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Addiction physiolgical

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65 papers 500 to 1000 followers
By Christopher Cook Addiction professional. LPC, CADC, CRNP- student, Interventionist, project manager, owner, Director, eval/refer for SUDs/Eating D/o's, 60000 beds referral base
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485408/genetic-and-pharmacological-antagonism-of-nk1-receptor-prevents-opiate-abuse-potential
#1
A J Sandweiss, M I McIntosh, A Moutal, R Davidson-Knapp, J Hu, A K Giri, T Yamamoto, V J Hruby, R Khanna, T M Largent-Milnes, T W Vanderah
Development of an efficacious, non-addicting analgesic has been challenging. Discovery of novel mechanisms underlying addiction may present a solution. Here we target the neurokinin system, which is involved in both pain and addiction. Morphine exerts its rewarding actions, at least in part, by inhibiting GABAergic input onto substance P (SP) neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), subsequently increasing SP release onto dopaminergic neurons. Genome editing of the neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R) in the VTA renders morphine non-rewarding...
May 9, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555075/acute-ketamine-administration-corrects-abnormal-inflammatory-bone-markers-in-major-depressive-disorder
#2
B Kadriu, P W Gold, D A Luckenbaugh, M S Lener, E D Ballard, M J Niciu, I D Henter, L T Park, R T De Sousa, P Yuan, R Machado-Vieira, C A Zarate
Patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) have clinically relevant, significant decreases in bone mineral density (BMD). We sought to determine if predictive markers of bone inflammation-the osteoprotegerin (OPG)-RANK-RANKL system or osteopontin (OPN)-play a role in the bone abnormalities associated with MDD and, if so, whether ketamine treatment corrected the abnormalities. The OPG-RANK-RANKL system plays the principal role in determining the balance between bone resorption and bone formation. RANKL is the osteoclast differentiating factor and diminishes BMD...
May 30, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574864/methadone-management-of-withdrawal-associated-with-loperamide-related-opioid-use-disorder
#3
Raphael J Leo, Muhammad A Ghazi, Kelly S Jaziri
: Loperamide hydrochloride is an over-the-counter anti-diarrheal agent, acting via mu-opioid receptor agonist effects in the intestinal myenteric plexus. Although preclinical investigations suggested that abuse liability associated with loperamide use is low, there are increasing numbers of cases reported to the US Food and Drug Administration, of abuse, dependence, and withdrawal associated with loperamide use. A case of a patient with opioid use disorder, that is, in the form of protracted loperamide excess use, requiring management of withdrawal with methadone is presented...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Addiction Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590391/misuse-of-novel-synthetic-opioids-a-deadly-new-trend
#4
Matthew P Prekupec, Peter A Mansky, Michael H Baumann
: Novel synthetic opioids (NSOs) include various analogs of fentanyl and newly emerging non-fentanyl compounds. Together with illicitly manufactured fentanyl (IMF), these drugs have caused a recent spike in overdose deaths, whereas deaths from prescription opioids have stabilized. NSOs are used as stand-alone products, as adulterants in heroin, or as constituents of counterfeit prescription medications. During 2015 alone, there were 9580 deaths from synthetic opioids other than methadone. Most of these fatalities were associated with IMF rather than diverted pharmaceutical fentanyl...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Addiction Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21320758/low-doses-of-dextromethorphan-attenuate-morphine-induced-rewarding-via-the-sigma-1-receptor-at-ventral-tegmental-area-in-rats
#5
Shiou-Lan Chen, Kuei-Ying Hsu, Eagle Yi-Kung Huang, Ru-Band Lu, Pao-Luh Tao
Chronic use of morphine causes rewarding and behavioral sensitization, which may lead to the development of psychological craving. In our previous study, we found that a widely used antitussive dextromethorphan (known as a low affinity NMDA receptor antagonist), at doses of 10-20 mg/kg (i.p.), effectively decreased morphine rewarding in rats. In this study, we further investigated the effects and mechanisms of low doses of DM (μg/kg range) on morphine rewarding and behavioral sensitization. A conditioned place preference test was used to determine the rewarding and a locomotor activity test was used to determine the behavioral sensitization induced by the drug(s) in rats...
