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Ashkan Afshin, Mohammad H Forouzanfar, Marissa B Reitsma, Patrick Sur, Kara Estep, Alex Lee, Laurie Marczak, Ali H Mokdad, Maziar Moradi-Lakeh, Mohsen Naghavi, Joseph S Salama, Theo Vos, Kalkidan H Abate, Cristiana Abbafati, Muktar B Ahmed, Ziyad Al-Aly, Ala’a Alkerwi, Rajaa Al-Raddadi, Azmeraw T Amare, Alemayehu Amberbir, Adeladza K Amegah, Erfan Amini, Stephen M Amrock, Ranjit M Anjana, Johan Ärnlöv, Hamid Asayesh, Amitava Banerjee, Aleksandra Barac, Estifanos Baye, Derrick A Bennett, Addisu S Beyene, Sibhatu Biadgilign, Stan Biryukov, Espen Bjertness, Dube J Boneya, Ismael Campos-Nonato, Juan J Carrero, Pedro Cecilio, Kelly Cercy, Liliana G Ciobanu, Leslie Cornaby, Solomon A Damtew, Lalit Dandona, Rakhi Dandona, Samath D Dharmaratne, Bruce B Duncan, Babak Eshrati, Alireza Esteghamati, Valery L Feigin, João C Fernandes, Thomas Fürst, Tsegaye T Gebrehiwot, Audra Gold, Philimon N Gona, Atsushi Goto, Tesfa D Habtewold, Kokeb T Hadush, Nima Hafezi-Nejad, Simon I Hay, Masako Horino, Farhad Islami, Ritul Kamal, Amir Kasaeian, Srinivasa V Katikireddi, Andre P Kengne, Chandrasekharan N Kesavachandran, Yousef S Khader, Young-Ho Khang, Jagdish Khubchandani, Daniel Kim, Yun J Kim, Yohannes Kinfu, Soewarta Kosen, Tiffany Ku, Barthelemy Kuate Defo, G Anil Kumar, Heidi J Larson, Mall Leinsalu, Xiaofeng Liang, Stephen S Lim, Patrick Liu, Alan D Lopez, Rafael Lozano, Azeem Majeed, Reza Malekzadeh, Deborah C Malta, Mohsen Mazidi, Colm McAlinden, Stephen T McGarvey, Desalegn T Mengistu, George A Mensah, Gert B M Mensink, Haftay B Mezgebe, Erkin M Mirrakhimov, Ulrich O Mueller, Jean J Noubiap, Carla M Obermeyer, Felix A Ogbo, Mayowa O Owolabi, George C Patton, Farshad Pourmalek, Mostafa Qorbani, Anwar Rafay, Rajesh K Rai, Chhabi L Ranabhat, Nikolas Reinig, Saeid Safiri, Joshua A Salomon, Juan R Sanabria, Itamar S Santos, Benn Sartorius, Monika Sawhney, Josef Schmidhuber, Aletta E Schutte, Maria I Schmidt, Sadaf G Sepanlou, Moretza Shamsizadeh, Sara Sheikhbahaei, Min-Jeong Shin, Rahman Shiri, Ivy Shiue, Hirbo S Roba, Diego A S Silva, Jonathan I Silverberg, Jasvinder A Singh, Saverio Stranges, Soumya Swaminathan, Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos, Fentaw Tadese, Bemnet A Tedla, Balewgizie S Tegegne, Abdullah S Terkawi, J S Thakur, Marcello Tonelli, Roman Topor-Madry, Stefanos Tyrovolas, Kingsley N Ukwaja, Olalekan A Uthman, Masoud Vaezghasemi, Tommi Vasankari, Vasiliy V Vlassov, Stein E Vollset, Elisabete Weiderpass, Andrea Werdecker, Joshua Wesana, Ronny Westerman, Yuichiro Yano, Naohiro Yonemoto, Gerald Yonga, Zoubida Zaidi, Zerihun M Zenebe, Ben Zipkin, Christopher J L Murray
BACKGROUND: Although the rising pandemic of obesity has received major attention in many countries, the effects of this attention on trends and the disease burden of obesity remain uncertain. METHODS: We analyzed data from 68.5 million persons to assess the trends in the prevalence of overweight and obesity among children and adults between 1980 and 2015. Using the Global Burden of Disease study data and methods, we also quantified the burden of disease related to high body-mass index (BMI), according to age, sex, cause, and BMI in 195 countries between 1990 and 2015...
