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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29926476/formula-versus-donor-breast-milk-for-feeding-preterm-or-low-birth-weight-infants
#1
REVIEW
Maria Quigley, Nicholas D Embleton, William McGuire
BACKGROUND: When sufficient maternal breast milk is not available, alternative forms of enteral nutrition for preterm or low birth weight (LBW) infants are donor breast milk or artificial formula. Donor breast milk may retain some of the non-nutritive benefits of maternal breast milk for preterm or LBW infants. However, feeding with artificial formula may ensure more consistent delivery of greater amounts of nutrients. Uncertainty exists about the balance of risks and benefits of feeding formula versus donor breast milk for preterm or LBW infants...
June 20, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29931679/protein-supplementation-of-human-milk-for-promoting-growth-in-preterm-infants
#2
REVIEW
Emma A Amissah, Julie Brown, Jane E Harding
BACKGROUND: Preterm infants require high protein intake to achieve adequate growth and development. Although breast milk feeding has many benefits for this population, the protein content is highly variable, and inadequate to support rapid infant growth. This is a 2018 update of a Cochrane Review first published in 1999. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether protein-supplemented human milk compared with unsupplemented human milk, fed to preterm infants, improves growth, body composition, cardio-metabolic, and neurodevelopmental outcomes, without significant adverse effects...
June 22, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29953661/full-oral-feeding-is-possible-before-discharge-even-in-extremely-preterm-infants
#3
Zahra Khan, Cornelia Sitter, Marguerite Dunitz-Scheer, Katrin Posch, Alexander Avian, Ilia Bresesti, Berndt Urlesberger
AIM: This study described the steps needed to achieve full oral feeding before discharge in a group of very and extremely preterm (EPT) infants. We analysed the effects of oral feeding skills on discharge timing and on weight gain during their neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) stay. METHODS: A prospective cross-sectional observational study of 100 infants who were <32 weeks of gestation (GA) was conducted at the Division of Neonatology, Graz, Austria, from March 2014 to February 2015...
June 28, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29808264/neonatal-hypertension-cases-causes-and-clinical-approach
#4
Michelle C Starr, Joseph T Flynn
Neonatal hypertension is increasingly recognized as dramatic improvements in neonatal intensive care, advancements in our understanding of neonatal physiology, and implementation of new therapies have led to improved survival of premature infants. A variety of factors appear to be important in determining blood pressure in neonates, including gestational age, birth weight, and postmenstrual age. Normative data on neonatal blood pressure values remain limited. The cause of hypertension in an affected neonate is often identified with careful diagnostic evaluation, with the most common causes being umbilical catheter-associated thrombosis, renal parenchymal disease, and chronic lung disease...
May 28, 2018: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765788/early-pulmonary-interstitial-emphysema-in-preterm-neonates-respiratory-management-and-case-report-in-nonventilated-very-low-birth-weight-twins
#5
Judith Gronbach, Harald Ehrhardt, Klaus-Peter Zimmer, Markus Waitz
Early pulmonary interstitial emphysema in extreme preterm neonates is closely linked with respiratory distress syndrome and exposure to mechanical ventilation. In severe cases, maintaining adequate gas exchange aiming to avoid further lung damage and other neonatal morbidities associated with systemic/pulmonary hypoperfusion, prolonged hypoxia, and respiratory acidosis can be challenging and requires in-depth knowledge into the pathophysiology of the disease. Herein, we report on very low birth weight twins who developed early pulmonary interstitial emphysema during noninvasive respiratory support...
April 2018: American Journal of Perinatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29930881/an-unusual-neonatal-presentation-of-scimitar-syndrome
#6
Ahmad Abdul Aziz, Sumesh Thomas, David Lautner, Essa Hamadan Al Awad
Scimitar syndrome is characterized by partial or total anomalous pulmonary venous return from the right lung along with pulmonary hypoplasia. We present a case of a 37 weeks' gestation male infant with antenatal ultrasound findings of suspected partial anomalous pulmonary venous return (PAPVR) and coarctation of the aorta. The newborn presented with respiratory distress, a chest X-ray and chest computed tomography (CT) angiogram confirmed the diagnosis of scimitar syndrome. The combination of scimitar syndrome with aortic coarctation is extremely rare with only a few cases previously reported...
