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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30225523/streptococcal-toxic-shock-syndrome-in-the-intensive-care-unit
#1
REVIEW
Marylin Schmitz, Xavier Roux, Benedikt Huttner, Jérôme Pugin
The streptococcal toxic shock syndrome is a severe complication associated with invasive infections by group A streptococci. In spite of medical progresses in the care of patients with septic shock during the last decades, this condition has remained associated with a high mortality. Early recognition and multidisciplinary management are key to the care of patients with streptococcal toxic shock syndrome, with intensive and appropriate intensive support of failing organs, rapid diagnosis of infectious source(s), and surgical management...
September 17, 2018: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30174448/insight-into-acinetobacter-baumannii-pathogenesis-global-resistance-mechanisms-of-resistance-treatment-options-and-alternative-modalities
#2
REVIEW
Muhammad Asif, Iqbal Ahmad Alvi, Shafiq Ur Rehman
Acinetobacter baumannii , once considered a low-category pathogen, has emerged as an obstinate infectious agent. The scientific community is paying more attention to this pathogen due to its stubbornness to last resort antimicrobials, including carbapenems, colistin, and tigecycline, its high prevalence of infections in the hospital setting, and significantly increased rate of community-acquired infections by this organism over the past decade. It has given the fear of pre-antibiotic era to the world. To further enhance our understanding about this pathogen, in this review, we discuss its taxonomy, pathogenesis, current treatment options, global resistance rates, mechanisms of its resistance against various groups of antimicrobials, and future therapeutics...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30015635/prevention-of-hospital-acquired-pneumonia
#3
Patrick G Lyons, Marin H Kollef
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) is the leading cause of death from hospital-acquired infection. Little work has been done on strategies for prevention of HAP. This review aims to describe potential HAP prevention strategies and the evidence supporting them. Oral care and aspiration precautions may attenuate some risk for HAP. Oral and digestive decontamination with antibiotics may be effective but could increase risk for resistant organisms. Other preventive measures, including isolation practices, remain theoretical or experimental...
October 2018: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30028739/antibiotic-treatment-of-hospital-acquired-pneumonia-is-it-different-from-ventilator-associated-pneumonia
#4
Michael S Niederman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) is a form of nosocomial pneumonia, distinct from ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). This review compares HAP and VAP, highlighting differences in natural history, risk factors, and bacteriology that necessitate a different approach to the therapy of HAP, compared with VAP. RECENT FINDINGS: HAP can arise out of the ICU, or in the ICU, and can lead to severe illness, including the need for intubation and mechanical ventilation...
October 2018: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30063491/new-guidelines-for-hospital-acquired-pneumonia-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-usa-vs-europe
#5
Ignacio Martin-Loeches, Alejandro H Rodriguez, Antoni Torres
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The International ERS/ESICM/ESCMID/ALAT guidelines for the management of hospital-acquired pneumonia and ventilator-associated pneumonia were published in 2017 whilst the American guidelines for Management of Adults With Hospital-acquired and Ventilator-associated Pneumonia were launched in 2016 by the Infectious Diseases Society of America/ATS. Both guidelines made updated recommendations based on the most recent evidence sharing not only some parallelisms but also important conceptual differences...
October 2018: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30124483/do-we-need-biomarkers-for-the-follow-up-and-shortening-of-antibiotic-treatment-duration
#6
Milagros Dianti, Carlos M Luna
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Clinical and laboratory parameters are useful tools for the diagnosis, follow-up and evaluation of resolution, and to predict outcomes when measured at different time-points onset and serially during follow-up in patients with hospital-acquired pneumonia and/or ventilator-associated pneumonia (HAP/VAP). RECENT FINDINGS: Both, the 2017 ERS/ESICM/ESCMID/Asociación Latino Americana de Tórax (EEEAG) and the 2016 IDSA/ATS guidelines (IAG) for the management of HAP/VAP recommend using clinical criteria alone, rather than biomarkers for diagnosis...
