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Gastro Review

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517 papers 100 to 500 followers ERCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24430437/replication-of-obesity-and-associated-signaling-pathways-through-transfer-of-microbiota-from-obese-prone-rats
#1
Frank A Duca, Yassine Sakar, Patricia Lepage, Fabienne Devime, Bénédicte Langelier, Joël Doré, Mihai Covasa
Aberrations in gut microbiota are associated with metabolic disorders, including obesity. However, whether shifts in the microbiota profile during obesity are a characteristic of the phenotype or a consequence of obesogenic feeding remains elusive. Therefore, we aimed to determine differences in the gut microbiota of obese-prone (OP) and obese-resistant (OR) rats and examined the contribution of this microbiota to the behavioral and metabolic characteristics during obesity. We found that OP rats display a gut microbiota distinct from OR rats fed the same high-fat diet, with a higher Firmicutes-to-Bacteroidetes ratio and significant genera differences...
May 2014: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24763370/impact-of-diet-and-individual-variation-on-intestinal-microbiota-composition-and-fermentation-products-in-obese-men
#2
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Anne Salonen, Leo Lahti, Jarkko Salojärvi, Grietje Holtrop, Katri Korpela, Sylvia H Duncan, Priya Date, Freda Farquharson, Alexandra M Johnstone, Gerald E Lobley, Petra Louis, Harry J Flint, Willem M de Vos
There is growing interest in understanding how diet affects the intestinal microbiota, including its possible associations with systemic diseases such as metabolic syndrome. Here we report a comprehensive and deep microbiota analysis of 14 obese males consuming fully controlled diets supplemented with resistant starch (RS) or non-starch polysaccharides (NSPs) and a weight-loss (WL) diet. We analyzed the composition, diversity and dynamics of the fecal microbiota on each dietary regime by phylogenetic microarray and quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis...
November 2014: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26762459/diet-induced-extinctions-in-the-gut-microbiota-compound-over-generations
#3
Erica D Sonnenburg, Samuel A Smits, Mikhail Tikhonov, Steven K Higginbottom, Ned S Wingreen, Justin L Sonnenburg
The gut is home to trillions of microorganisms that have fundamental roles in many aspects of human biology, including immune function and metabolism. The reduced diversity of the gut microbiota in Western populations compared to that in populations living traditional lifestyles presents the question of which factors have driven microbiota change during modernization. Microbiota-accessible carbohydrates (MACs) found in dietary fibre have a crucial involvement in shaping this microbial ecosystem, and are notably reduced in the Western diet (high in fat and simple carbohydrates, low in fibre) compared with a more traditional diet...
January 14, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601423/crohn-disease-epidemiology-diagnosis-and-management
#4
REVIEW
Joseph D Feuerstein, Adam S Cheifetz
Crohn disease is a chronic idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease condition characterized by skip lesions and transmural inflammation that can affect the entire gastrointestinal tract from the mouth to the anus. For this review article, we performed a review of articles in PubMed through February 1, 2017, by using the following Medical Subject Heading terms: crohns disease, crohn's disease, crohn disease, inflammatory bowel disease, and inflammatory bowel diseases. Presenting symptoms are often variable and may include diarrhea, abdominal pain, weight loss, nausea, vomiting, and in certain cases fevers or chills...
July 2017: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603584/acute-calculous-cholecystitis-review-of-current-best-practices
#5
REVIEW
Carlos Augusto Gomes, Cleber Soares Junior, Salomone Di Saveiro, Massimo Sartelli, Michael Denis Kelly, Camila Couto Gomes, Felipe Couto Gomes, Lívia Dornellas Corrêa, Camila Brandão Alves, Samuel de Fádel Guimarães
Acute calculous cholecystitis (ACC) is the most frequent complication of cholelithiasis and represents one-third of all surgical emergency hospital admissions, many aspects of the disease are still a matter of debate. Knowledge of the current evidence may allow the surgical team to develop practical bedside decision-making strategies, aiming at a less demanding procedure and lower frequency of complications. In this regard, recommendations on the diagnosis supported by specific criteria and severity scores are being implemented, to prioritize patients eligible for urgency surgery...