April 2018: American Journal of Perinatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402455/routine-supplementation-of-lactobacillus-rhamnosus-gg-and-risk-of-necrotizing-enterocolitis-in-very-low-birth-weight-infants
#7
Andrea F Kane, Anisha D Bhatia, Patricia W Denning, Andi L Shane, Ravi Mangal Patel
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if routine supplementation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG ATCC 53103 (LGG) is associated with a decreased risk of necrotizing enterocolitis in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective observational cohort study of VLBW (<1500 g) infants at a single center from 2008 to 2016. LGG supplementation with Culturelle at a dose of 2.5 to 5 × 109 CFU/day began in 2014. We used multivariable logistic regression to evaluate the association between LGG supplementation and necrotizing enterocolitis (modified Bell stage IIA or greater), after adjusting for potential confounders...
April 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29866595/gastric-residual-volume-in-feeding-advancement-in-preterm-infants-grip-study-a-randomized-trial
#8
Balpreet Singh, Niels Rochow, Lorraine Chessell, Jennifer Wilson, Kathy Cunningham, Christoph Fusch, Sourabh Dutta, Sumesh Thomas
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of not relying on prefeeding gastric residual volumes to guide feeding advancement on the time to reach full feeding volumes in preterm infants, compared with routine measurement of gastric residual volumes. We hypothesized that not measuring prefeeding gastric residual volumes can shorten the time to reach full feeds. STUDY DESIGN: In this single-center, randomized, controlled trial, we included gavage fed preterm infants with birth weights (BW) 1500-2000 g who were enrolled within 48 hours of birth...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686441/rheumatic-fever-new-diagnostic-criteria
#9
REVIEW
Izabela Szczygielska, Elżbieta Hernik, Beata Kołodziejczyk, Agnieszka Gazda, Maria Maślińska, Piotr Gietka
Rheumatic fever (RF) is an autoimmune disease associated with group A β-hemolytic streptococcal infection, in the course of which the patient develops carditis, arthritis, chorea, subcutaneous nodules and erythema marginatum. Rheumatic fever diagnosis is based on the Jones criteria, developed in 1944, then revised twice by the American Heart Association (AHA), in 1992 and recently in 2015. The last revision of the Jones criteria consists mainly in the supplementation of the major criteria with echocardiographic examination, the introduction of a concept of subclinical carditis and the isolation of low, medium and high risk populations among the patients...
2018: Reumatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907397/association-between-prophylactic-indomethacin-and-death-or-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-observational-studies
#10
REVIEW
Erik A Jensen, Elizabeth E Foglia, Barbara Schmidt
The use of prophylactic indomethacin in very preterm infants is controversial. The last randomized controlled trial (RCT) to study this therapy enrolled infants over 20 years ago. More recently, observational studies have investigated the association between exposure to prophylactic indomethacin and neonatal morbidities and mortality. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of these studies for the outcomes of death and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Two observational studies involving a total of 11,289 very preterm infants were suitable for meta-analysis...
May 10, 2018: Seminars in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791315/incidence-of-early-onset-sepsis-in-infants-born-to-women-with-clinical-chorioamnionitis
#11
Tara M Randis, Madeline Murguia Rice, Leslie Myatt, Alan T N Tita, Kenneth J Leveno, Uma M Reddy, Michael W Varner, John M Thorp, Brian M Mercer, Mara J Dinsmoor, Susan M Ramin, Marshall W Carpenter, Philip Samuels, Anthony Sciscione, Jorge E Tolosa, George Saade, Yoram Sorokin
OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of sepsis and other adverse neonatal outcomes in women with a clinical diagnosis of chorioamnionitis. METHODS: We performed a secondary analysis of a multi-center placebo-controlled trial of vitamins C/E to prevent preeclampsia in low risk nulliparous women. Clinical chorioamnionitis was defined as either the "clinical diagnosis" of chorioamnionitis or antibiotic administration during labor because of an elevated temperature or uterine tenderness in the absence of another cause...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693719/smectite-for-acute-infectious-diarrhoea-in-children
#12
REVIEW
Giordano Pérez-Gaxiola, Carlos A Cuello-García, Ivan D Florez, Víctor M Pérez-Pico
BACKGROUND: As mortality secondary to acute infectious diarrhoea has decreased worldwide, the focus shifts to adjuvant therapies to lessen the burden of disease. Smectite, a medicinal clay, could offer a complementary intervention to reduce the duration of diarrhoea. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of smectite for treating acute infectious diarrhoea in children. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE (Pubmed), Embase (Ovid), LILACS, reference lists from studies and previous reviews, and conference abstracts, up to 27 June 2017...
