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Public Health

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18 papers 0 to 25 followers Public Health Collection Curated by the COMET Library
Bill J Wright, Keri B Vartanian, Hsin-Fang Li, Natalie Royal, Jennifer K Matson
The provision of supportive housing is often recognized as important public policy, but it also plays a role in health care reform. Health care costs for the homeless reflect both their medical complexity and psychosocial risk factors. Supportive housing attempts to moderate both by providing stable places to live along with on-site integrated health services. In this pilot study we used a mixture of survey and administrative claims data to evaluate outcomes for formerly homeless people who were living in a supportive housing facility in Oregon between 2010 and 2014...
January 2016: Health Affairs
Christophe Maïano, Annie Aimé, Marie-Claude Salvas, Alexandre J S Morin, Claude L Normand
Recent literature reviews show that bullying perpetration and victimization are major public health concerns for typically developing (TD) youth. Nevertheless, the magnitude of this phenomenon among youth with intellectual disabilities (ID) remains unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to provide a synthesis of the empirical studies examining the prevalence and correlates of bullying perpetration and victimization among youth with ID. A systematic literature search was performed and 11 studies met the inclusion criteria...
February 2016: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Annet Wauters, Ine Van Hoyweghen
Since the 1990s, developments in the field of genetics have led to many questions on the use and possible misuse of genetic information. 'Genetic discrimination' has been defined as the differential treatment of asymptomatic individuals or their relatives on the basis of their real or assumed genetic characteristics. Despite the public policy attention around genetic discrimination, there is currently still much confusion surrounding this phenomenon. On the one hand, there is little evidence of the occurrence of genetic discrimination...
April 2016: Journal of Human Genetics
Emma Harding-Esch, Anthony Nardone, Jo Gibbs, Lorna Sutcliffe, Pam Sonnenberg, Claudia Estcourt, Gwenda Hughes, Hamish Mohammed, Noel Gill, S Tariq Sadiq, Catherine Lowndes
In this paper we outline the current data capture systems for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and sexually transmitted infection (STI) surveillance used by Public Health England (PHE), and how these will be affected by the introduction of novel testing platforms and changing patient pathways. We outline the Chlamydia Online Clinical Care Pathway (COCCP), developed as part of the Electronic Self-Testing for Sexually Transmitted Infections (eSTI(2)) Consortium, which ensures that surveillance data continue to be routinely collected and transmitted to PHE...
May 18, 2015: DH15 (2015)
Liat Ayalon, Sagit Lev, Ohad Green, Uziel Nevo
BACKGROUND: elder maltreatment is a major risk for older adults' mental health, quality of life, health, institutionalisation and even mortality. OBJECTIVES: to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of interventions designed to prevent or stop elder abuse. METHODS: Studies that were posted between January 2000 and December 2014, written in English, specifically designed to prevent or stop elder maltreatment were included. RESULTS: overall, 24 studies (and four records reporting on the same participants) were kept for the systematic review and the meta-analysis...
March 2016: Age and Ageing
Hazel Squires, James Chilcott, Ronald Akehurst, Jennifer Burr, Michael P Kelly
OBJECTIVES: To identify the key methodological challenges for public health economic modelling and set an agenda for future research. METHODS: An iterative literature search identified papers describing methodological challenges for developing the structure of public health economic models. Additional multidisciplinary literature searches helped expand upon important ideas raised within the review. RESULTS: Fifteen articles were identified within the formal literature search, highlighting three key challenges: inclusion of non-healthcare costs and outcomes; inclusion of equity; and modelling complex systems and multi-component interventions...
April 2016: International Journal of Public Health
Kenneth R Warren
BACKGROUND: It is now well accepted in pediatrics and obstetrics that prenatal alcohol is a teratogenic agent and the primary causative factor underlying fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs), although for the majority of the 20th century that knowledge was either unknown or ignored. At least 2 factors contributed to the delay in recognizing alcohol's role in teratogenicity: the rejection of earlier evidence pertaining to alcohol and pregnancy following the repeal of Prohibition in the United States, Canada, and several European countries; and misinterpretation of earlier research findings in a eugenic rather than toxicological context...
July 2015: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Ahmed Elhakeem, Rachel Cooper, David Bann, Rebecca Hardy
Regular leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) benefits health and is thought to be less prevalent in lower socioeconomic groups. Evidence suggests that childhood socioeconomic circumstances can impact on adult health and behaviour however, it is unclear if this includes an influence on adult LTPA. This review tested the hypothesis that a lower childhood socioeconomic position (SEP) is associated with less frequent LTPA during adulthood. Studies were located through a systematic search of MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL and SPORTDiscus and by searching reference lists...
2015: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
Victor Mogre, Rauf Nyaba, Samuel Aleyira, Napoleon B Sam
BACKGROUND: Obesity has become a disease of global public health concern in both developing and developed countries. We investigated the influence of socio-demographic, dietary habits and physical activity levels on general and abdominal obesity among a sample of university students in Ghana. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was carried out among a sample of 552 students attending the University for Development Studies, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Tamale, Ghana...
2015: SpringerPlus
Mary Jane Rotheram-Borus, Mark Tomlinson, Emily Davis
As global donors shift their efforts from infectious diseases to non-communicable diseases (NCD), it is critical to capitalize on our prior mistakes and successes. Policy makers and public health administrators are often looking for magic bullets: drugs or treatments to eradicate disease. Yet, each potential magic bullet requires consistent, daily implementation and adherence to a new set of habits to actually work. Families' and communities' daily, interlocking routines will be the battlefield on which scientific and technological breakthroughs will be implemented and succeed or not...
