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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870688/clinical-aspects-of-zika-virus
#1
Elysse N Grossi-Soyster, A Desiree LaBeaud
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that has caused a sudden and explosive outbreak in South America and the Caribbean in the last year, and has been declared a public health emergency by the WHO. As ZIKV afflicts previously naive populations, more severe clinical presentations and sequelae have been observed. A specific emphasis has been placed on the neurological effects in infants resulting from viral exposure in utero. RECENT FINDINGS: Acute onset of ZIKV disease is seen in approximately 20% of cases, whereas most individuals (80%) exposed are asymptomatic...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870689/zika-virus-and-diagnostics
#2
Claudia Raja Gabaglia
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to present what is known about the Zika virus (ZIKV) at the time of writing this review. The viral structure and its phylogeny, as well as the limitations of current available techniques used for diagnosis, are discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: Crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy of the whole ZIKV, or a few of its proteins, are confirming its overall antigenic relatedness to other flaviviruses. Sequencing has revealed its dynamic genetic variation and has placed the Western cluster of Zika isolates within the Asian phylogenic tree...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906864/potential-for-treatment-and-a-zika-virus-vaccine
#3
Natalie Quanquin, Lulan Wang, Genhong Cheng
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Zika virus (ZIKV) has only recently been exposed as a significant public health threat, and much of our limited knowledge of its pathogenesis and triggered immune responses were discovered in only the last few years. There are currently no ZIKV-specific therapeutics or vaccines available. This review seeks to bring the reader up-to-date with the latest developments in finding a way to combat this emerging infectious disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Current strategies used for developing ZIKV vaccines or treatments follow proven methods used against other flaviviruses...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092281/renal-tubular-acidosis
#4
Fernando Santos, Helena Gil-Peña, Silvia Alvarez-Alvarez
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To facilitate the understanding and knowledge of renal tubular acidosis by providing a summarized information on the known clinical and biochemical characteristics of this group of diseases, by updating the genetic and molecular bases of the primary forms renal tubular acidosis and by examining some issues regarding the diagnosis of distal renal tubular acidosis (RTA) in the daily clinical practice. RECENT FINDINGS: The manuscript presents recent findings on the potential of next-generation sequencing to disclose new pathogenic variants in patients with a clinical diagnosis of primary RTA and negative Sanger sequencing of known genes...
January 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872364/zika-virus-the-new-rubella-epidemic
#5
Kerrie K Nguyen, Brigid E O'Brien, Russell W Steele
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 20, 2016: Clinical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099979/milrinone-pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics-in-neonates-with-persistent-pulmonary-hypertension-of-the-newborn
#6
Annie Giaccone, Athena F Zuppa, Beena Sood, Meryl S Cohen, Michael L O'Byrne, Ganesh Moorthy, Amit Mathur, Haresh Kirpalani
Objective To describe the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of milrinone in infants with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) and to explore the impact of age on milrinone disposition. Design Randomized, open label pilot study. Setting Multicenter; level 3 and level 4 neonatal intensive care units. Patients Six infants ≥34 weeks' gestational age and <10 days of life with persistent hypoxemia receiving inhaled nitric oxide. Intervention Intravenous milrinone lactate in one of two dosing regimens: (1) low dose, 20 mcg/kg bolus followed by 0...
January 18, 2017: American Journal of Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002062/nonopioid-management-of-neonatal-abstinence-syndrome
#7
Anne-Marie Boucher
BACKGROUND: Current standard therapy for moderate to severe neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) includes opioid administration and often results in separation of mother and infant. Impaired maternal-infant bonding and extended neonatal opiate exposure may be associated with adverse developmental outcomes. Increased use of nonopioid adjunctive NAS therapies may decrease postnatal opioid exposure and length of stay (LOS), thereby promoting positive developmental outcomes for NAS-affected infants...