September 1, 2011: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25716777/a-placebo-controlled-trial-of-dextromethorphan-as-an-adjunct-in-opioid-dependent-patients-undergoing-methadone-maintenance-treatment
#6
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Sheng-Yu Lee, Shiou-Lan Chen, Yun-Hsuan Chang, Chun-Hsien Chu, Shih-Heng Chen, Po See Chen, San-Yuan Huang, Nian-Sheng Tzeng, Liang-Jen Wang, I Hui Lee, Tzu-Yun Wang, Kao Chin Chen, Yen Kuang Yang, Jau-Shyong Hong, Ru-Band Lu
BACKGROUND: Low-dose dextromethorphan (DM) might have anti-inflammatory and neurotrophic effects mechanistically remote from an NMDA receptor. In a randomized, double-blind, controlled 12 week study, we investigated whether add-on dextromethorphan reduced cytokine levels and benefitted opioid-dependent patients undergoing methadone maintenance therapy (MMT). METHODS: Patients were randomly assigned to a group: DM60 (60mg/day dextromethorphan; n = 65), DM120 (120mg/day dextromethorphan; n = 65), or placebo (n = 66)...
February 25, 2015: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150390/gray-matter-relationships-to-diagnostic-and-transdiagnostic-features-of-drug-and-behavioral-addictions
#7
Sarah W Yip, Patrick D Worhunsky, Jiansong Xu, Kristen P Morie, R Todd Constable, Robert T Malison, Kathleen M Carroll, Marc N Potenza
Alterations in neural structure have been reported in both cocaine-use disorder and gambling disorder, separately, suggesting similarities across addiction diagnoses. Individual variation in neural structure has also been associated with impulsivity, a dimensional construct implicated in addictions. This study combines categorical (diagnosis-based) and dimensional (transdiagnostic) approaches to identify neural structural alterations linked to addiction subtypes and trait impulsivity, respectively, across individuals with gambling disorder (n = 35), individuals with cocaine-use disorder (n = 37) and healthy comparison individuals (n = 37)...
February 1, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557352/effect-of-n-acetylcysteine-on-motivation-seeking-and-relapse-to-ethanol-self-administration
#8
Sophie Lebourgeois, María Carmen González-Marín, Jerome Jeanblanc, Mickael Naassila, Catherine Vilpoux
We report here N-acetylcysteine (NAC) efficacy to reduce operant ethanol self-administration in rats during short-time session of 15 minutes. NAC also reduces seeking and reacquisition following protracted abstinence. Our results suggest for the first time that NAC is a potential new anticraving treatment for reduction of alcohol relapse.
May 30, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882209/marketed-new-drug-delivery-systems-for-opioid-agonists-antagonists-administration-a-rapid-overview
#9
REVIEW
Hoda Soltani, Abbas Pardakhty
Novel drug delivery systems for controlled-release of opioid agonists as a long time painkillers or opioid antagonists for opium, heroin, and alcohol addiction are under development or in clinical use today. In this article, the field of "new drug delivery systems" is momentarily reviewed from the viewpoint of the marketed opioid agonists/antagonists dosage forms today.
April 2016: Addiction & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484399/biochemical-benefits-diagnosis-and-clinical-risks-evaluation-of-kratom
#10
REVIEW
Dimy Fluyau, Neelambika Revadigar
BACKGROUND: Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) is a tropical tree with a long history of traditional use in parts of Africa and Southeast Asia. Kratom is also known as Thom, Thang, and Biak. Its leaves and the teas brewed from them have long been used by people in that region to manage pain and opioid withdrawal and to stave off fatigue. Kratom is actually consumed throughout the world for its stimulant effects and as an opioid substitute (in form of tea, chewed, smoked, or ingested in capsules)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/15764732/primate-trace-amine-receptor-1-modulation-by-the-dopamine-transporter
#11
Gregory M Miller, Christopher D Verrico, Amy Jassen, Martha Konar, Hong Yang, Helen Panas, Mary Bahn, Ryan Johnson, Bertha K Madras
Recently identified trace amine receptors are potential direct targets for drugs of abuse, including amphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). We cloned full-length rhesus monkey trace amine receptor 1 (rhTA(1)) that was 96% homologous to human TA(1). The trace amines tyramine and beta-phenylethylamine (PEA) and the monoamine transporter substrates (+/-)-amphetamine and (+/-)-MDMA stimulated cAMP accumulation in rhTA(1)-expressing cell lines, as measured by a cAMP response element-luciferase assay...