July 6, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
Melissa Mialon, Boyd Swinburn, Steven Allender, Gary Sacks
OBJECTIVE: To gain deeper insight into the corporate political activity (CPA) of the Australian food industry from a public health perspective. METHODS: Fifteen interviews with a purposive sample of current and former policy makers, public health advocates and academics who have closely interacted with food industry representatives or observed food industry behaviours. RESULTS: All participants reported having directly experienced the CPA of the food industry during their careers, with the 'information and messaging' and 'constituency building' strategies most prominent...
April 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health
Lorenzo Scappaticcio, Maria Ida Maiorino, Giuseppe Bellastella, Dario Giugliano, Katherine Esposito
Diabetes mellitus and cancer are two growing health problems. They have in common many modifiable risk factors including sex, age, obesity, physical activity, diet, alcohol, and smoking, and have a long latency before overtly manifesting. Patients with diabetes experience a roughly 20-25% higher cancer incidence compared to individuals without diabetes, and it depends on cancer site. Moreover, patients with diabetes who further develop cancer have increased early and late mortality in comparison with cancer patients without diabetes...
May 2017: Endocrine
Ewelina Pałkowska-Goździk, Anna Bigos, Danuta Rosołowska-Huszcz
PURPOSE: Non-nutritive sweeteners are the most widely used food additives worldwide. However, their metabolic outcomes are still a matter of controversy and their effect on the thyroid activity, a key regulator of metabolism, has not been previously studied. Therefore, we aim to determine the influence of the sweet type flavour carrier on selected parameters of thyroid axis activity. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 105) were divided into 3 groups fed ad libitum for three weeks isocaloric diets (3...
December 31, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
Barbora de Courten, Maximilian Pj de Courten, Georgia Soldatos, Sonia L Dougherty, Nora Straznicky, Markus Schlaich, Karly C Sourris, Vibhasha Chand, Jean Ljm Scheijen, Bronwyn A Kingwell, Mark E Cooper, Casper G Schalkwijk, Karen Z Walker, Josephine M Forbes
BACKGROUND: The consumption of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) has increased because of modern food processing and has been linked to the development of type 2 diabetes in rodents. OBJECTIVE: We determined whether changing dietary AGE intake could modulate insulin sensitivity and secretion in healthy, overweight individuals. DESIGN: We performed a double-blind, randomized, crossover trial of diets in 20 participants [6 women and 14 men; mean ± SD body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 29...
June 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Aleyda A Loredo-Pérez, Carlos E Montalvo-Blanco, Luis I Hernández-González, Maricruz Anaya-Reyes, Cecilia Fernández Del Valle-Laisequilla, Juan G Reyes-García, Rosa I Acosta-González, Arisai Martínez-Martínez, Jaira C Villarreal-Salcido, Virginia M Vargas-Muñoz, Enriqueta Muñoz-Islas, Martha B Ramírez-Rosas, Juan M Jiménez-Andrade
OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to quantify nociceptive spontaneous behaviors, knee edema, proinflammatory cytokines, bone density, and microarchitecture in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice with unilateral knee arthritis. METHODS: ICR male mice were fed either standard diet (SD) or HFD starting at 3 weeks old. At 17 weeks, HFD and SD mice received intra-articular injections either with Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA) or saline into the right knee joint every 7 days for 4 weeks...
May 2016: Obesity
David Houghton, Christopher J Stewart, Christopher P Day, Michael Trenell
The human digestive system harbors a diverse and complex community of microorganisms that work in a symbiotic fashion with the host, contributing to metabolism, immune response and intestinal architecture. However, disruption of a stable and diverse community, termed "dysbiosis", has been shown to have a profound impact upon health and disease. Emerging data demonstrate dysbiosis of the gut microbiota to be linked with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Although the exact mechanism(s) remain unknown, inflammation, damage to the intestinal membrane, and translocation of bacteria have all been suggested...
