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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433814/acute-symptomatic-seizures-in-term-neonates-etiologies-and-treatments
#1
Janet S Soul
Acute symptomatic seizures caused by either diffuse or focal perinatal hypoxic-ischemic insults and intracranial hemorrhage in term newborns make up the large majority of all neonatal seizures. Acute seizures are one of the most common neurological disorders in term newborns who require admission to the neonatal intensive care unit. Despite elucidation of seizure pathogenesis in this population using animal models, treatment is limited by a lack of good evidence-based guidelines because of a paucity of rigorously conducted clinical trials or prospective studies in human newborns...
February 6, 2018: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432663/transcutaneous-bilirubinometry-should-be-carried-out-in-newborn-infants-at-least-seven-hours-after-phototherapy-finishes
#2
Agah Akin, S Umit Sarici, Murat Ozcan, Melis Akpinar, Demet Altun, Yuksel Yasartekin, Muhittin A Serdar, Dilek Sarici
Bilirubin rebound, which is a reincrease in serum bilirubin levels after the cessation of phototherapy, may develop due to variations in the rates of bilirubin production and clearance. The most commonly used method for testing bilirubin rebound is measuring total serum bilirubin (TSB) levels, because transcutaneous bilirubin (TcB) gives false negative results in newborn infants receiving phototherapy or when phototherapy has just finished. However, TcB is a more preferable method, because TSB is invasive and time consuming...
February 12, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432645/alcohol-binge-drinking-in-early-pregnancy-and-the-effect-on-fetal-growth-a-cohort-study
#3
Julie Anna Slavensky, Ulrik Schiøler Kesmodel
INTRODUCTION: Alcohol binge drinking is common in early pregnancy and is a well-established risk factor for subsequent child health. Yet very few studies have investigated the effect on fetal growth. Furthermore it has also been speculated whether the timing of binge drinking is a determining factor for neonatal growth. The objective of this study was to assess the potential effect of binge drinking and different drinking patterns (timing and number of binge drinking episodes) in early pregnancy on fetal growth estimated by birthweight and birth length...
February 12, 2018: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734732/perinatal-and-neonatal-use-of-sedation-and-analgesia
#4
REVIEW
Christopher McPherson, Terrie Inder
Optimal obstetric and neonatal care requires the provision of adequate analgesia for painful procedures. However, anesthetic and analgesic agents have the potential to adversely impact the developing fetal/neonatal brain. In this setting, clinicians must assess the risks and benefits of pharmacologic anesthesia and analgesia for specific indications in this population. General anesthesia is required for non-obstetric surgery and cesarean section in the absence of neuraxial anesthesia for the health of the mother and fetus...
October 2017: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426806/neonatal-epilepsies-clinical-management
#5
REVIEW
Marie-Coralie Cornet, Tristan T Sands, Maria Roberta Cilio
Whereas the majority of seizures in neonates are related to acute brain injury, a substantial minority are the first symptom of a neonatal-onset epilepsy, often linked to a pathogenic genetic variant. This defect may disrupt cortical development (e.g., lissencephaly, focal cortical dysplasia), lead to metabolic changes (e.g., pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy, sulfite oxidase deficiency) or lead to cortical dysfunction without metabolic or macroscopic structural changes (e.g., channelopathies, STXBP1). Historically, studies on treatment response and long-term consequences of neonatal seizures have lumped all etiologies together...
January 31, 2018: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426807/neonatal-epilepsy-genetics
#6
REVIEW
Erika J T Axeen, Heather E Olson
Neonatal epilepsy genetics is a rapidly expanding field with recent technological advances in genomics leading to an expanding list of genetic disorders associated with neonatal-onset epilepsy. The genetic causes of neonatal epilepsy can be grouped into the following categories: (i) malformations of cortical development, (ii) genetic-metabolic, (iii) genetic-vascular, (iv) genetic-syndromic, and (v) genetic-cellular. Clinically, epilepsy in the neonate shows phenotypic overlap with pathogenic variants in unrelated genes causing similar clinical presentation (locus heterogeneity) and variants in the same gene leading to a wide clinical spectrum ranging from benign familial neonatal seizures to more severe epileptic encephalopathies (variable expressivity)...