October 2018: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30144374/incidence-and-outcome-of-invasive-fungal-diseases-after-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-a-swiss-transplant-cohort-study
#7
Sabine Kuster, Susanne Stampf, Bernhard Gerber, Veronika Baettig, Maja Weisser, Sabine Gerull, Michael Medinger, Jakob Passweg, Urs Schanz, Christian Garzoni, Christoph Berger, Yves Chalandon, Nicolas J Mueller, Christian van Delden, Dionysios Neofytos, Nina Khanna
Contemporary, comprehensive data on epidemiology and outcomes of invasive fungal disease (IFD) including breakthrough IFD among allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) recipients are scarce. We included 479 allogeneic HSCT recipients with 10 invasive candidiasis (IC) and 31 probable/proven invasive mold disease (IMD) from the Swiss Transplant Cohort Study from 01.2009 to 08.2013. Overall cumulative incidence was 2.3% for IC and 8.5% for probable/proven IMI: 6% for invasive aspergillosis (IA) and 2...
August 25, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30111341/effect-of-procalcitonin-guided-antibiotic-treatment-on-clinical-outcomes-in-intensive-care-unit-patients-with-infection-and-sepsis-patients-a-patient-level-meta-analysis-of-randomized-trials
#8
REVIEW
Yannick Wirz, Marc A Meier, Lila Bouadma, Charles E Luyt, Michel Wolff, Jean Chastre, Florence Tubach, Stefan Schroeder, Vandack Nobre, Djillali Annane, Konrad Reinhart, Pierre Damas, Maarten Nijsten, Arezoo Shajiei, Dylan W deLange, Rodrigo O Deliberato, Carolina F Oliveira, Yahya Shehabi, Jos A H van Oers, Albertus Beishuizen, Armand R J Girbes, Evelien de Jong, Beat Mueller, Philipp Schuetz
BACKGROUND: The clinical utility of serum procalcitonin levels in guiding antibiotic treatment decisions in patients with sepsis remains unclear. This patient-level meta-analysis based on 11 randomized trials investigates the impact of procalcitonin-guided antibiotic therapy on mortality in intensive care unit (ICU) patients with infection, both overall and stratified according to sepsis definition, severity, and type of infection. METHODS: For this meta-analysis focusing on procalcitonin-guided antibiotic management in critically ill patients with sepsis of any type, in February 2018 we updated the database of a previous individual patient data meta-analysis which was limited to patients with respiratory infections only...
August 15, 2018: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30012057/hospital-acquired-infections-in-critically-ill-patients-with-cancer
#9
Christopher C Battaglia, Kaye Hale
Hospital-acquired infections are a common and costly problem facing critically ill patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). Critically ill patients with cancer are a particularly vulnerable subpopulation who possesses additional, nonmodifiable risk factors for developing these infections and, in many cases, are at increased risk of death as a result. This review will describe the most common nosocomial infections patients with cancer acquire while in the ICU: ventilator-associated events, central line-associated bloodstream infection, catheter-associated urinary tract infections, and Clostridium difficile infection...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30080701/epidemiology-of-icu-acquired-pneumonia
#10
Miquel Ferrer, Antoni Torres
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Review of the epidemiology of ICU-acquired pneumonia, including both ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) in nonventilated ICU patients, with critical review of the most recent literature in this setting. RECENT FINDINGS: The incidence of ICU-acquired pneumonia, mainly VAP has decrease significantly in recent years possibly due to the generalized implementation of preventive bundles. However, the exact incidence of VAP is difficult to establish due to the diagnostic limitations and the methods employed to report rates...
October 2018: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30060092/delafloxacin-a-new-anti-mrsa-fluoroquinolone
#11
Louis D Saravolatz, Gary E Stein
Delafloxacin (ABT 492) is a new fluoroquinolone available in both oral and parenteral formulations. It has recently been approved by the FDA for the management of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections. When compared to combination therapy of vancomycin and aztreonam, delafloxacin was not inferior and had a favorable adverse event profile. Furthermore, its anti-MRSA activity and favorable clinical response in MRSA infections distinguishes it from other fluoroquinolones. This review focuses on the mode of action, antimicrobial activity, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, clinical indications, and safety profile of this drug...
July 28, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30107075/late-post-kidney-transplant-strongyloides-hyperinfection-syndrome
#12
Angie Nishio Lucar, Daphne H Knicely, Costi D Sifri
Disseminated strongyloidiasis is a potentially life-threatening infection in organ transplant recipients that typically occurs within the first 6 months of transplantation. We discuss a patient from the Appalachia region of Virginia who appeared to acquire Strongyloides stercoralis domestically years after kidney transplantation and then develop disseminated strongyloidiasis.
