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5 papers 25 to 100 followers
By Abraham Nunes Psychiatry resident interested in computational neuroscience, forensic psychiatry, and neuropsychiatry.
Andrew C McCreary, Christian P Müller, Małgorzata Filip
Substance use disorder, and particularly psychostimulant use disorder, has considerable socioeconomic burden globally. The psychostimulants include several chemical classes, being derivatives of benzoylecgonine, phenethylamine, phenylpropanolamine, or aminoaryloxazoline. Psychostimulant drugs activate the brain reward pathways of the mesoaccumbal system, and continued use leads to persistent neuroplastic and dysfunctional changes of a variety of structures involved in learning and memory, habit-forming learning, salience attribution, and inhibitory control...
2015: International Review of Neurobiology
Juan Sanchez-Ramos
Psychomotor stimulants are drugs that act on the central nervous system (CNS) to increase alertness, elevate mood, and produce a sense of well-being. These drugs also decrease appetite and the need for sleep. Stimulants can enhance stamina and improve performance in tasks that have been impaired by fatigue or boredom. Approved therapeutic applications of stimulants include attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy, and obesity. These agents also possess potent reinforcing properties that can result in excessive self-administration and abuse...
2015: International Review of Neurobiology
Jaanus Harro
Administration of amphetamine and methamphetamine can elicit psychiatric adverse effects at acute administration, binge use, withdrawal, and chronic use. Most troublesome of these are psychotic states and aggressive behavior, but a large variety of undesirable changes in cognition and affect can be induced. Adverse effects occur more frequently with higher dosages and long-term use. They can subside over time but some persist long-term. Multiple alterations in the gray and white matter of the brain assessed as changes in tissue volume or metabolism, or at molecular level, have been associated with amphetamine and methamphetamine use and the psychiatric adverse effects, but further studies are required to clarify their causal role, specificity, and relationship with preceding states and traits and comorbidities...
2015: International Review of Neurobiology
Atbin Djamshidian
Psychostimulants are a heterogeneous group of drugs known not only for its arousal and motor activity enhancing effects but also for its high risk of abuse. In susceptible individuals, chronic use can cause addiction leading to devastating physical, psychological, and social health consequences. This chapter will focus on the neurobehavioral consequences of psychostimulant abuse. Different models and theories of addiction and possible underlying mechanisms as well as changed in decision making on neuropsychological tasks have been discussed...
2015: International Review of Neurobiology
Robert C Spencer, David M Devilbiss, Craig W Berridge
Psychostimulants are highly effective in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. The clinical efficacy of these drugs is strongly linked to their ability to improve cognition dependent on the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and extended frontostriatal circuit. The procognitive actions of psychostimulants are only associated with low doses. Surprisingly, despite nearly 80 years of clinical use, the neurobiology of the procognitive actions of psychostimulants has only recently been systematically investigated...
June 1, 2015: Biological Psychiatry
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