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Addiction physiolgical

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130 papers 500 to 1000 followers
By Christopher Cook, BA,CADC, SAP Addiction professional. LPC, CADC, CRNP- student, Interventionist, project manager, owner, Director, eval/refer for SUDs/Eating D/o's
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942596/the-multidimensional-therapeutic-potential-of-targeting-the-brain-oxytocin-system-for-the-treatment-of-substance-use-disorders
#1
Michael T Bowen, Inga D Neumann
The neuropeptide oxytocin is released both into the blood and within the brain in response to reproductive stimuli, such as birth, suckling and sex, but also in response to social interaction and stressors. Substance use disorders, or addictions, are chronic, relapsing brain disorders and are one of the major causes of global burden of disease. Unfortunately, current treatment options for substance use disorders are extremely limited and a treatment breakthrough is sorely needed. There is mounting preclinical evidence that targeting the brain oxytocin system may provide that breakthrough...
September 24, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806640/the-importance-of-nutrition-in-aiding-recovery-from-substance-use-disorders-a-review
#2
REVIEW
Kendall D Jeynes, E Leigh Gibson
BACKGROUND: Nutrition is a prerequisite for health; yet, there is no special nutritional assessment or guidance for drug and alcohol dependent individuals, despite the fact that their food consumption is often very limited, risking malnutrition. Further, the premise is examined that malnutrition may promote drug seeking and impede recovery from substance use disorders (SUD). METHOD: A narrative review addressed the relationship between substance use disorders and nutrition, including evidence for malnutrition, as well as their impact on metabolism and appetite regulation...
October 1, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553558/phosphorylation-of-group-i-metabotropic-glutamate-receptors-in-drug-addiction-and-translational-research
#3
Li-Min Mao, Qiang Wang
Protein phosphorylation is an important posttranslational modification of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR1 and mGluR5 subtypes) which are widely distributed throughout the mammalian brain. Several common protein kinases are involved in this type of modification, including protein kinase A, protein kinase C, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase. Through constitutive and activity-dependent phosphorylation of mGluR1/5 at specific residues, protein kinases regulate trafficking, subcellular/subsynaptic distribution, and function of modified receptors...
September 2016: J Transl Neurosci
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874314/drug-discovery-for-the-treatment-of-substance-use-disorders-novel-targets-repurposing-and-the-need-for-new-paradigms
#4
REVIEW
Cristiano Chiamulera, Laura Padovani, Mauro Corsi
Drug addiction treatment medications available nowadays are limited in both efficacy and number. The increased understanding of drug addiction circuitries leads the scientific community to look for better molecules and targets for detoxification and relapse prevention. This review focus on known targets (e.g., metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 and GABAB receptor) and on novel potential treatment acting on oxytocin system, which interacts with diverse neurotransmitters, has proved successful in both preclinical and clinical studies on ethanol, cocaine and methamphetamine...
September 2, 2017: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885516/treating-acute-pain-in-the-opiate-dependent-patient
#5
Coleen Dever
Opioid drugs, including prescription as well as heroin, have come to the national spotlight due to the unprecedented rate of overdose and addiction. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has termed this problem as an "epidemic" that has reached record numbers of deaths in 2014. Approximately half of these deaths are the result from prescribed opioids. Also on the rise are the numbers of individuals who are diagnosed with chronic pain and are treated with opioids, methadone and buprenorphine. Individuals currently taking opioids for chronic pain confound the treatment of acute pain after traumatic injury...
September 2017: Journal of Trauma Nursing: the Official Journal of the Society of Trauma Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828702/-intoxication-with-psychotropic-drugs
#6
R Bellmann, M Joannidis
Psychotropic drugs are medications that are indicated for treatment of psychiatric disorders. Attempted suicide is the major reason for intoxication but inadvertent overdosing may also occur. Other psychotropic agents are taken because of their stimulating and hallucinogenic effects and many have a high addictive potential. Poisoning is usually due to accidental overdosing. For treatment of benzodiazepine and opioid intoxication, flumazenil and naloxone, respectively, are used as specific antagonists. For intoxication by tricyclic antidepressants, sodium bicarbonate is the treatment of choice...
August 21, 2017: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860459/association-of-the-plcb1-gene-with-drug-dependence
#7
Judit Cabana-Domínguez, Carlos Roncero, Laura Pineda-Cirera, R Felipe Palma-Álvarez, Elena Ros-Cucurull, Lara Grau-López, Abderaman Esojo, Miquel Casas, Concepció Arenas, Josep Antoni Ramos-Quiroga, Marta Ribasés, Noèlia Fernàndez-Castillo, Bru Cormand
Genetic factors involved in the susceptibility to drug addiction still remain largely unknown. MiRNAs seem to play key roles in the drug-induced plasticity of the brain that likely drives the emergence of addiction. In this work we explored the role of miRNAs in drug addiction. With this aim, we selected 62 SNPs located in the 3'UTR of target genes that are predicted to alter the binding of miRNA molecules and performed a case-control association study in a Spanish sample of 735 cases (mainly cocaine-dependent subjects with multiple drug dependencies) and 739 controls...
