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98 papers 0 to 25 followers Articles and research that relate to Public Health issues in Luton and Bedfordshire
Jennie Connor
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: There is increasing research evidence about the causal role of alcohol in cancer, accompanied by unclear and conflicting messages in the media. This paper aimed to clarify the strength of the evidence for alcohol as a cause of cancer, and the meaning of cause in this context. METHODS: Recent epidemiological and biological research on alcohol and cancer was reviewed and summarized, drawing upon published meta-analyses identified from the Medline database and the archives of the International Agency for Research on Cancer...
July 21, 2016: Addiction
Giuseppe Gorini, Giulia Carreras, Barbara Cortini, Simona Verdi, Maria Grazia Petronio, Piersante Sestini, Elisabetta Chellini
INTRODUCTION: Few studies have explored whether smoke-free homes (SFH) can promote reductions of smoking onset in children, particularly in households with smoking parents. The aim of this study was to determine whether youths living in SFH were less likely to progress to smoking. METHODS: we conducted a longitudinal, 11-year, 2-wave study on 778 children aged 6-7 years and 985 adolescents aged 13-14 in 2002. At baseline youths were asked whether or not adults smoked at home (SFH); at follow-up in 2012-2014 whether a household smoking ban (HSB) had been implemented during the course of the study...
June 9, 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Robert A Bonacci, David R Holtgrave
INTRODUCTION: HIV testing is key to achieving the National HIV/AIDS Strategy goals. A new diagnosis metric evaluated whether testing services are reaching the remaining undiagnosed people living with HIV (PLWH), by subpopulation. METHODS: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention surveillance data from 2008 to 2013 were obtained for: (1) new HIV diagnoses; (2) HIV prevalence; and (3) percentage of PLWH aware of serostatus. The number of new HIV diagnoses in a given year divided by the number of undiagnosed PLWH in the previous year was determined...
August 23, 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Mike Vuolo, Brian C Kelly, Joy Kadowaki
INTRODUCTION: In an analysis of smoking using a longitudinal sample of U.S. young adults, we extend research on tobacco vending machine restrictions beyond its prior focus on minors by examining the influence of total vending machine restrictions, which apply to adult-only facilities and represents the only remaining vending machine exemption since the enactment of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act. We identify whether the passage of a restriction influences an individual's smoking on repeated observations, and if the propensity is lower among those who live in locations with a restriction...
June 8, 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Bishnu Devkota, Joanne Salas, Lauren Garfield
INTRODUCTION: This study examined the association between age of initiation of cigarette use and increased risk of lifetime major depressive episode. METHODS: This study utilized publicly available data from the 2013 National Survey on Drug Use and Health involving a nationally representative sample of interviews of 55,160 randomly selected people aged ≥12 years. Analysis was conducted in 2016. Age of initiation of cigarette use was divided into four groups (≤12 years, 13-14 years, 15-18 years, and >18 years)...
July 16, 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Tony Robertson, Eleanor Watts
BACKGROUND: Given the broad spectrum of health and wellbeing outcomes that are patterned by socioeconomic position (SEP), it has been suggested that there may be common biological pathways linking SEP and health. Allostatic load is one such pathway, which aims to measure cumulative burden/dysregulation across multiple physiological systems. This study aimed to determine the contextual and demographic factors (age, sex and place) that may be important in better understanding the links between lower SEP and higher allostatic load...
2016: BMC Public Health
Rosalie Liccardo Pacula, Beau Kilmer, Alexander C Wagenaar, Frank J Chaloupka, Jonathan P Caulkins
Until November 2012, no modern jurisdiction had removed the prohibition on the commercial production, distribution, and sale of marijuana for nonmedical purposes-not even the Netherlands. Government agencies in Colorado and Washington are now charged with granting production and processing licenses and developing regulations for legal marijuana, and other states and countries may follow. Our goal is not to address whether marijuana legalization is a good or bad idea but, rather, to help policymakers understand the decisions they face and some lessons learned from research on public health approaches to regulating alcohol and tobacco over the past century...
