with the stigma of addiction...
December 2017: BioSocieties
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27208490/amphetamine-withdrawal-differentially-affects-hippocampal-and-peripheral-corticosterone-levels-in-response-to-stress
#11
Brenna Bray, Jamie L Scholl, Wenyu Tu, Michael J Watt, Kenneth J Renner, Gina L Forster
Amphetamine withdrawal is associated with heightened anxiety-like behavior, which is directly driven by blunted stress-induced glucocorticoid receptor-dependent serotonin release in the ventral hippocampus. This suggests that glucocorticoid availability in the ventral hippocampus during stress may be reduced during amphetamine withdrawal. Therefore, we tested whether amphetamine withdrawal alters either peripheral or hippocampal corticosterone stress responses. Adult male rats received amphetamine (2.5mg/kg, ip) or saline for 14 days followed by 2 weeks of withdrawal...
August 1, 2016: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163012/iron-oxide-nanoparticle-delivery-of-peptides-to-the-brain-reversal-of-anxiety-during-drug-withdrawal
#12
Nathan Vinzant, Jamie L Scholl, Chia-Ming Wu, Trevor Kindle, Ranjit Koodali, Gina L Forster
Targeting neuropeptide systems is important for future advancements in treatment of neurological and psychiatric illnesses. However, many of the peptides and their analogs do not cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) efficiently. Nanoparticles such as iron oxide can cross the BBB, and here we describe a novel method for the conjugation of a peptide antisauvagine-30 (ASV-30) to iron oxide nanoparticles. Previous research has shown that direct infusion of ASV-30 into the brain reduces anxiety-like behavior in animal models via actions on corticotropin releasing factor type 2 (CRF2 ) receptors...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462108/disulfiram-attenuates-morphine-or-methadone-withdrawal-syndrome-in-mice
#13
Anna de Cordé, Paweł Krząścik, Renata Wolińska, Patrycja Kleczkowska, Małgorzata Filip, Magdalena Bujalska-Zadrożny
Taking opioids is often accompanied by the development of dependence. Unfortunately, treatment of opioid dependence is difficult, particularly because of codependence - for example, on alcohol or other drugs of abuse. In the presented study, we analyzed the potential influence of disulfiram, a drug used to aid the management of alcoholism, on opioid abstinence syndrome, which occurs as a result of opioid withdrawal. Opioid dependence in mice was induced by subcutaneous administration of either morphine or methadone at a dose of 48 mg/kg for 10 consecutive days...
February 16, 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29544903/low-dose-intramuscular-methadone-for-acute-mild-to-moderate-opioid-withdrawal-syndrome
#14
Mark K Su, Jessica Hetherington Lopez, Aldo Crossa, Robert S Hoffman
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of 10mg intramuscular (IM) methadone in patients with opioid withdrawal syndrome (OWS). METHODS: This was a prospective observational, convenience sample of patients presenting to the ED with mild to moderate OWS. Evaluations included the Clinical Opiate Withdrawal Scale (COWS), Withdrawal Symptoms Scale (WSS), Altered Mental Status Scale (AMSS) and a physician assessment of the patient's WSS (MDWSS). After enrollment, 10mg of IM methadone was administered and patients were reassessed at 30min post-methadone administration...