August 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861803/electro-acupuncture-treatment-for-internet-addiction-evidence-of-normalization-of-impulse-control-disorder-in-adolescents
#8
Yang Yang, Hui Li, Xi-Xi Chen, Luo-Ming Zhang, Bing-Jie Huang, Tian-Min Zhu
OBJECTIVE: To observe the impacts of electro-acupuncture (EA) and psychological intervention (PI) on impulsive behavior among internet addiction (IA) adolescents. METHODS: Thirty-two IA adolescents were allocated to either EA (16 cases) or PI (16 cases) group by a randomized digital table. Subjects in the EA group received EA treatment and subjects in the PI group received cognition and behavior therapy. All adolescents underwent 45-d intervention. Sixteen healthy volunteers were recruited into a control group...
September 1, 2017: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804788/pro-dopamine-regulator-kb220-to-balance-brain-reward-circuitry-in-reward-deficiency-syndrome-rds
#9
Kenneth Blum, Marcelo Febo, Lyle Fried, David Baron, Eric R Braverman, Kristina Dushaj, Mona Li, Zsolt Demetrovics, Rajendra D Badgaiyan
We are faced with a worldwide opiate/opioid epidemic that is devastating. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), at least 127 people, young and old, are dying every day in America due to narcotic overdose. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved Medication-Assisted Treatments (MATs) for opiate/opioids as well as alcohol and nicotine. The mechanism of action of most MATS favors either blocking of dopaminergic function or a form of Opiate Substitution Therapy (OST). These treatment options are adequate for short-term treatment of the symptoms of addiction and harm reduction but fail long-term to deal with the cause or lead to recovery...
2017: Journal of Reward Deficiency Syndrome and Addiction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855798/abnormalities-of-dopamine-d3-receptor-signaling-in-the-diseased-brain
#10
REVIEW
G Aleph Prieto
Dopamine D3 receptors (D3R) modulate neuronal activity in several brain regions including cortex, striatum, cerebellum, and hippocampus. A growing body of evidence suggests that aberrant D3R signaling contributes to multiple brain diseases, such as Parkinson's disease, essential tremor, schizophrenia, and addiction. In line with these findings, D3R has emerged as a potential target in the treatment of neurological disorders. However, the mechanisms underlying neuronal D3R signaling are poorly understood, either in healthy or diseased brain...
2017: Journal of Central Nervous System Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766792/will-growth-in-cryptomarket-drug-buying-increase-the-harms-of-illicit-drugs
#11
Judith Aldridge, Alex Stevens, Monica J Barratt
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Cryptomarkets-on-line, anonymous market-places for illicit goods and services that specialize mainly in drugs-account for a small but rapidly growing share of the illicit drug market in many countries. Policy responses so far are based generally on the assumption that their rise will only increase drug harms. In this contribution for debate, we question this assumption. METHODS: We provide a narrative review of the emerging literature connected to drug cryptomarkets...
August 2, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21161752/neural-substrates-of-psychostimulant-withdrawal-induced-anhedonia
#12
REVIEW
Manoranjan S D'Souza, Athina Markou
Psychostimulant drugs have powerful reinforcing and hedonic properties and are frequently abused. Cessation of psychostimulant administration results in a withdrawal syndrome characterized by anhedonia (i.e., an inability to experience pleasure). In humans, psychostimulant withdrawal-induced anhedonia can be debilitating and has been hypothesized to play an important role in relapse to drug use. Hence, understanding the neural substrates involved in psychostimulant withdrawal-induced anhedonia is essential...
2010: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24683506/n-acetylcysteine-nac-in-neurological-disorders-mechanisms-of-action-and-therapeutic-opportunities
#13
REVIEW
Reza Bavarsad Shahripour, Mark R Harrigan, Andrei V Alexandrov
BACKGROUND: There is an expanding field of research investigating the benefits of medicines with multiple mechanisms of action across neurological disorders. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), widely known as an antidote to acetaminophen overdose, is now emerging as treatment of vascular and nonvascular neurological disorders. NAC as a precursor to the antioxidant glutathione modulates glutamatergic, neurotrophic, and inflammatory pathways. AIM AND DISCUSSION: Most NAC studies up to date have been carried out in animal models of various neurological disorders with only a few studies completed in humans...
March 2014: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25221111/sy36-2nutritional-and-alternative-interventions-in-addiction-medicine
#14
G Bunt
The burgeoning area of the application of nutritional and alternative medicine technologies in integrated medicine and psychiatry has taken root in the treatment of addictive disorders. Nutritional supplements spanning a wide range may be therapeutic in treating both deficiencies or insufficiencies as well as an adjunct to pharmacological interventions. Nutritional supplements that are commonly utilized in the treatment of addiction disorders and corresponding co-morbid psychiatric disorders or symptoms include l-methylfolate, vitamin D, inositol, l-tryptophan, omega 3 fatty acids, s-adenosyl methionine (SAM-E), N-acetylcysteine (NAC), melatonin, rhodiola rosea, valerian, chromium, creatine, and hypericum...