December 20, 2016: Advances in Neonatal Care: Official Journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073106/surfactant-need-by-gestation-for-very-preterm-babies-initiated-on-early-nasal-cpap-a-danish-observational-multicentre-study-of-6-628-infants-born-2000-2013
#8
Rikke Wiingreen, Gorm Greisen, Finn Ebbesen, Jesper Padkær Petersen, Gitte Zachariassen, Tine Brink Henriksen, Bo Mølholm Hansen
BACKGROUND: In recent years, early nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) as respiratory support for preterm infants is being advocated as an alternative to prophylactic surfactant and treatment with mechanical ventilation. A number of infants treated with early nCPAP do not need treatment with surfactant, but few studies provide data on this. Since the 1990s, the first approach to respiratory support to preterm infants in Denmark has been early nCPAP combined with surfactant administration by the INSURE method by which the infant is intubated and surfactant administration is followed by rapid extubation to nCPAP if possible...
January 11, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27566670/tidal-volume-delivery-during-continuous-chest-compressions-and-sustained-inflation
#9
A L Solevåg, T-F Lee, M Lu, G M Schmölzer, P-Y Cheung
OBJECTIVE: To determine the distending pressure needed to achieve sufficient tidal volume (VT) delivery during continuous chest compressions (CC) superimposed by sustained inflation (SI) (CC+SI). DESIGN: Randomised animal/manikin trial. SETTING: University laboratory. SUBJECTS: Cadaver piglets/manikin. INTERVENTIONS: SI distending pressures of 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 cm H2O were delivered in random order during CC+SI for 2 min each...
January 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27645491/neopuff-t-piece-resuscitator-does-device-design-affect-delivered-ventilation
#10
Murray Hinder, Pranav Jani, Archana Priyadarshi, Alistair McEwan, Mark Tracy
BACKGROUND: The T-piece resuscitator (TPR) is in common use worldwide to deliver positive pressure ventilation during resuscitation of infants <10 kg. Ease of use, ability to provide positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), availability of devices inbuilt into resuscitaires and cheaper disposable options have increased its popularity as a first-line device for term infant resuscitation. Research into its ventilation performance is limited to preterm infant and animal studies. Efficacy of providing PEEP and the use of TPR during term infant resuscitation are not established...
September 19, 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011792/high-flow-nasal-cannula-versus-ncpap-duration-to-full-oral-feeds-in-preterm-infants-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#11
Sinead J Glackin, Anne O'Sullivan, Sherly George, Jana Semberova, Jan Miletin
OBJECTIVE: To compare the time taken by preterm infants with evolving chronic lung disease to achieve full oral feeding when supported with humidified high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) or nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP). DESIGN: Single centre randomised controlled trial. SETTING: Level III neonatal intensive care unit at the Coombe Women and Infants University Hospital, Dublin, Ireland. PATIENTS: Very low birthweight (birth weight <1500 g) infants born before 30 weeks' gestation who were NCPAP-dependent at 32 weeks corrected gestational age were eligible to participate...
December 23, 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011794/can-ambu-self-inflating-bag-and-neopuff-infant-resuscitator-provide-adequate-and-safe-manual-inflations-for-infants-up-to-10%C3%A2-kg-weight
#12
Mark Tracy, Rajesh Maheshwari, Dharmesh Shah, Murray Hinder
BACKGROUND: Manual resuscitation devices for infants and newborns must be able to provide adequate ventilation in a safe and consistent manner across a wide range of patient sizes (0.5-10 kg) and differing clinical states. There are little comparative data assessing biomechanical performance of common infant manual resuscitation devices across the manufacturers' recommended operating weight ranges. We aimed to compare performance of the Ambu self-inflating bag (SIB) with the Neopuff T-piece resuscitator in three resuscitation models...
December 23, 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087723/prophylactic-propranolol-for-prevention-of-rop-and-visual-outcome-at-1%C3%A2-year-prerop-trial
#13
Kishore Pratap Sanghvi, Nandkishor S Kabra, Phalguni Padhi, Umesh Singh, Swarup Kumar Dash, Bhupendra S Avasthi
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of prophylactic propranolol in the prevention of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in infants ≤32 weeks of gestational age and their visual outcome at 1 year of corrected gestational age. DESIGN: Randomised double blind placebo controlled trial, parallel group nrolment with allocation ratio of 1:1. SETTINGS: Two level III neonatal intensive care units. PARTICIPANTS: 109 preterm neonates of ≤32 weeks of gestation with postnatal age ≤8 days old...