March 2, 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608409/changes-in-withdrawal-and-craving-scores-in-participants-undergoing-opioid-detoxification-utilizing-ibogaine
#15
Benjamin J Malcolm, Martin Polanco, Joseph P Barsuglia
Opioid use disorder (OUD) is currently an epidemic in the United States (US) and ibogaine is reported to have the ability to interrupt opioid addiction by simultaneously mitigating withdrawal and craving symptoms. This study examined opioid withdrawal and drug craving scores in 50 participants with OUD undergoing a week-long detoxification treatment protocol with ibogaine. The Addiction Severity Index (ASI) was used for baseline characterization of participants' OUD. Clinical Opioid Withdrawal Scale (COWS), Subjective Opioid Withdrawal Scale (SOWS), and Brief Substance Craving Scale (BSCS) scores were collected at 48 and 24 hours prior to ibogaine administration, as well as 24 and 48 hours after ibogaine administration...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27718509/role-of-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-in-long-term-cocaine-induced-neuroplasticity-a-possible-novel-target-for-addiction-treatment
#16
Santiago Cuesta, Jorgelina Batuecas, Maria J Severin, Alejandrina Funes, Silvana B Rosso, Alejandra M Pacchioni
Cocaine addiction is a chronic relapsing disorder characterized by the loss of control over drug-seeking and taking, and continued drug use regardless of adverse consequences. Despite years of research, effective treatments for psycho-stimulant addiction have not been identified. Persistent vulnerability to relapse arises from a number of long-lasting adaptations in the reward circuitry that mediate the enduring response to the drug. Recently, we reported that the activity of the canonical or Wnt/β-catenin pathway in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is very important in the early stages of cocaine-induced neuroadaptations...
January 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23474591/hyposensitivity-to-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-in-the-ventral-tegmental-area-during-alcohol-withdrawal-reversal-by-histone-deacetylase-inhibitors
#17
Devinder S Arora, Sudarat Nimitvilai, Tara L Teppen, Maureen A McElvain, Amul J Sakharkar, Chang You, Subhash C Pandey, Mark S Brodie
Putative dopaminergic (pDAergic) ventral tegmental area (VTA) neurons have an important role in alcohol addiction. Acute ethanol increases the activity of pDAergic neurons, and withdrawal from repeated ethanol administration produces a decreased sensitivity of pDAergic VTA neurons to GABA. Recent studies show that behavioral changes induced by chronic alcohol are reversed by inhibitors of histone deacetylases (HDACs). Whether HDAC-induced histone modifications regulate changes in GABA sensitivity of VTA pDAergic neurons during withdrawal is unknown...
August 2013: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26022264/histone-deacetylases-as-potential-targets-for-cocaine-addiction
#18
REVIEW
Pamela J Kennedy, Eric Harvey
Drug-induced changes in gene expression likely contribute to long-lasting structural and functional alterations in the brain's reward circuitry and the persistence of addiction. Modulation of chromatin structure through covalent histone modifications has emerged as an important regulator of gene transcription in brain and increasing evidence suggests that misregulation of histone acetylation contributes to the establishment and maintenance of aberrant neuronal gene programs and behaviors associated with cocaine or amphetamine exposure...
2015: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255755/epigenetics-a-link-between-addiction-and-social-environment
#19
REVIEW
Duyilemi C Ajonijebu, Oualid Abboussi, Vivienne A Russell, Musa V Mabandla, William M U Daniels
The detrimental effects of drug abuse are apparently not limited to individuals but may also impact the vulnerability of their progenies to develop addictive behaviours. Epigenetic signatures, early life experience and environmental factors, converge to influence gene expression patterns in addiction phenotypes and consequently may serve as mediators of behavioural trait transmission between generations. The majority of studies investigating the role of epigenetics in addiction do not consider the influence of social interactions...
August 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24878765/genetic-addiction-risk-score-gars-molecular-neurogenetic-evidence-for-predisposition-to-reward-deficiency-syndrome-rds
#20
Kenneth Blum, Marlene Oscar-Berman, Zsolt Demetrovics, Debmalya Barh, Mark S Gold
We have published extensively on the neurogenetics of brain reward systems with reference to the genes related to dopaminergic function in particular. In 1996, we coined "Reward Deficiency Syndrome" (RDS), to portray behaviors found to have gene-based association with hypodopaminergic function. RDS as a useful concept has been embraced in many subsequent studies, to increase our understanding of Substance Use Disorder (SUD), addictions, and other obsessive, compulsive, and impulsive behaviors. Interestingly, albeit others, in one published study, we were able to describe lifetime RDS behaviors in a recovering addict (17 years sober) blindly by assessing resultant Genetic Addiction Risk Score (GARS™) data only...
December 2014: Molecular Neurobiology
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