March 25, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Ragesh B Thandassery, Aldo J Montano-Loza
Most widely recognized complications in cirrhotic patients include ascites, hepatic encephalopathy, variceal bleeding, kidney dysfunction, and hepatocellular carcinoma; however, malnutrition and muscle wasting (sarcopenia) constitute common complications which negatively impact survival, quality of life, and response to stressors, such as infection and surgery in patients with cirrhosis. Despite the important role that malnutrition and sarcopenia play in the prognosis of patients with cirrhosis, they are frequently overlooked, in part because nutritional assessment can be a difficult task in patients with cirrhosis due to fluid retention and/or overweight...
June 2016: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
Jin Zhou, Bin Liu, Chun Liang, Yangxin Li, Yao-Hua Song
Skeletal muscle wasting occurs in a variety of diseases including diabetes, cancer, Crohn's disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), disuse, and denervation. Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) is involved in mediating the wasting effect. To date, a causal relationship between TNF-α signaling and muscle wasting has been established in animal models. However, results from clinical trials are conflicting. This is partly due to the fact that other factors such as TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) are also involved in skeletal muscle wasting...
May 2016: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
W Brola, P Sobolewski, W Szczuchniak, A Góral, M Fudala, W Przybylski, J Opara
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) with disability and frequency of relapses in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. SUBJECTS/METHODS: The study included 184 patients with relapsing-remitting MS who were receiving immune-modulating drugs and no vitamin D supplementation. The concentration of 25(OH)D was measured in February and August 2014. The level of disability was assessed twice according to the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS)...
September 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
R Hoffman, G Ranjbar, A M Madden
This pilot study compared inhibition of the glycaemic response to glucose by a dietary source of quercetin glucosides (onion) in lactose-tolerant adults (n=12) and lactose-intolerant adults (n=12). We hypothesised that lactose-intolerant people (who do not express lactase) will retain intact quercetin glucosides that can inhibit glucose uptake via the glucose transporter SGLT1, whereas lactose-tolerant people (who do express lactase) will hydrolyse quercetin glucosides to free quercetin that does not inhibit glucose uptake...
September 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
J-W Zhang, X Tong, Z Wan, Y Wang, L-Q Qin, I M Y Szeto
Previous studies have suggested that whey supplementation may have beneficial effects on lipid profiles, although results were inconsistent. A literature search was performed in March 2015 for randomized controlled trials observing the effects of whey protein and its derivatives on circulating levels of triacylglycerol (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). A meta-analysis was subsequently conducted. The meta-analysis results of 13 trials showed that whey supplementation significantly reduced the circulating TG level by 0...
August 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Christoph Hahn, Anja Müller, Nikolai Kuhnert, Dirk Albach
Recently, kale has become popular due to nutritive components beneficial for human health. It is an important source of phytochemicals such as glucosinolates that trigger associated cancer-preventive activity. However, nutritional value varies among glucosinolates and among cultivars. Here, we start a systematic determination of the content of five glucosinolates in 25 kale varieties and 11 non-kale Brassica oleracea cultivars by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS(n) and compare the profiles with results from the analysis of SNPs derived from a KASP genotyping assay...
April 27, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Francesca Danesi, Marco Govoni, Luigi Filippo D'Antuono, Alessandra Bordoni
Foods are complex matrices containing many different compounds, all of which contribute to the overall effect of the food itself, although they have different mechanisms of action. While evaluating the effect of bioactive compounds, it is important to consider that the use of a single compound can hide the effects of the other molecules that can act synergistically or antagonistically in the same food. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of food matrix components by comparing two edible plants (dill and kale) with cholesterol-lowering potential and similar contents of their most representative bioactive, quercetin...