June 2014: American Journal of Public Health
Silje L Kaspersen, Kristine Pape, Gunnhild Å Vie, Solveig O Ose, Steinar Krokstad, David Gunnell, Johan H Bjørngaard
BACKGROUND: Many studies have investigated how unemployment influences health, less attention has been paid to the reverse causal direction; how health may influence the risk of becoming unemployed. We prospectively investigated a wide range of health measures and subsequent risk of unemployment during 14 years of follow-up. METHODS: Self-reported health data from 36 249 participants in the Norwegian HUNT2 Study (1995-1997) was linked by a personal identification number to the National Insurance Database (1992-2008)...
April 2016: European Journal of Public Health
Jacek M Mazurek, Lucinda J England
BACKGROUND: Employers play a vital role in promoting and supporting tobacco use cessation among tobacco-using workers. Cigarette smoking during pregnancy is a preventable cause of complications in pregnancy and adverse infant health outcomes. PURPOSE: To estimate cigarette smoking prevalence and attempts to quit among working women of reproductive age in different industries and occupations using a nationally representative survey. METHODS: The 2009-2013 National Health Interview Survey data for women of reproductive age (18-49 years) who were working in the week prior to the interview (n = 30855) were analyzed...
May 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
E Jennifer Edelman, David A Fiellin
This issue provides a clinical overview of alcohol use, focusing on health benefits, harms, prevention, screening, diagnosis, treatment, and practice improvement. The content of In the Clinic is drawn from the clinical information and education resources of the American College of Physicians (ACP), including MKSAP (Medical Knowledge and Self-Assessment Program). Annals of Internal Medicine editors develop In the Clinic in collaboration with the ACP's Medical Education and Publishing divisions and with the assistance of additional science writers and physician writers...
January 5, 2016: Annals of Internal Medicine
Molly E Ireland, Qijia Chen, H Andrew Schwartz, Lyle H Ungar, Dolores Albarracin
HIV is uncommon in most US counties but travels quickly through vulnerable communities when it strikes. Tracking behavior through social media may provide an unobtrusive, naturalistic means of predicting HIV outbreaks and understanding the behavioral and psychological factors that increase communities' risk. General action goals, or the motivation to engage in cognitive and motor activity, may support protective health behavior (e.g., using condoms) or encourage activity indiscriminately (e.g., risky sex), resulting in mixed health effects...
June 2016: AIDS and Behavior
Simone Visbjerg Møller, Harald Hannerz, Aase Marie Hansen, Hermann Burr, Andreas Holtermann
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate whether sedentary work is a distinct risk factor for ischemic heart disease (IHD) when the effect of occupational sitting is disentangled from that of occupational physical activity. METHODS: Data on occupational sitting time and several covariates were derived from the Danish Work Environment Cohort Study (DWECS) conducted every five years from 1990-2005 among the active Danish population. This study was designed as a multi-wave longitudinal study including participants employed at entry...
January 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health
Thanh Tam Tran, Vasoontara Yiengprugsawan, Dujrudee Chinwong, Sam-Ang Seubsman, Adrian Sleigh
BACKGROUND: In rich countries, smokers, active or passive, often belong to disadvantaged groups. Less is known of tobacco patterns in the developing world. Hence, we seek out to investigate mental and physical health consequences of smoke exposure as well as tobacco-related inequality in transitional middle-income Thailand. METHODS: We studied a nationwide cohort of 87,151 middle-aged and older adults that we have been following for eight years (2005-2013) for emerging chronic diseases...
December 8, 2015: BMC Public Health
Carl J Lavie, Duck-chul Lee, Xuemei Sui, Ross Arena, James H O'Keefe, Timothy S Church, Richard V Milani, Steven N Blair
Considerable evidence has established the link between high levels of physical activity (PA) and all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD)-specific mortality. Running is a popular form of vigorous PA that has been associated with better overall survival, but there is debate about the dose-response relationship between running and CVD and all-cause survival. In this review, we specifically reviewed studies published in PubMed since 2000 that included at least 500 runners and 5-year follow-up so as to analyze the relationship between vigorous aerobic PA, specifically running, and major health consequences, especially CVD and all-cause mortality...