April 25, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779007/question-1-is-oral-dexamethasone-as-good-as-oral-prednisolone-for-childhood-wheeze-requiring-steroids
#13
Jiske Steensma, Chris Bird
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760702/emerging-concepts-in-immune-thrombocytopenia
#14
REVIEW
Maurice Swinkels, Maaike Rijkers, Jan Voorberg, Gestur Vidarsson, Frank W G Leebeek, A J Gerard Jansen
Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an autoimmune disease defined by low platelet counts which presents with an increased bleeding risk. Several genetic risk factors (e.g., polymorphisms in immunity-related genes) predispose to ITP. Autoantibodies and cytotoxic CD8+ T cells (Tc) mediate the anti-platelet response leading to thrombocytopenia. Both effector arms enhance platelet clearance through phagocytosis by splenic macrophages or dendritic cells and by induction of apoptosis. Meanwhile, platelet production is inhibited by CD8+ Tc targeting megakaryocytes in the bone marrow...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779927/patent-ductus-arteriosus-the-physiology-of-transition
#15
REVIEW
Poorva Deshpande, Michelle Baczynski, Patrick J McNamara, Amish Jain
The transition from intrauterine to extrauterine life represents a critical phase of physiological adaptation which impacts many organ systems, most notably the heart and the lungs. The majority of term neonates complete this transition without complications; however, dysregulation of normal postnatal adaptation may lead to acute cardiopulmonary instability, necessitating advanced intensive care support. Although not as well appreciated as changes in vascular resistances, the shunt across the DA plays a crucial physiologic role in the adaptive processes related to normal transitional circulation...
May 5, 2018: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599457/streptococcus-pneumoniae-transmission-colonization-and-invasion
#16
REVIEW
Jeffrey N Weiser, Daniela M Ferreira, James C Paton
Streptococcus pneumoniae has a complex relationship with its obligate human host. On the one hand, the pneumococci are highly adapted commensals, and their main reservoir on the mucosal surface of the upper airways of carriers enables transmission. On the other hand, they can cause severe disease when bacterial and host factors allow them to invade essentially sterile sites, such as the middle ear spaces, lungs, bloodstream and meninges. Transmission, colonization and invasion depend on the remarkable ability of S...
June 2018: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29531957/an-algorithmic-approach-for-the-treatment-of-severe-uncontrolled-asthma
#17
REVIEW
Eleftherios Zervas, Konstantinos Samitas, Andriana I Papaioannou, Petros Bakakos, Stelios Loukides, Mina Gaga
A small subgroup of patients with asthma suffers from severe disease that is either partially controlled or uncontrolled despite intensive, guideline-based treatment. These patients have significantly impaired quality of life and although they constitute <5% of all asthma patients, they are responsible for more than half of asthma-related healthcare costs. Here, we review a definition for severe asthma and present all therapeutic options currently available for these severe asthma patients. Moreover, we suggest a specific algorithmic treatment approach for the management of severe, difficult-to-treat asthma based on specific phenotype characteristics and biomarkers...
January 2018: ERJ Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739389/effect-of-increased-enteral-protein-intake-on-plasma-and-urinary-urea-concentrations-in-preterm-infants-born-at-32-weeks-gestation-and-1500-g-birth-weight-enrolled-in-a-randomized-controlled-trial-a-secondary-analysis
#18
Michaela Mathes, Christoph Maas, Christine Bleeker, Julia Vek, Wolfgang Bernhard, Andreas Peter, Christian F Poets, Axel R Franz
BACKGROUND: Feeding breast milk is associated with reduced morbidity and mortality, as well as improved neurodevelopmental outcome but does not meet the high nutritional requirements of preterm infants. Both plasma and urinary urea concentrations represent amino acid oxidation and low concentrations may indicate insufficient protein supply. This study assesses the effect of different levels of enteral protein on plasma and urinary urea concentrations and determines if the urinary urea-creatinine ratio provides reliable information about the protein status of preterm infants...
May 8, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675566/the-surviving-sepsis-campaign-bundle-2018-update
#19
EDITORIAL
Mitchell M Levy, Laura E Evans, Andrew Rhodes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789058/prevention-and-treatment-of-respiratory-distress-syndrome-in-preterm-neonates
#20
Christopher McPherson, Jennifer A Wambach
Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) impacts a high proportion of preterm neonates, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. Advances in pharmacotherapy, specifically antenatal corticosteroids and postnatal surfactant therapy, have significantly reduced the incidence and impact of neonatal RDS. Antenatal corticosteroids accelerate fetal lung maturation by increasing the activity of enzymes responsible for surfactant biosynthesis, resulting in improved lung compliance. Maternal antenatal corticosteroid treatment has improved survival of preterm neonates and lowered the incidence of brain injury...
May 1, 2018: Neonatal Network: NN
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