June 2005: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470503/stigma-and-self-stigma-in-addiction
#12
Steve Matthews, Robyn Dwyer, Anke Snoek
Addictions are commonly accompanied by a sense of shame or self-stigmatization. Self-stigmatization results from public stigmatization in a process leading to the internalization of the social opprobrium attaching to the negative stereotypes associated with addiction. We offer an account of how this process works in terms of a range of looping effects, and this leads to our main claim that for a significant range of cases public stigma figures in the social construction of addiction. This rests on a social constructivist account in which those affected by public stigmatization internalize its norms...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317038/hypothesizing-that-a-pro-dopamine-regulator-kb220z-should-optimize-but-not-hyper-activate-the-activity-of-trace-amine-associated-receptor-1-taar-1-and-induce-anti-craving-of-psychostimulants-in-the-long-term
#13
Kenneth Blum, Rajendra D Badgaiyan, Eric R Braverman, Kristina Dushaj, Mona Li, Peter K Thanos, Zsolt Demetrovics, Marcelo Febo
Unlike other drugs of abuse such as alcohol, nicotine, opiates/opioids, the FDA has not approved any agent to treat psychostimulant dependence. Certainly, it is widely acceptable that dopaminergic signaling is a key factor in both the initiation and continued motivation to abuse this class of stimulant substances. It is also well accepted that psychostimulants such as cocaine affect not only the release of neuronal dopamine at the nucleus accumbens (NAc), but also has powerful inhibitory actions on the dopamine transporter system...
2016: Journal of Reward Deficiency Syndrome and Addiction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998326/reward-related-neural-activity-and-structure-predict-future-substance-use-in-dysregulated-youth
#14
M A Bertocci, G Bebko, A Versace, S Iyengar, L Bonar, E E Forbes, J R C Almeida, S B Perlman, C Schirda, M J Travis, M K Gill, V A Diwadkar, J L Sunshine, S K Holland, R A Kowatch, B Birmaher, D A Axelson, T W Frazier, L E Arnold, M A Fristad, E A Youngstrom, S M Horwitz, R L Findling, M L Phillips
BACKGROUND: Identifying youth who may engage in future substance use could facilitate early identification of substance use disorder vulnerability. We aimed to identify biomarkers that predicted future substance use in psychiatrically un-well youth. METHOD: LASSO regression for variable selection was used to predict substance use 24.3 months after neuroimaging assessment in 73 behaviorally and emotionally dysregulated youth aged 13.9 (s.d. = 2.0) years, 30 female, from three clinical sites in the Longitudinal Assessment of Manic Symptoms (LAMS) study...
June 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224686/addiction-research-and-theory-a-commentary-on-the-surgeon-general-s-report-on-alcohol-drugs-and-health
#15
Aldo Badiani, Kent C Berridge, Markus Heilig, David J Nutt, Terry E Robinson
The Office of the Surgeon General recently produced its first Report on the consequences of alcohol and drug abuse on health, making several very laudable policy recommendations. The Report also emphasizes the importance of adequate funding for biomedical research, which is good news for both researchers and patients. However, the Report is marred by a biased viewpoint on the psychology and neurobiology of drug addiction. We highlight here four controversial issues that were depicted as facts in the Report, thereby potentially misleading non-expert readers about the current state-of-the-art understanding of the psychology and neurobiology of drug addiction...