November 2015: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
Jenna L Hollis, Amanda J Williams, Rachel Sutherland, Elizabeth Campbell, Nicole Nathan, Luke Wolfenden, Philip J Morgan, David R Lubans, John Wiggers
OBJECTIVE: To examine elementary school students' moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) levels during physical education (PE) lessons. METHODS: A systematic search of nine electronic databases was conducted (PROSPERO2014:CRD42014009649). Studies were eligible if they were in English; published between 2005-April 2014; assessed MVPA levels in PE lessons of elementary school children (aged four-12years); and used an objective MVPA measure. Two reviewers retrieved articles, assessed risk of bias, and performed data extraction...
May 2016: Preventive Medicine
B K Pedersen, B Saltin
This review provides the reader with the up-to-date evidence-based basis for prescribing exercise as medicine in the treatment of 26 different diseases: psychiatric diseases (depression, anxiety, stress, schizophrenia); neurological diseases (dementia, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis); metabolic diseases (obesity, hyperlipidemia, metabolic syndrome, polycystic ovarian syndrome, type 2 diabetes, type 1 diabetes); cardiovascular diseases (hypertension, coronary heart disease, heart failure, cerebral apoplexy, and claudication intermittent); pulmonary diseases (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, cystic fibrosis); musculo-skeletal disorders (osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, back pain, rheumatoid arthritis); and cancer...
December 2015: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Jenna Panter, Eva Heinen, Roger Mackett, David Ogilvie
INTRODUCTION: Walking and cycling bring health and environmental benefits, but there is little robust evidence that changing the built environment promotes these activities in populations. This study evaluated the effects of new transport infrastructure on active commuting and physical activity. STUDY DESIGN: Quasi-experimental analysis nested within a cohort study. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: Four hundred and sixty-nine adult commuters, recruited through a predominantly workplace-based strategy, who lived within 30 kilometers of Cambridge, United Kingdom and worked in areas of the city to be served by the new transport infrastructure...
February 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Trisha Petitte, Jennifer Mallow, Emily Barnes, Ashley Petrone, Taura Barr, Laurie Theeke
Loneliness is a prevalent and global problem for adult populations and has been linked to multiple chronic conditions in quantitative studies. This paper presents a systematic review of quantitative studies that examined the links between loneliness and common chronic conditions including: heart disease, hypertension, stroke, lung disease, and metabolic disorders. A comprehensive literature search process guided by the PRISMA statement led to the inclusion of 33 articles that measure loneliness in chronic illness populations...
2015: Open Psychology Journal
Günther Wolfram, Angela Bechthold, Heiner Boeing, Sabine Ellinger, Hans Hauner, Anja Kroke, Eva Leschik-Bonnet, Jakob Linseisen, Stefan Lorkowski, Matthias Schulze, Peter Stehle, Jessica Dinter
As nutrition-related chronic diseases have become more and more frequent, the importance of dietary prevention has also increased. Dietary fat plays a major role in human nutrition, and modification of fat and/or fatty acid intake could have a preventive potential. The aim of the guideline of the German Nutrition Society (DGE) was to systematically evaluate the evidence for the prevention of the widespread diseases obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, dyslipoproteinaemia, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, and cancer through the intake of fat or fatty acids...
2015: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
Harold J Farber, Judith Groner, Susan Walley, Kevin Nelson
This technical report serves to provide the evidence base for the American Academy of Pediatrics' policy statements "Clinical Practice Policy to Protect Children From Tobacco, Nicotine, and Tobacco Smoke" and "Public Policy to Protect Children From Tobacco, Nicotine, and Tobacco Smoke." Tobacco use and involuntary exposure are major preventable causes of morbidity and premature mortality in adults and children. Tobacco dependence almost always starts in childhood or adolescence. Electronic nicotine delivery systems are rapidly gaining popularity among youth, and their significant harms are being documented...
November 2015: Pediatrics
2015-11-18 20:53:05
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