January 31, 2018: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424938/observational-study-shows-that-it-is-feasible-to-provide-neuroprotective-treatment-for-neonatal-encephalopathy-in-low-income-countries
#7
T Biselele, J Bambi, G Naulaers, G Tabu, J Kapinga, V Bola, P Makaya, H Tjabbes, B Tady, C Peeters-Scholte
AIM: Perinatal asphyxia is one of the most frequent causes of neonatal morbidity and mortality worldwide and 96% of the burden of neonatal encephalopathy occurs in low-income countries. This study investigated the feasibility of providing neuroprotective treatment for neonatal encephalopathy in low-income countries. METHODS: Neonates with a gestational age of at least 36 weeks, with signs of perinatal asphyxia, were included in this 2015 observational study in three hospitals in Kinshasa, capital of the Democratic Republic of Congo...
February 9, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29381473/low-dose-aspirin-for-preventing-fetal-growth-restriction-a-randomised-trial
#8
Anca-Daniela Stanescu, Roxana Banica, Romina-Marina Sima, Liana Ples
The purpose of this study was to investigate when in pregnancy to stop the administration of low dose aspirin (150 mg/daily) so as to prevent fetal growth restriction (FGR) A randomised, placebo-controlled study was designed. The patients were all screened positive using the Fetal Medicine Foundation (FMF) early pregnancy screening test for preeclampsia (PE) and FGR prediction. One hundred and fifty patients were enrolled and divided equally into three groups: A - the controls who received placebo treatment; B - those who received aspirin till 32 weeks of gestation and C - those who received aspirin till 36 weeks of gestation...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346142/neonatal-abstinence-syndrome-an-update
#9
Lauren A Sanlorenzo, Ann R Stark, Stephen W Patrick
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review provides an update focused on the evolving epidemiology of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS), factors influencing disease expression, advances in clinical assessment of withdrawal, novel approaches to NAS treatment, and the emerging role of quality improvement in assessment and management of NAS. RECENT FINDINGS: The rise in the incidence of NAS disproportionately occurred in rural and suburban areas. Polysubstance exposure and genetic polymorphisms have been shown to modify NAS expression and severity...
January 17, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373331/the-physiology-of-neonatal-resuscitation
#10
Stuart B Hooper, Marcus J Kitchen, Graeme R Polglase, Charles C Roehr, Arjan B Te Pas
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As the infant's physiology changes dramatically after birth, modern neonatal resuscitation approaches should detect and be modified in response to these changes. This review describes the changes in respiratory physiology at birth and highlights approaches that can assist these changes. RECENT FINDINGS: To better target assistance given to infants at birth, the changes in lung physiology have been classified into three phases. The first phase involves lung aeration...
January 25, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374627/morbidity-and-mortality-with-early-pulmonary-haemorrhage-in-preterm-neonates
#11
Kaashif Aqeeb Ahmad, Monica Michelle Bennett, Samiya Fatima Ahmad, Reese Hunter Clark, Veeral Nalin Tolia
OBJECTIVE: There are no large studies evaluating pulmonary haemorrhage (PH) in premature infants. We sought to quantify the clinical characteristics, morbidities and mortality associated with early PH. DESIGN: Data were abstracted from the Pediatrix Clinical Data Warehouse, a large de-identified data set. For incidence calculations, we included infants from 340 Pediatrix United States Neonatal Intensive Care Units from 2005 to 2014 without congenital anomalies. Infants <28 weeks' gestation with PH within 7 days of birth were then matched with two controls for birth weight, gestational age, gender, antenatal steroid exposure, day of life 0 or 1 intubation and multiple gestation...
January 27, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382648/why-are-preterm-newborns-at-increased-risk-of-infection
#12
REVIEW
Amélie Collins, Jörn-Hendrik Weitkamp, James L Wynn
One in 10 newborns will be born before completion of 36 weeks' gestation (premature birth). Infection and sepsis in preterm infants remain a significant clinical problem that represents a substantial financial burden on the healthcare system. Many factors predispose premature infants for having the greatest risk of developing and succumbing to infection as compared with all other age groups across the age spectrum. It is clear that the immune system of preterm infants exhibits distinct, rather than simply deficient, function as compared with more mature and older humans and that the immune function in preterm infants contributes to infection risk...
January 30, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183097/predictors-of-pda-treatment-in-preterm-neonates-who-had-received-prophylactic-indomethacin
#13
Deepak Louis, Yasser N ElSayed, Cecil Ojah, Ruben Alvaro, Prakesh S Shah, Michael Dunn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 28, 2017: American Journal of Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385638/procalcitonin-and-c-reactive-protein-may-help-to-detect-invasive-bacterial-infections-in-children-who-have-fever-without-source
#14
Gaëlle Hubert-Dibon, Lou Danjou, Cécile Feildel-Fournial, Bénédicte Vrignaud, Damien Masson, Elise Launay, Christèle Gras-Le Guen
AIM: This study evaluated the epidemiology and performance of biomarkers for identifying bacterial infections in children who presented with fever without source. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study in the paediatric department at the University Hospital of Nantes, France, in 2016. Children older than six days and younger than five years of age were included. RESULTS: A total of 1,060 children (52.2% male) with fever without source were admitted and the median age was 17 months (interquartile range 6...
