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Addiction physiolgical

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By Christopher Cook Addiction professional. LPC, CADC, CRNP- student, Interventionist, project manager, owner, Director, eval/refer for SUDs/Eating D/o's, 60000 beds referral base
Kenneth Blum, Thomas Simpatico, Rajendra D Badgaiyan, Zsolt Demetrovics, James Fratantonio, Gozde Agan, Marcelo Febo, Mark S Gold
Earlier work from our laboratory, showing anti-addiction activity of a nutraceutical consisting of amino-acid precursors and enkephalinase inhibition properties and our discovery of the first polymorphic gene (Dopamine D2 Receptor Gene [DRD2]) to associate with severe alcoholism serves as a blue-print for the development of "Personalized Medicine" in addiction. Prior to the later genetic finding, we developed the concept of Brain Reward Cascade, which continues to act as an important component for stratification of addiction risk through neurogenetics...
2015: Journal of Reward Deficiency Syndrome
Marc A Schuckit
This article provides an overview of the current treatment of opioid-related conditions, including treatments provided by general practitioners and by specialists in substance-use disorders. The recent dramatic increase in misuse of prescription analgesics, the easy accessibility of opioids such as..
July 28, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
Urszula Skupio, Magdalena Sikora, Michal Korostynski, Agnieszka Wawrzczak-Bargiela, Marcin Piechota, Joanna Ficek, Ryszard Przewlocki
Chronic exposure to opioids induces adaptations in brain function that lead to the formation of the behavioral and physiological symptoms of drug dependence and addiction. Animal models commonly used to test these symptoms typically last less than two weeks, which is presumably too short to observe the alterations in the brain that accompany drug addiction. Here, we analyzed the phenotypic and molecular effects of nearly lifelong morphine or saccharin intake in C57BL/6J mice. We used multiple paradigms to evaluate the symptoms of compulsive drug intake: a progressive ratio schedule, intermittent access and a schedule involving a risk of punishment were programmed into an automated IntelliCage system...
August 31, 2016: Addiction Biology
Jermaine D Jones, Rachel R Luba, Jonathan L Vogelman, Sandra D Comer
BACKGROUND: Previous research has identified many genetic polymorphisms that appear to mediate the effects of opioid drugs. However, the relationship between genetic polymorphisms and the severity of opioid withdrawal has not yet been characterized. METHODS: Data were collected from 48 daily heroin users who previously completed a standardized abstinence-induced or naloxone-precipitated withdrawal procedure to assess opioid dependence. The total withdrawal severity score (based on the COWS) from this procedure was correlated with genotype information for variants of OPRM1 (rs1799971; rs6848893), OPRD1 (rs10753331; rs2234918; rs581111; rs678849; rs1042114), and OPRK1 (rs6473797; rs963549)...
January 2016: American Journal on Addictions
Ji Hye Lee, Hee Young Kim, Eun Young Jang, Seong Hun Choi, Chang Hyun Han, Bong Hyo Lee, Chae Ha Yang
Repeated morphine administration increases extracellular dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens, which results in behavioral sensitization that can be suppressed by acupuncture at Shenmen (HT7) points. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of acupuncture at HT7 on morphine withdrawal syndrome as well as to explore the role of GABA receptors in mediating the effects of HT7 acupuncture. We induced morphine withdrawal by injecting naloxone to rats that self-administer morphine and evaluated the effects of acupuncture and/or GABA receptor antagonists on their withdrawal symptoms...
October 31, 2011: Neuroscience Letters
Shelley L Amen, Linda B Piacentine, Muhammad E Ahmad, Shi-Jiang Li, John R Mantsch, Robert C Risinger, David A Baker
Addiction is a chronic relapsing disorder hypothesized to be produced by drug-induced plasticity that renders individuals vulnerable to craving-inducing stimuli such as re-exposure to the drug of abuse. Drug-induced plasticity that may result in the addiction phenotype includes increased excitatory signaling within corticostriatal pathways that correlates with craving in humans and is necessary for reinstatement in rodents. Reduced cystine-glutamate exchange by system x(c)- appears to contribute to heightened excitatory signaling within the striatum, thereby posing this as a novel target in the treatment of addiction...
