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6 papers 25 to 100 followers
David Houghton, Christopher J Stewart, Christopher P Day, Michael Trenell
The human digestive system harbors a diverse and complex community of microorganisms that work in a symbiotic fashion with the host, contributing to metabolism, immune response and intestinal architecture. However, disruption of a stable and diverse community, termed "dysbiosis", has been shown to have a profound impact upon health and disease. Emerging data demonstrate dysbiosis of the gut microbiota to be linked with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Although the exact mechanism(s) remain unknown, inflammation, damage to the intestinal membrane, and translocation of bacteria have all been suggested...
March 25, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Matam Vijay-Kumar, Jesse D Aitken, Frederic A Carvalho, Tyler C Cullender, Simon Mwangi, Shanthi Srinivasan, Shanthi V Sitaraman, Rob Knight, Ruth E Ley, Andrew T Gewirtz
Metabolic syndrome is a group of obesity-related metabolic abnormalities that increase an individual's risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Here, we show that mice genetically deficient in Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5), a component of the innate immune system that is expressed in the gut mucosa and that helps defend against infection, exhibit hyperphagia and develop hallmark features of metabolic syndrome, including hyperlipidemia, hypertension, insulin resistance, and increased adiposity...
April 9, 2010: Science
Kazuhiro Katayama, Masanori Saito, Takumi Kawaguchi, Ryujin Endo, Kei Sawara, Shuhei Nishiguchi, Akinobu Kato, Hiroshi Kohgo, Kazutomo Suzuki, Isao Sakaida, Yoshiyuki Ueno, Daiki Habu, Toshifumi Ito, Hisataka Moriwaki, Kazuyuki Suzuki
OBJECTIVE: To our knowledge, no randomized study has shown whether zinc replacement therapy is effective for hyperammonemia in liver cirrhosis; therefore, we performed a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to examine efficacy and safety of the zinc replacement therapy. METHODS: Patients with liver cirrhosis and hyperammonemia (at or above the institutional reference value) and hypozincemia (≤65 μg/dL) were enrolled in the outpatient units of the participating institutions and were randomly divided to receive placebo (P group) or zinc acetate preparation at a dose of 3 capsules/d for a total zinc content of 150 mg/d (Z group) by the envelope method...
November 2014: Nutrition
Ivanna Novotny Núñez, Carolina Maldonado Galdeano, Alejandra de Moreno de LeBlanc, Gabriela Perdigón
OBJECTIVE: Obesity is associated with alterations in intestinal microbiota and immunity. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of probiotic Lactobacillus casei CRL 431 administration on intestinal and humoral immune response, clinical parameters, and gut microbiota was evaluated using a high-fat diet to induce obesity in a mouse model. METHODS: Adult mice received a conventional balanced diet or a high-fat diet supplemented with milk, milk fermented by Lactobacillus casei (FM), L...
November 2014: Nutrition
Valery Krizhanovsky, Monica Yon, Ross A Dickins, Stephen Hearn, Janelle Simon, Cornelius Miething, Herman Yee, Lars Zender, Scott W Lowe
Cellular senescence acts as a potent mechanism of tumor suppression; however, its functional contribution to noncancer pathologies has not been examined. Here we show that senescent cells accumulate in murine livers treated to produce fibrosis, a precursor pathology to cirrhosis. The senescent cells are derived primarily from activated hepatic stellate cells, which initially proliferate in response to liver damage and produce the extracellular matrix deposited in the fibrotic scar. In mice lacking key senescence regulators, stellate cells continue to proliferate, leading to excessive liver fibrosis...
August 22, 2008: Cell
Kazuto Tajiri, Yukihiro Shimizu
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most frequent chronic liver disease and shows various inflammatory changes in the liver. Among those inflammatory cells, natural killer T (NKT) cells are found to have a critical role during the disease progression. NKT cells may have a protective role at the early stage with simple steatosis through modification of insulin resistance, whereas they act as a progression factor at the advanced stage with fibrosis. Those processes are thought to depend on interaction between NKT cells and CD1d molecule in the liver...
2012: International Journal of Hepatology
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