August 14, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29976376/opioid-induced-adrenal-insufficiency
#13
REVIEW
Diane Donegan, Irina Bancos
One in 10 Americans experience chronic pain. Although opioids do play a role in the management of pain, long-term opioid use may lead to adverse effects. Endocrine-related adverse effects have been described but remain poorly recognized. Opioid-induced adrenal insufficiency occurs because of suppression of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal communication and may be challenging to diagnose but has been reported in 9% to 29% of patients receiving long-term opiate therapy. Little data exist to guide case detection and patient management...
July 2018: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101308/antibacterial-resistance-in-patients-with-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#14
REVIEW
Sehnaz Alp, Murat Akova
Recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are at substantial risk of bacterial, fungal, viral, and parasitic infections depending on the time elapsed since transplantation, presence of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), and the degree of immunosuppression. Infectious complications in HSCT recipients are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Bacterial infections constitute the major cause of infectious complications, especially in the early post-transplant period. The emergence of antibacterial resistance complicates the management of bacterial infections in this patient group...
2017: Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755705/appropriate-duration-of-intravenous-treatment-of-candidemia-and-timing-of-step-down-to-oral-therapy-in-non-neutropenic-patients
#15
REVIEW
Rita Wilson Dib, Ray Hachem, Anne-Marie Chaftari, Issam Raad
In this review, we have analyzed the available literature pertaining to the total duration of intravenous (IV) therapy and the appropriate timing of step down to oral therapy in the management of candidemia. Overview of the guidelines and literature seem to indicate that a minimum of 14 days of antifungal therapy is required in the treatment of candidemia without deeply seated infection. However, this was never based on evidence. Furthermore, step down to oral therapy seems to be dependent on the clinical stability criteria of the patient with candidemia after 4 to 7 days of IV therapy...
2018: Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30048345/pulmonary-infections-in-immunocompromised-hosts-clinical
#16
Cristina Vazquez Guillamet, Joe Le Hsu, Gundeep Dhillon, Rodrigo Vazquez Guillamet
Pulmonary infections in immunocompromised patients remain a significant contributor to mortality, morbidity, and health care-associated costs in such a vulnerable patient population. Their epidemiology is changing, set forth by new trends in immunosuppressive regimens and also prophylaxis. The host characteristics, presenting clinical symptomatology, along with radiographic patterns, have also evolved. The microbiology diagnostics are now enriched with nonculture methods for better identification of the causative pathogens...
September 2018: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30074920/infection-in-immunocompromised-hosts-imaging
#17
Nobuyuki Tanaka, Yoshie Kunihiro, Noriyo Yanagawa
Immunocompromised patients are encountered with increasing frequency in clinical practice. In addition to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), therapy for malignant disease, and immune suppression for solid organ transplants, patients are now rendered immunosuppressed by advances in treatment for a wide variety of autoimmune diseases. The number of possible infecting organisms can be bewildering. Recognition of the type of immune defect and the duration and depth of immunosuppression (particularly in hematopoietic and solid organ transplants) can help generate a differential diagnosis...
September 2018: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605219/bacterial-pneumonia-in-kidney-transplant-recipients
#18
REVIEW
D Wilmes, E Coche, H Rodriguez-Villalobos, N Kanaan
Bacterial pathogens are the most frequent cause of pneumonia after transplantation. Early after transplantation, recipients are at higher risk for nosocomial infections. The most commonly encountered pathogens during this period are gram-negative bacilli (Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa …), but gram-positive coccus such as Staphylococcus aureus or Streptococcus pneumoniae and anaerobic bacteria can also be found. Empirical antibiotic therapy should be guided by previous colonisation of the recipient and bacterial resistance pattern in the hospital...
April 2018: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052924/mers-sars-and-other-coronaviruses-as-causes-of-pneumonia
#19
REVIEW
Yudong Yin, Richard G Wunderink
Human coronaviruses (HCoVs) have been considered to be relatively harmless respiratory pathogens in the past. However, after the outbreak of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and emergence of the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), HCoVs have received worldwide attention as important pathogens in respiratory tract infection. This review focuses on the epidemiology, pathogenesis and clinical characteristics among SARS-coronaviruses (CoV), MERS-CoV and other HCoV infections.
February 2018: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30021095/cryptococcus-neoformans-meningoencephalitis
#20
Raul Recio, Ana Perez-Ayala
New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 379, Issue 3, Page 281-281, July 2018.
July 19, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
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