Read by QxMD icon Read

Public Health

shared collection
109 papers 0 to 25 followers Articles and research that relate to Public Health issues in Luton and Bedfordshire
Gail Gilchrist, Davina Swan, Kideshini Widyaratna, Julia Elena Marquez-Arrico, Elizabeth Hughes, Noreen Dadirai Mdege, Marrissa Martyn-St James, Judit Tirado-Munoz
Opiate substitution treatment and needle exchanges have reduced blood borne virus (BBV) transmission among people who inject drugs (PWID). Psychosocial interventions could further prevent BBV. A systematic review and meta-analysis examined whether psychosocial interventions (e.g. CBT, skills training) compared to control interventions reduced BBV risk behaviours among PWID. 32 and 24 randomized control trials (2000-May 2015 in MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Cochrane Collaboration and Clinical trials, with an update in MEDLINE to December 2016) were included in the review and meta-analysis respectively...
April 1, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
Julia Dickson-Gomez, Timothy McAuliffe, Katherine Quinn
Research on the relationship between housing instability and HIV risk has often focused on two different conceptions of stability. In one conceptualization, housing stability is defined according to physical location with homeless or unstably housed individuals defined as those who reside in places not meant for human habitation or in emergency shelters. The other conceptualization has defined housing stability as individuals' degree of transience, often operationalized as the number of moves or evictions a person has had within a specified amount of time...
February 27, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
Katherine B Howe, Christian Suharlim, Peter Ueda, Daniel Howe, Ichiro Kawachi, Eric B Rimm
OBJECTIVE:  To estimate the effect of playing Pokémon GO on the number of steps taken daily up to six weeks after installation of the game. DESIGN:  Cohort study using online survey data. PARTICIPANTS:  Survey participants of Amazon Mechanical Turk (n=1182) residing in the United States, aged 18 to 35 years and using iPhone 6 series smartphones. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:  Number of daily steps taken each of the four weeks before and six weeks after installation of Pokémon GO, automatically recorded in the "Health" application of the iPhone 6 series smartphones and reported by the participants...
December 13, 2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Lisa S Rotenstein, Marco A Ramos, Matthew Torre, J Bradley Segal, Michael J Peluso, Constance Guille, Srijan Sen, Douglas A Mata
Importance: Medical students are at high risk for depression and suicidal ideation. However, the prevalence estimates of these disorders vary between studies. Objective: To estimate the prevalence of depression, depressive symptoms, and suicidal ideation in medical students. Data Sources and Study Selection: Systematic search of EMBASE, ERIC, MEDLINE, psycARTICLES, and psycINFO without language restriction for studies on the prevalence of depression, depressive symptoms, or suicidal ideation in medical students published before September 17, 2016...
December 6, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Sarah Floud, Angela Balkwill, Kath Moser, Gillian K Reeves, Jane Green, Valerie Beral, Benjamin J Cairns
BACKGROUND: Some recent research has suggested that health-related behaviours, such as smoking, might explain much of the socio-economic inequalities in coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. In a large prospective study of UK women, we investigated the associations between education and area deprivation and CHD risk and assessed the contributions of smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity and body mass index (BMI) to these inequalities. METHODS: After excluding women with heart disease, stroke or cancer at recruitment, 1,202,983 women aged 56 years (SD 5 years) on average, were followed for first coronary event (hospital admission or death) and for CHD mortality...
October 13, 2016: BMC Medicine
Pekka Oja, Paul Kelly, Zeljko Pedisic, Sylvia Titze, Adrian Bauman, Charlie Foster, Mark Hamer, Melvyn Hillsdon, Emmanuel Stamatakis
BACKGROUND/AIM: Evidence for the long-term health effects of specific sport disciplines is scarce. Therefore, we examined the associations of six different types of sport/exercise with all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality risk in a large pooled Scottish and English population-based cohort. METHODS: Cox proportional hazards regression was used to investigate the associations between each exposure and all-cause and CVD mortality with adjustment for potential confounders in 80 306 individuals (54% women; mean±SD age: 52±14 years)...
November 28, 2016: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Hong Chen, Jeffrey C Kwong, Ray Copes, Karen Tu, Paul J Villeneuve, Aaron van Donkelaar, Perry Hystad, Randall V Martin, Brian J Murray, Barry Jessiman, Andrew S Wilton, Alexander Kopp, Richard T Burnett
BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence suggests that living near major roads might adversely affect cognition. However, little is known about its relationship with the incidence of dementia, Parkinson's disease, and multiple sclerosis. We aimed to investigate the association between residential proximity to major roadways and the incidence of these three neurological diseases in Ontario, Canada. METHODS: In this population-based cohort study, we assembled two population-based cohorts including all adults aged 20-50 years (about 4·4 million; multiple sclerosis cohort) and all adults aged 55-85 years (about 2·2 million; dementia or Parkinson's disease cohort) who resided in Ontario, Canada on April 1, 2001...
February 18, 2017: Lancet
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 10, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Claire Leppold, Tetsuya Tanimoto, Masaharu Tsubokura
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2016: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Improving survival and extending the longevity of life for all populations requires timely, robust evidence on local mortality levels and trends. The Global Burden of Disease 2015 Study (GBD 2015) provides a comprehensive assessment of all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes in 195 countries and territories from 1980 to 2015. These results informed an in-depth investigation of observed and expected mortality patterns based on sociodemographic measures. METHODS: We estimated all-cause mortality by age, sex, geography, and year using an improved analytical approach originally developed for GBD 2013 and GBD 2010...