July 2016: Electrophoresis
Monica Dinu, Rosanna Abbate, Gian Franco Gensini, Alessandro Casini, Francesco Sofi
BACKGROUND: Beneficial effects of vegetarian and vegan diets on health outcomes have been supposed in previous studies. OBJECTIVES: Aim of this study was to clarify the association between vegetarian, vegan diets, risk factors for chronic diseases, risk of all-cause mortality, incidence, and mortality from cardio-cerebrovascular diseases, total cancer and specific type of cancer (colorectal, breast, prostate and lung), through meta-analysis. METHODS: A comprehensive search of Medline, EMBASE, Scopus, The Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar was conducted...
November 22, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Arbind Kumar Choudhary, Tanwir Alam, Rekha Jiwane, Sadawarte Sahebrao Kishanrao
INTRODUCTION: Dietary habits can make a big difference on both physical and mental aspects of the body. Menstrual disorder frequently affects the quality of life of adolescent and young adult women. Menstrual cycle irregularities may be associated with psychological stress, and endocrine disturbances. Monitoring of sensory-motor association and cardiovascular activity across the menstrual cycle has not been evaluated with dietary habits. AIM: The present study was carried out to bridge the relationship between dietary habits and endogenous sex hormone mediated sensory motor association and heart rate variability (HRV) among young females during different phases of menstrual cycle...
January 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Peter Burckhardt
Vegetarian and vegan diets contain low amounts of protein and calcium. For this reason they are supposed to cause low bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporosis. But this is not the case, except for vegans with a particularly low calcium intake. The absence of osteoporosis or low BMD can be explained by the low acid load of these diets. Nutritional acid load is negatively correlated with bone mineral density (BMD) and positively with fracture risk. Low acid load is correlated with lower bone resorption and higher BMD...
2016: Swiss Medical Weekly
Hina Mir, Avtar S Meena, Kamaljit K Chaudhry, Pradeep K Shukla, Ruchika Gangwar, Bhargavi Manda, Mythili K Padala, Le Shen, Jerrold R Turner, Paula Dietrich, Ioannis Dragatsis, RadhaKrishna Rao
BACKGROUND: Disruption of epithelial tight junctions (TJ), gut barrier dysfunction and endotoxemia play crucial role in the pathogenesis of alcoholic tissue injury. Occludin, a transmembrane protein of TJ, is depleted in colon by alcohol. However, it is unknown whether occludin depletion influences alcoholic gut and liver injury. METHODS: Wild type (WT) and occludin deficient (Ocln(-/-)) mice were fed 1-6% ethanol in Lieber-DeCarli diet. Gut permeability was measured by vascular-to-luminal flux of FITC-inulin...
April 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
R Mastrocola, D Nigro, F Chiazza, C Medana, F Dal Bello, G Boccuzzi, M Collino, M Aragno
Advanced Glycation End-Products (AGEs) have been recently related to the onset of metabolic diseases and related complications. Moreover, recent findings indicate that AGEs can endogenously be formed by high dietary sugars, in particular by fructose which is widely used as added sweetener in foods and drinks. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of a high-fructose diet and the causal role of fructose-derived AGEs in mice skeletal muscle morphology and metabolism. C57Bl/6J mice were fed a standard diet (SD) or a 60% fructose diet (HFRT) for 12 weeks...
February 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Yessenia Tantamango-Bartley, Synnove F Knutsen, Raymond Knutsen, Bjarne K Jacobsen, Jing Fan, W Lawrence Beeson, Joan Sabate, David Hadley, Karen Jaceldo-Siegl, Jason Penniecook, Patti Herring, Terry Butler, Hanni Bennett, Gary Fraser
BACKGROUND: According to the American Cancer Society, prostate cancer accounts for ∼27% of all incident cancer cases among men and is the second most common (noncutaneous) cancer among men. The relation between diet and prostate cancer is still unclear. Because people do not consume individual foods but rather foods in combination, the assessment of dietary patterns may offer valuable information when determining associations between diet and prostate cancer risk. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the association between dietary patterns (nonvegetarian, lacto-ovo-vegetarian, pesco-vegetarian, vegan, and semi-vegetarian) and prostate cancer incidence among 26,346 male participants of the Adventist Health Study-2...
January 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
2016-01-03 18:25:50
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