January 13, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22044892/short-and-long-term-effects-of-probiotics-administered-early-in-life
#14
REVIEW
Hania Szajewska
The concept of manipulating the gut microbiota through the administration of probiotics during early life in order to reduce the risk of and prevent or treat diseases, including those that manifest in later life, is appealing. However, a cautious approach is needed, and the long-term consequences of such administration should be carefully evaluated. Concerns related to the early administration of probiotics include timing, i.e. the administration often begins in early infancy, sometimes at birth, when gut microbiota is not fully established, and duration, i...
2011: Nestlé Nutrition Workshop Series. Paediatric Programme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22044890/how-proteins-improve-the-development-of-preterm-infants
#15
REVIEW
W E Corpeleijn, C H van den Akker, J A Roelants, J B van Goudoever
Amino acids and proteins play a pivotal role during growth and development. Besides acting as building blocks during tissue synthesis, amino acids or proteins act specifically by upregulating defense systems or by stimulating key sites in metabolic pathways. Following premature birth, the neonatologist is responsible for delivering the right amount and quality of nutrients to the neonate, while exact requirements are largely unknown. However, nutrition matters, both in quantity as well in quality, especially during the first few weeks and months of life...
2011: Nestlé Nutrition Workshop Series. Paediatric Programme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033074/preoperative-feeding-neonates-with-cardiac-disease
#16
Carly J Scahill, Eric M Graham, Andrew M Atz, Scott M Bradley, Minoo N Kavarana, Sinai C Zyblewski
BACKGROUND: The potential for necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in neonates requiring cardiac surgery has contributed largely to wide feeding practice variations and a hesitation to initiate enteral feeding during the preoperative period, specifically those patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of neonates undergoing cardiac surgery at a single institution between July 2011 and July 2013 was performed. The primary objective of this study was to determine if preoperative feeding was associated with NEC in neonates requiring cardiac surgery...
January 2017: World Journal for Pediatric & Congenital Heart Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977876/introducing-high-flow-nasal-cannula-to-the-neonatal-transport-environment
#17
Michael A Boyle, Arunava Dhar, Rajiv Chaudhary, Susan Kent, Samantha S O'Hare, Theodore Dassios, Susan Broster
Respiratory support using heated humidified high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) therapy has become established practice over the past decade in neonatal intensive care units. HFNC therapy is delivered through small thin tapered cannulae that sit at the nasal aperture using oxygen, or blended oxygen and air, at flow rates greater than 1L/min(1, 2). Recently several studies have demonstrated that it can be safely used as a mode of respiratory support and that the positive end expiratory pressure generated is comparable to that delivered using continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) (3-5)...
December 15, 2016: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036100/haemolytic-and-non-haemolytic-jaundice-revisited
#18
Michael Kaplan
I read the paper by Lee et al (1) and the accompanying editorial by Bhutani and Wong (2) with great interest. Lee et al compared risk factors in neonates with haemolytic jaundice and non-haemolytic controls. The haemolytic group comprised newborn infants with ABO blood group incompatibilities and rhesus and other red cell antibody isoimmunisations. All the other cases were classed as non-haemolytic. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
December 30, 2016: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075515/the-limitations-of-pulse-oximetry-for-cchd-screening-in-the-nicu
#19
Nithi Fernandes, Satyan Lakshminrusimha
We have read this recently published manuscript by Hu et al(1) regarding using pulse oximetry for screening for critical congenital heart disease (CCHD) in the neonatal intensive care units (NICU) with great interest. As an institution exclusively serving outborn neonates, the study was appropriately designed and executed. Prior published reports of CCHD screening in the NICU report a very low detection rate with pulse oximetry screening. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
January 11, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029179/prenatal-diagnosis-of-congenital-heart-diseases-by-fetal-echocardiography-in-second-trimester-a-chinese-multicenter-study
#20
Chen Chu, Yingliu Yan, Yunyun Ren, Xiaotian Li, Yonghao Gui
INTRODUCTION: The objective of our study was to evaluate the performance of detailed fetal echocardiography by skilled obstetric physician sonologists in the diagnosis of congenital heart disease (CHD) in a Chinese population. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This investigation included a multicenter prospective cohort of 10,259 pregnant women attending ten regional tertiary hospitals in China. The inclusion criteria were singleton pregnancy and gestational age 18 ~ ≤28 weeks...
December 28, 2016: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
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