May 27, 2017: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631728/acg-and-cag-clinical-guideline-management-of-dyspepsia
#6
REVIEW
Paul M Moayyedi, Brian E Lacy, Christopher N Andrews, Robert A Enns, Colin W Howden, Nimish Vakil
We have updated both the American College of Gastroenterology (ACG) and the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology (CAG) guidelines on dyspepsia in a joint ACG/CAG dyspepsia guideline. We suggest that patients ≥60 years of age presenting with dyspepsia are investigated with upper gastrointestinal endoscopy to exclude organic pathology. This is a conditional recommendation and patients at higher risk of malignancy (such as spending their childhood in a high risk gastric cancer country or having a positive family history) could be offered an endoscopy at a younger age...
July 2017: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695451/the-endoscopic-findings-of-the-upper-gastrointestinal-tract-in-patients-with-crohn-s-disease
#7
REVIEW
Yoshiki Nomura, Kentaro Moriichi, Mikihiro Fujiya, Toshikatsu Okumura
Crohn's disease (CD) is a type of chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) associated with ulceration, and the main foci of the inflammation in CD patients are typically the terminal ileum and colon. However, in the upper gastrointestinal tract (GIT), including the esophagus, stomach and duodenum, inflammatory lesions are also detected as well, with a relatively high frequency (30-75%). Recent advances in imaging modalities, including endoscopy, have aided in the diagnosis of CD. Various lesions, including aphtha, erosion, ulcers, bamboo-joint-like appearance and notch-like appearance, are detected in the upper GI of CD patients...
August 2017: Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452210/functional-dyspepsia-advances-in-diagnosis-and-therapy
#8
REVIEW
Nicholas J Talley
Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a common but under-recognized syndrome comprising bothersome recurrent postprandial fullness, early satiety, or epigastric pain/burning. Epidemiologically, there are two clinically distinct FD syndromes (although these often overlap clinically): postprandial distress syndrome (PDS; comprising early satiety or meal-related fullness) and epigastric pain syndrome. Symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease overlap with FD more than expected by chance; a subset has pathological acid reflux...
May 15, 2017: Gut and Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052623/prevention-and-treatment-of-variceal-haemorrhage-in-2017
#9
REVIEW
Felix Brunner, Annalisa Berzigotti, Jaime Bosch
Variceal haemorrhage is a major complication of portal hypertension that still causes high mortality in patients with cirrhosis. Improved knowledge of the pathophysiology of portal hypertension has recently led to a more comprehensive approach to prevent all the complications of this condition. Thus, optimal treatment of portal hypertension requires a strategy that takes into account the clinical stage of the disease and all the major variables that affect the risk of progression to the next stage and death...
January 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427116/current-trends-in-the-management-of-gastroesophageal-reflux-disease
#10
REVIEW
Dalbir S Sandhu, Ronnie Fass
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) characterized by heartburn and/or regurgitation symptoms is one of the most common gastrointestinal disorders managed by gastroenterologists and primary care physicians. There has been an increase in GERD prevalence, particularly in North America and East Asia. Over the past three decades proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have been the mainstay of medical therapy for GERD. However, recently there has been an increasing awareness amongst physicians and patients regarding the side effects of the PPI class of drugs...
April 24, 2017: Gut and Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/20639452/screening-for-diabetes-and-pre-diabetes-with-proposed-a1c-based-diagnostic-criteria
#11
Darin E Olson, Mary K Rhee, Kirsten Herrick, David C Ziemer, Jennifer G Twombly, Lawrence S Phillips
OBJECTIVE: An International Expert Committee (IEC) and the American Diabetes Association (ADA) proposed diagnostic criteria for diabetes and pre-diabetes based on A1C levels. We hypothesized that screening for diabetes and pre-diabetes with A1C measurements would differ from using oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We compared pre-diabetes, dysglycemia (diabetes or pre-diabetes), and diabetes identified by the proposed criteria (A1C ≥ 6...
October 2010: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071659/acg-clinical-guideline-treatment-of-helicobacter-pylori-infection
#12
William D Chey, Grigorios I Leontiadis, Colin W Howden, Steven F Moss
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is a common worldwide infection that is an important cause of peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. H. pylori may also have a role in uninvestigated and functional dyspepsia, ulcer risk in patients taking low-dose aspirin or starting therapy with a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medication, unexplained iron deficiency anemia, and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. While choosing a treatment regimen for H. pylori, patients should be asked about previous antibiotic exposure and this information should be incorporated into the decision-making process...