October 8, 2016: Lancet
Mary M Mitchell, Trang Q Nguyen, Sarina R Isenberg, Allysha C Maragh-Bass, Jeanne Keruly, Amy R Knowlton
Among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV), health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is an important clinical metric of perceived well-being. Baseline data from the BEACON study (N = 383) were used to examine relationships between HRQOL and negative social support, HIV-related stigma, viral suppression, and physical and mental health service use among a vulnerable population of low-income, urban PLHIV who currently or formerly used substances, and were primarily African American. Factor analyses and structural equation modeling indicated that increases in negative social support, stigma, mental health care visits and HIV physician visits were associated with lower HRQOL, while viral suppression was associated with greater HRQOL...
October 27, 2016: AIDS and Behavior
Jennie Connor
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: There is increasing research evidence about the causal role of alcohol in cancer, accompanied by unclear and conflicting messages in the media. This paper aimed to clarify the strength of the evidence for alcohol as a cause of cancer, and the meaning of cause in this context. METHODS: Recent epidemiological and biological research on alcohol and cancer was reviewed and summarized, drawing upon published meta-analyses identified from the Medline database and the archives of the International Agency for Research on Cancer...
July 21, 2016: Addiction
Giuseppe Gorini, Giulia Carreras, Barbara Cortini, Simona Verdi, Maria Grazia Petronio, Piersante Sestini, Elisabetta Chellini
INTRODUCTION: Few studies have explored whether smoke-free homes (SFH) can promote reductions of smoking onset in children, particularly in households with smoking parents. The aim of this study was to determine whether youths living in SFH were less likely to progress to smoking. METHODS: We conducted a longitudinal, 11-year, two-wave study on 778 children aged 6-7 years and 985 adolescents aged 13-14 in 2002. At baseline, youths were asked whether or not adults smoked at home (SFH); at follow-up, in 2012-2014, whether a household smoking ban (HSB) had been implemented during the course of the study...
November 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Robert A Bonacci, David R Holtgrave
INTRODUCTION: HIV testing is key to achieving the National HIV/AIDS Strategy goals. A new diagnosis metric evaluated whether testing services are reaching the remaining undiagnosed people living with HIV (PLWH), by subpopulation. METHODS: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention surveillance data from 2008 to 2013 were obtained for: (1) new HIV diagnoses; (2) HIV prevalence; and (3) percentage of PLWH aware of serostatus. The number of new HIV diagnoses in a given year divided by the number of undiagnosed PLWH in the previous year was determined...
December 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Mike Vuolo, Brian C Kelly, Joy Kadowaki
INTRODUCTION: In an analysis of smoking using a longitudinal sample of US young adults, we extend research on tobacco vending machine restrictions beyond its prior focus on minors by examining the influence of total vending machine restrictions, which apply to adult-only facilities and represents the only remaining vending machine exemption since the enactment of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act. We identify whether the passage of a restriction influences an individual's smoking on repeated observations, and if the propensity is lower among those who live in locations with a restriction...
November 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Bishnu Devkota, Joanne Salas, Lauren Garfield
INTRODUCTION: This study examined the association between age of initiation of cigarette use and increased risk of lifetime major depressive episode. METHODS: This study utilized publicly available data from the 2013 National Survey on Drug Use and Health involving a nationally representative sample of interviews of 55,160 randomly selected people aged ≥12 years. Analysis was conducted in 2016. Age of initiation of cigarette use was divided into four groups (≤12 years, 13-14 years, 15-18 years, and >18 years)...
December 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Tony Robertson, Eleanor Watts
BACKGROUND: Given the broad spectrum of health and wellbeing outcomes that are patterned by socioeconomic position (SEP), it has been suggested that there may be common biological pathways linking SEP and health. Allostatic load is one such pathway, which aims to measure cumulative burden/dysregulation across multiple physiological systems. This study aimed to determine the contextual and demographic factors (age, sex and place) that may be important in better understanding the links between lower SEP and higher allostatic load...
2016: BMC Public Health
Rosalie Liccardo Pacula, Beau Kilmer, Alexander C Wagenaar, Frank J Chaloupka, Jonathan P Caulkins
Until November 2012, no modern jurisdiction had removed the prohibition on the commercial production, distribution, and sale of marijuana for nonmedical purposes-not even the Netherlands. Government agencies in Colorado and Washington are now charged with granting production and processing licenses and developing regulations for legal marijuana, and other states and countries may follow. Our goal is not to address whether marijuana legalization is a good or bad idea but, rather, to help policymakers understand the decisions they face and some lessons learned from research on public health approaches to regulating alcohol and tobacco over the past century...
June 2014: American Journal of Public Health
Silje L Kaspersen, Kristine Pape, Gunnhild Å Vie, Solveig O Ose, Steinar Krokstad, David Gunnell, Johan H Bjørngaard
BACKGROUND: Many studies have investigated how unemployment influences health, less attention has been paid to the reverse causal direction; how health may influence the risk of becoming unemployed. We prospectively investigated a wide range of health measures and subsequent risk of unemployment during 14 years of follow-up. METHODS: Self-reported health data from 36 249 participants in the Norwegian HUNT2 Study (1995-1997) was linked by a personal identification number to the National Insurance Database (1992-2008)...
April 2016: European Journal of Public Health
Jacek M Mazurek, Lucinda J England
BACKGROUND: Employers play a vital role in promoting and supporting tobacco use cessation among tobacco-using workers. Cigarette smoking during pregnancy is a preventable cause of complications in pregnancy and adverse infant health outcomes. PURPOSE: To estimate cigarette smoking prevalence and attempts to quit among working women of reproductive age in different industries and occupations using a nationally representative survey. METHODS: The 2009-2013 National Health Interview Survey data for women of reproductive age (18-49 years) who were working in the week prior to the interview (n = 30855) were analyzed...
May 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
2016-01-24 22:15:06
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"