February 21, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27617300/coupling-neurogenetics-gars%C3%A2-and-a-nutrigenomic-based-dopaminergic-agonist-to-treat-reward-deficiency-syndrome-rds-targeting-polymorphic-reward-genes-for-carbohydrate-addiction-algorithms
#16
Kenneth Blum, Thomas Simpatico, Rajendra D Badgaiyan, Zsolt Demetrovics, James Fratantonio, Gozde Agan, Marcelo Febo, Mark S Gold
Earlier work from our laboratory, showing anti-addiction activity of a nutraceutical consisting of amino-acid precursors and enkephalinase inhibition properties and our discovery of the first polymorphic gene (Dopamine D2 Receptor Gene [DRD2]) to associate with severe alcoholism serves as a blue-print for the development of "Personalized Medicine" in addiction. Prior to the later genetic finding, we developed the concept of Brain Reward Cascade, which continues to act as an important component for stratification of addiction risk through neurogenetics...
2015: Journal of Reward Deficiency Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27464203/treatment-of-opioid-use-disorders
#17
REVIEW
Marc A Schuckit
This article provides an overview of the current treatment of opioid-related conditions, including treatments provided by general practitioners and by specialists in substance-use disorders. The recent dramatic increase in misuse of prescription analgesics, the easy accessibility of opioids such as..
July 28, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27578564/behavioral-and-transcriptional-patterns-of-protracted-opioid-self-administration-in-mice
#18
Urszula Skupio, Magdalena Sikora, Michal Korostynski, Agnieszka Wawrzczak-Bargiela, Marcin Piechota, Joanna Ficek, Ryszard Przewlocki
Chronic exposure to opioids induces adaptations in brain function that lead to the formation of the behavioral and physiological symptoms of drug dependence and addiction. Animal models commonly used to test these symptoms typically last less than two weeks, which is presumably too short to observe the alterations in the brain that accompany drug addiction. Here, we analyzed the phenotypic and molecular effects of nearly lifelong morphine or saccharin intake in C57BL/6J mice. We used multiple paradigms to evaluate the symptoms of compulsive drug intake: a progressive ratio schedule, intermittent access and a schedule involving a risk of punishment were programmed into an automated IntelliCage system...
August 31, 2016: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26692286/searching-for-evidence-of-genetic-mediation-of-opioid-withdrawal-by-opioid-receptor-gene-polymorphisms
#19
Jermaine D Jones, Rachel R Luba, Jonathan L Vogelman, Sandra D Comer
BACKGROUND: Previous research has identified many genetic polymorphisms that appear to mediate the effects of opioid drugs. However, the relationship between genetic polymorphisms and the severity of opioid withdrawal has not yet been characterized. METHODS: Data were collected from 48 daily heroin users who previously completed a standardized abstinence-induced or naloxone-precipitated withdrawal procedure to assess opioid dependence. The total withdrawal severity score (based on the COWS) from this procedure was correlated with genotype information for variants of OPRM1 (rs1799971; rs6848893), OPRD1 (rs10753331; rs2234918; rs581111; rs678849; rs1042114), and OPRK1 (rs6473797; rs963549)...
January 2016: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21982805/effect-of-acupuncture-on-naloxone-precipitated-withdrawal-syndrome-in-morphine-experienced-rats-the-mediation-of-gaba-receptors
#20
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Ji Hye Lee, Hee Young Kim, Eun Young Jang, Seong Hun Choi, Chang Hyun Han, Bong Hyo Lee, Chae Ha Yang
Repeated morphine administration increases extracellular dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens, which results in behavioral sensitization that can be suppressed by acupuncture at Shenmen (HT7) points. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of acupuncture at HT7 on morphine withdrawal syndrome as well as to explore the role of GABA receptors in mediating the effects of HT7 acupuncture. We induced morphine withdrawal by injecting naloxone to rats that self-administer morphine and evaluated the effects of acupuncture and/or GABA receptor antagonists on their withdrawal symptoms...
October 31, 2011: Neuroscience Letters
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