September 2014: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429885/intravenous-self-administration-of-benzydamine-a-non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-drug-with-a-central-cannabinoidergic-mechanism-of-action
#15
Riccardo Avvisati, Maria Meringolo, Emiliana Stendardo, Elisa Malavasi, Silvia Marinelli, Aldo Badiani
Benzydamine (BZY) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug used for the topical treatment of inflammations of the oral and vaginal mucosae. Virtually nothing is known about the central pharmacological actions of BZY. Yet there are reports of voluntary systemic overdosage of BZY in drug addicts, resulting in a euphoric, hallucinatory state. In the present study, we investigated the reinforcing properties of BZY in a rat self-administration paradigm. We found that BZY has a powerful reinforcing effect and that this effect is greatly facilitated in animals that already had substance experience, having previously self-administered heroin and cocaine, indicating cross sensitization between BZY and other common drugs of abuse...
April 21, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635037/novel-role-and-regulation-of-hdac4-in-cocaine-related-behaviors
#16
Rachel D Penrod, Maria B Carreira, Makoto Taniguchi, Jaswinder Kumar, Stephanie A Maddox, Christopher W Cowan
Epigenetic mechanisms have been proposed to contribute to persistent aspects of addiction-related behaviors. One family of epigenetic molecules that may regulate maladaptive behavioral changes produced by cocaine use are the histone deacetylases (HDACs)-key regulators of chromatin and gene expression. In particular, the class IIa HDACs (HDAC4, HDAC5, HDAC7 and HDAC9) respond to changes in neuronal activity by modulating their distribution between the nucleus and cytoplasm-a process controlled in large part by changes in phosphorylation of conserved residues...
June 21, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635140/noradrenergic-signaling-in-the-vta-modulates-cocaine-craving
#17
Wojciech Barnaba Solecki, Klaudia Szklarczyk, Kamil Pradel, Krystyna Kwiatkowska, Grzegorz Dobrzański, Ryszard Przewłocki
Exposure to drug-associated cues evokes drug-seeking behavior and is regarded as a major cause of relapse. Conditional stimulus upregulates noradrenaline (NA) system activity, but the drug-seeking behavior depends particularly on phasic dopamine signaling downstream from the ventral tegmental area (VTA). The VTA dopamine-ergic activity is regulated via the signaling of alpha1 -adrenergic and alpha2 -adrenergic receptors (α1 -ARs and α2 -ARs); thus, the impact of the conditional stimulus on drug-seeking behavior might involve NAergic signaling in the VTA...
June 21, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791757/differential-stimulus-control-of-drug-seeking-multimodal-reinstatement
#18
Seth R Batten, Joshua S Beckmann
In animal models of substance-use disorder, individuals that repeatedly self-administer drugs of abuse have long-lasting neuronal adaptations that do not occur ostensibly in control animals only exposed to natural reinforcers (e.g. food). Because any treatment for substance-use disorder will be given to individuals with drug-taking histories, adequate dissociation of the specific neurobehavioral mechanisms underlying drug reinforcement, natural reinforcement and their associated cue effects requires an experimental model that exposes individuals to both reinforcer conditions, along with their associated stimuli...
August 9, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441273/case-report-of-physiologic-phenibut-dependence-treated-with-a-phenobarbital-taper-in-a-patient-being-treated-with-buprenorphine
#19
Emily Brunner, Robert Levy
: This case report describes the development of dependence to phenibut, a gamma-aminobutyric acid-receptor type B agonist, in a patient concurrently being treated with buprenorphine. The patient experienced withdrawal symptoms which were successfully treated with a phenobarbital taper based on a protocol to treat sedative use disorder. This case report provided an example of the development of a phenibut use disorder and also brought up a public health question of whether phenibut should therefore be officially classified and monitored...
May 2017: Journal of Addiction Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26403687/mechanisms-of-action-and-persistent-neuroplasticity-by-drugs-of-abuse
#20
REVIEW
Esa R Korpi, Bjørnar den Hollander, Usman Farooq, Elena Vashchinkina, Ramamoorthy Rajkumar, David J Nutt, Petri Hyytiä, Gavin S Dawe
Adaptation of the nervous system to different chemical and physiologic conditions is important for the homeostasis of brain processes and for learning and remembering appropriate responses to challenges. Although processes such as tolerance and dependence to various drugs of abuse have been known for a long time, it was recently discovered that even a single pharmacologically relevant dose of various drugs of abuse induces neuroplasticity in selected neuronal populations, such as the dopamine neurons of the ventral tegmental area, which persist long after the drug has been excreted...
October 2015: Pharmacological Reviews
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