March 2011: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Jon E Grant, Suck Won Kim, Brian L Odlaug
BACKGROUND: Although pathological gambling (PG) is relatively common, pharmacotherapy research for PG is limited. N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), an amino acid, seems to restore extracellular glutamate concentration in the nucleus accumbens and therefore offers promise in reducing addictive behavior. METHODS: Twenty-seven subjects (12 women) with DSM-IV PG were treated in an 8-week open-label trial of NAC with responders (defined as a > or = 30% reduction in Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale Modified for Pathological Gambling [PG-YBOCS] total score at end point) randomized to 6 weeks of double-blind NAC or placebo...
September 15, 2007: Biological Psychiatry
D Andrew Tompkins, Michael T Smith, Miriam Z Mintzer, Claudia M Campbell, Eric C Strain
Preliminary evidence suggests that there is minimal withdrawal after the cessation of chronically administered buprenorphine and that opioid withdrawal symptoms are delayed compared with those of other opioids. The present study compared the time course and magnitude of buprenorphine withdrawal with a prototypical μ-opioid agonist, morphine. Healthy, out-of-treatment opioid-dependent residential volunteers (N = 7) were stabilized on either buprenorphine (32 mg/day i.m.) or morphine (120 mg/day i.m.) administered in four divided doses for 9 days...
February 2014: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Sohye Kim, Stephanie Kwok, Linda C Mayes, Marc N Potenza, Helena J V Rutherford, Lane Strathearn
Substance addiction may follow a chronic, relapsing course and critically undermine the physical and psychological well-being of the affected individual and the social units of which the individual is a member. Despite the public health burden associated with substance addiction, treatment options remain suboptimal, with relapses often seen. The present review synthesizes growing insights from animal and human research to shed light upon developmental and neurobiological pathways that may increase susceptibility to addiction...
August 10, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Bernard P Roques
Very few discoveries in the neurosciences have triggered clinical speculation and experimentation regarding the etiology of psychiatric illness to the same extent as that following identification of the opiate receptor(s) and subsequent isolation of endogenous morphine-like peptides. There is overwhelming evidence in animals and in human that opioids are involved in behaviorally relevant issues such as the modulation of pain, the response to stress, motivation, addiction, sexuality, food intake, etc., but our knowledge on the possible relation between opioids and mental illness is still very limited...
July 15, 2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
Pao-Pao Yang, Geng-Chang Yeh, Teng-Kuang Yeh, Jinghua Xi, Horace H Loh, Ping-Yee Law, Pao-Luh Tao
Oxycodone has been used clinically for over 90 years. While it is known that it exhibits low affinity for the multiple opioid receptors, whether its pharmacological activities are due to oxycodone activation of the opioid receptor type or due to its active metabolite (oxymorphone) that exhibits high affinity for the mu-opioid receptors remains unresolved. Ross and Smith (1997) reported the antinociceptive effects of oxycodone (171nmol, i.c.v.) are induced by putative kappa-opioid receptors in SD rat while others have reported oxycodone activities are due to activation of mu- and/or delta-opioid receptors...
September 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Christopher J Evans, Catherine M Cahill
Opioid drugs are potent modulators of many physiological and psychological processes. When given acutely, they can elicit the signature responses of euphoria and analgesia that societies have coveted for centuries. Repeated, or chronic, use of opioids induces adaptive or allostatic changes that modify neuronal circuitry and create an altered normality - the "drug-dependent" state. This state, at least that exhibited by those maintained continuously on long-acting opioid drugs such as methadone or buprenorphine, is generally indistinguishable from the drug-naïve state for most overt behaviors...
2016: F1000Research
Anne-Pascale Le Berre, Edith V Sullivan
In addiction, notably Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD), patients often have a tendency to fail to acknowledge the reality of the disease and to minimize the physical, psychological, and social difficulties attendant to chronic alcohol consumption. This lack of awareness can reduce the chances of initiating and maintaining sobriety. Presented here is a model focusing on compromised awareness in individuals with AUD of mild to moderate cognitive deficits, in particular, for episodic memory impairment-the ability to learn new information, such as recent personal experiences...