2015: Archives of Public Health, Archives Belges de Santé Publique
Karen Milton, Jonathan Grix
BACKGROUND: Although the government in England has a long-standing interest in walking promotion, this has not been accompanied by a coherent strategic plan or investment to support physical activity behaviour change. However, in 2008 the government announced its intention to invest £7 million into walking promotion. This article utilises Kingdon's Multiple Streams framework as an organising principle through which to interrogate the reasons behind the increased emphasis on walking promotion as part of the public health policy agenda in England...
2015: BMC Public Health
Sreenivas P Veeranki, Sukaina Alzyoud, Khalid A Kheirallah, Lori Pbert
INTRODUCTION: Susceptibility to cigarette smoking, defined as the lack of a firm decision against smoking, is a strong predictor of regular smoking and addiction. Several modifiable risk factors have been identified among never cigarette smokers, and one potential factor of interest is waterpipe use. The purpose of this study is to determine the association of waterpipe use with susceptibility to cigarette smoking among never-smoking youth. METHODS: In a pooled analysis of 17 Arab nations with nationally representative Global Youth Tobacco Surveys conducted during 2002-2011, tobacco-related information was obtained from 30,711 never-smoking adolescents representing 4,962,872 youth...
October 2015: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Victoire Benard, Benjamin Rolland, Nassir Messaadi, Aymeric Petit, Olivier Cottencin, Laurent Karila
Cannabis use is now more frequent than alcohol drinking or tobacco smoking among young people (15-34years), whereas it may induce numerous medical aftermaths. Identifying and assessing cannabis use in general practice have become a current public health issue. The two steps of screening consist in spotting risky use of cannabis, and then in checking criteria for cannabis use disorder (CUD). Risky use requires a "brief intervention" by the general practitioner (GP). In case of CUD, the new DSM-5 criteria allow measuring the severity of the subsequent disorder, and listing the medical and social consequences...
July 2015: La Presse Médicale
Amanda Yoshioka-Maxwell, Eric Rice, Harmony Rhoades, Hailey Winetrobe
OBJECTIVES: Social network analysis can provide added causal insight into otherwise confusing epidemiologic findings in public health research. Although foster care and homelessness are risk factors for methamphetamine use, current research has failed to explicate why homeless youth with foster care experience engage in methamphetamine use at higher rates than other homeless young adults. This study examined the mediating effect of network engagement and time spent homeless on the relationship between foster care experience and recent methamphetamine use among homeless youth in Los Angeles...
April 2015: Journal of Alcoholism and Drug Dependence
Ramon Targino Firmino, Monalisa Cesarino Gomes, Marayza Alves Clementino, Carolina Castro Martins, Saul Martins Paiva, Ana Flávia Granville-Garcia
BACKGROUND: There is a need for investigations into the impact of oral problems on OHRQoL with study designs that offer greater strength of evidence. AIM: To evaluate the impact of dental caries and traumatic dental injury (TDI) on the OHRQoL of Brazilian preschool children. DESIGN: A population-based, matched, case-control study was conducted involving 415 children aged 3-5 years enrolled at public and private preschools. The case group (impact on OHRQoL) and control group (no impact on OHRQoL) were matched for age, sex, and monthly household income at a 1 : 4 ratio (83 cases and 332 controls)...
July 2016: International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry
P Vermeir, D Vandijck, S Degroote, R Peleman, R Verhaeghe, E Mortier, G Hallaert, S Van Daele, W Buylaert, D Vogelaers
OBJECTIVES: Effective and efficient communication is crucial in healthcare. Written communication remains the most prevalent form of communication between specialised and primary care. We aimed at reviewing the literature on the quality of written communication, the impact of communication inefficiencies and recommendations to improve written communication in healthcare. DESIGN: Narrative literature review. METHODS: A search was carried out on the databases PubMed, Web of Science and The Cochrane Library by means of the (MeSH)terms 'communication', 'primary health care', 'correspondence', 'patient safety', 'patient handoff' and 'continuity of patient care'...
November 2015: International Journal of Clinical Practice
Michelle Jeong, Andy S L Tan, Emily Brennan, Laura Gibson, Robert C Hornik
This study examined the role of interpersonal communication in the context of a mass media anti-smoking campaign. Specifically, it explored whether conversations about campaign ads and/or about quitting mediated campaign exposure effects on 2 quitting behaviors (sought help to quit and tried to quit smoking completely), as well as the relation between ad-related and quitting-related conversations. Data were collected before the campaign and monthly for 16 months during the campaign through cross-sectional telephone surveys among a sample of 3,277 adult Philadelphia smokers...
2015: Journal of Health Communication
Paul Levay, Nicola Ainsworth, Rachel Kettle, Antony Morgan
AIM: To examine how effectively forwards citation searching with Web of Science (WOS) or Google Scholar (GS) identified evidence to support public health guidance published by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. METHOD: Forwards citation searching was performed using GS on a base set of 46 publications and replicated using WOS. OUTCOMES: WOS and GS were compared in terms of recall; precision; number needed to read (NNR); administrative time and costs; and screening time and costs...
March 2016: Research Synthesis Methods
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