January 31, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276423/hypoglycemia-when-to-treat
#15
REVIEW
Venkat Reddy Kallem, Aakash Pandita, Girish Gupta
Hypoglycemia is the most common metabolic disorder encountered in neonates. The definition of hypoglycemia as well as its clinical significance and management remain controversial. Most cases of neonatal hypoglycemia are transient, respond readily to treatment, and are associated with an excellent prognosis. Persistent hypoglycemia is more likely to be associated with abnormal endocrine conditions, such as hyperinsulinemia, as well as possible neurologic sequelae. Manifestations of hypoglycemia include seizures which can result in noteworthy neuromorbidity in the long haul...
2017: Clinical Medicine Insights. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29363502/prevention-of-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-in-extremely-low-gestational-age-neonates-current-evidence
#16
REVIEW
Christian F Poets, Laila Lorenz
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is one of the most frequent complications in extremely low gestational age neonates, but has remained largely unchanged in rate. We reviewed data on BPD prevention focusing on recent meta-analyses. Interventions with proven effectiveness in reducing BPD include the primary use of non-invasive respiratory support, the application of surfactant without endotracheal ventilation and the use of volume-targeted ventilation in infants requiring endotracheal intubation. Following extubation, synchronised nasal ventilation is more effective than continuous positive airway pressure in reducing BPD...
January 23, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352657/electroencephalographic-monitoring-for-seizure-identification-and-prognosis-in-term-neonates
#17
REVIEW
Shavonne L Massey, Frances E Jensen, Nicholas S Abend
Seizures represent a manifestation of neurological disease in the neonatal period. Historically, neonatal seizures were identified by direct clinical observation. However, since most seizures are electroencephalographic (EEG)-only (subclinical, non-convulsive) and clinical manifestations may be subtle, many clinicians place increasing importance on EEG data including conventional EEG or amplitude-integrated EEG to identify seizures in neonates. Beyond seizure identification, the EEG is a robust source of information about brain function that can be useful for neurobehavioral prognostication in some neonates...
January 15, 2018: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346139/blood-biomarkers-for-evaluation-of-perinatal-encephalopathy-state-of-the-art
#18
Ernest M Graham, Allen D Everett, Jean-Christophe Delpech, Frances J Northington
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The rapid progress in biomarker science is on the threshold of significantly changing clinical care for infants in the neonatal ICU. Infants with neonatal brain injuries will likely be the first group whose management is dramatically altered with point-of-care, rapidly available brain biomarker analysis. Providing an interim update on progress in this area is the purpose of this review. RECENT FINDINGS: Highlighted findings from the past 18 months of publications on biomarkers in neonatal brain injury include; Specific nonbrain markers of cardiac health and global asphyxia continue to provide information on brain injury after hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE)...
January 17, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346141/caffeine-controversies
#19
Samuel J Gentle, Colm P Travers, Waldemar A Carlo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Caffeine use in preterm infants has endured several paradigms: from standard of care to possible neurotoxin to one of the few medications for which there is evidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) risk reduction. The purpose of the review is to analyze this dynamic trajectory and discuss controversies that still remain after decades of caffeine use. RECENT FINDINGS: Following concerns for caffeine safety in preterm infants, a large randomized controlled trial demonstrated a reduction in BPD and treatment for patent ductus arteriosus...
January 17, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360141/antenatal-corticosteroids-a-retrospective-cohort-study-on-timing-indications-and-neonatal-outcome
#20
Julia Frändberg, Johan Sandblom, Matteo Bruschettini, Karel Maršál, Karl Kristensen
INTRODUCTION: An antenatal corticosteroids (ACS)-delivery interval of 24 hours to 7 days is commonly referred to as optimal timing. We aimed to investigate whether the ACS-delivery interval was associated with the obstetric indication for treatment and with neonatal complications. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was a retrospective chart review of clinical data from preterm neonates delivered at the Skåne University Hospital, Lund University, Sweden from January 1 st , 2013, to December 31 st , 2016...
January 23, 2018: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
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