December 2016: Neuropsychology Review
Stephanie Maxine Ross
Substance use disorders are exceedingly complicated as is the treatment. In order to increase positive outcomes an understanding of all facets; bio, psycho/social/spiritual, economic, and interdisciplinary aspects are essential to successful treatment. There are an increasing number of integrative addictions treatment centers across the United States, and disciplines that care for this population who are committed to a holistic, integrative approach to addictions treatment. Whole-person interventions, the foundational underpinnings of complementary and integrative therapies that attend to mind, body, and spirit simultaneously, in combination with traditional health care, will serve to provide the most effective treatment and patient outcomes...
May 2013: Holistic Nursing Practice
Fady Rachid
OBJECTIVE: Nicotine dependence accounts for significant mortality, morbidity, and socio-economic burdens. It remains a significant public health concern since it is among the leading causes of mortality worldwide and of preventable deaths in developed countries. Despite the availability of approved medications to treat nicotine dependence, along with cognitive behavioral therapy, only 6% of the total number of smokers who report wanting to quit each year are successful in doing so for more than a month mostly with poor abstinence rates...
September 2016: American Journal on Addictions
Anya K Bershad, Matthew G Kirkpatrick, Jacob A Seiden, Harriet de Wit
Many drugs, including alcohol and stimulants, demonstrably increase sociability and verbal interaction and are recreationally consumed in social settings. One drug, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy), seems to produce its prosocial effects by increasing plasma oxytocin levels, and the oxytocin system has been implicated in responses to several other drugs of abuse. Here, we sought to investigate the effects of 2 other "social" drugs on plasma oxytocin levels--methamphetamine and alcohol. Based on their shared capacity to enhance sociability, we hypothesized that both methamphetamine and alcohol would increase plasma oxytocin levels...
June 2015: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
Agnieszka Michalak, Grazyna Biała
The consequences of alcohol dependence concern serious health care, social and economic problems. The scope of many studies is to better understand mechanisms underlying alcohol addiction in order to work out new, more effective treatment strategies. Alcohol affects many neurotransmission systems within the brain. In general, acute alcohol enhances inhibitory transmission, up-regulating the GABAergic system and impairing glutamatergic function, therefore interfering the balance between excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs...
January 2016: Acta Poloniae Pharmaceutica
Paul Sloan
Chronic pain is frequently treated with our most potent analgesics, the opioids. While immediate-release opioids given every 3 - 4 h provide adequate analgesia for most patients with cancer pain and some patients with chronic nonmalignant pain, extended-release (ER) opioid formulations have been developed in the hope that patients with chronic pain would have improved analgesia, reduced side effects, more convenience, improved compliance, improved sleep and reduced nighttime pain. A more recent goal of the ER opioid product is to reduce prescription opioid addiction risk...
February 2014: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
Igor Elman, David Borsook
While chronic pain is considered by some to be a CNS disease, little is understood about underlying neurobiological mechanisms. Addiction models have heuristic value in this regard, because both pain and addictive disorders are characterized by impaired hedonic capacity, compulsive drug seeking, and high stress. In drug addiction such symptomatology has been attributed to reward deficiency, impaired inhibitory control, incentive sensitization, aberrant learning, and anti-reward allostatic neuroadaptations. Here we propose that similar neuroadaptations exist in chronic pain patients...
January 6, 2016: Neuron
Tong H Lee, Steven T Szabo, J Corey Fowler, Paolo Mannelli, O Barry Mangum, Wayne F Beyer, Ashwin Patkar, William C Wetsel
Psychostimulant abuse continues to present legal, socioeconomic and medical challenges as a primary psychiatric disorder, and represents a significant comorbid factor in major psychiatric and medical illnesses. To date, monotherapeutic drug treatments have not proven effective in promoting long-term abstinence in psychostimulant abusers. In contrast to clinical trials utilizing monotherapies, combinations of dopamine (DA) agonists and selective 5-HT(3), 5HT(2A/2C), or NK(1) antagonists have shown robust efficacy in reversing behavioral and neurobiological alterations in animal models of psychostimulant abuse...
July 1, 2012: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
2016-05-10 22:42:53
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