February 2017: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979889/2-classification-and-diagnosis-of-diabetes
#13
REVIEW
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006047/the-microbiome-and-risk-for-obesity-and-diabetes
#14
Anthony L Komaroff
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 24, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27840364/25-years-of-proton-pump-inhibitors-a-comprehensive-review
#15
REVIEW
Daniel S Strand, Daejin Kim, David A Peura
Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) were clinically introduced more than 25 years ago and have since proven to be invaluable, safe, and effective agents for the management of a variety of acid-related disorders. Although all members in this class act in a similar fashion, inhibiting active parietal cell acid secretion, there are slight differences among PPIs relating to their pharmacokinetic properties, metabolism, and Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved clinical indications. Nevertheless, each is effective in managing gastroesophageal reflux disease and uncomplicated or complicated peptic ulcer disease...
January 15, 2017: Gut and Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891639/consensus-report-faecal-microbiota-transfer-clinical-applications-and-procedures
#16
REVIEW
J König, A Siebenhaar, C Högenauer, P Arkkila, M Nieuwdorp, T Norén, C Y Ponsioen, U Rosien, N G Rossen, R Satokari, A Stallmach, W de Vos, J Keller, R J Brummer
BACKGROUND: Faecal microbiota transplantation or transfer (FMT) aims at replacing or reinforcing the gut microbiota of a patient with the microbiota from a healthy donor. Not many controlled or randomised studies have been published evaluating the use of FMT for other diseases than Clostridium difficile infection, making it difficult for clinicians to decide on a suitable indication. AIM: To provide an expert consensus on current clinical indications, applications and methodological aspects of FMT...
January 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27423426/liver-sinusoidal-endothelial-cells-physiology-and-role-in-liver-diseases
#17
REVIEW
Johanne Poisson, Sara Lemoinne, Chantal Boulanger, François Durand, Richard Moreau, Dominique Valla, Pierre-Emmanuel Rautou
Liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) are highly specialized endothelial cells representing the interface between blood cells on the one side and hepatocytes and hepatic stellate cells on the other side. LSECs represent a permeable barrier. Indeed, the association of 'fenestrae', absence of diaphragm and lack of basement membrane make them the most permeable endothelial cells of the mammalian body. They also have the highest endocytosis capacity of human cells. In physiological conditions, LSECs regulate hepatic vascular tone contributing to the maintenance of a low portal pressure despite the major changes in hepatic blood flow occurring during digestion...
January 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720741/international-consensus-recommendations-for-difficult-biliary-access
#18
REVIEW
Wei-Chih Liao, Phonthep Angsuwatcharakon, Hiroyuki Isayama, Vinay Dhir, Benedict Devereaux, Christopher J L Khor, Ryan Ponnudurai, Sundeep Lakhtakia, Dong-Ki Lee, Thawee Ratanachu-Ek, Ichiro Yasuda, Frederick T Dy, Shiaw-Hooi Ho, Dadang Makmun, Huei-Lung Liang, Peter V Draganov, Rungsun Rerknimitr, Hsiu-Po Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27672286/new-insights-into-the-pathophysiology-of-achalasia-and-implications-for-future-treatment
#19
REVIEW
Janette Furuzawa-Carballeda, Samuel Torres-Landa, Miguel Ángel Valdovinos, Enrique Coss-Adame, Luis A Martín Del Campo, Gonzalo Torres-Villalobos
Idiopathic achalasia is an archetype esophageal motor disorder, causing significant impairment of eating ability and reducing quality of life. The pathophysiological underpinnings of this condition are loss of esophageal peristalsis and insufficient relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES). The clinical manifestations include dysphagia for both solids and liquids, regurgitation of esophageal contents, retrosternal chest pain, cough, aspiration, weight loss and heartburn. Even though idiopathic achalasia was first described more than 300 years ago, researchers are only now beginning to unravel its complex etiology and molecular pathology...
September 21, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27324725/oesophageal-and-gastric-varices-historical-aspects-classification-and-grading-everything-in-one-place
#20
REVIEW
Cyriac Abby Philips, Amrish Sahney
Variceal disease and its management are of the utmost importance in the treatment of portal hypertension. Current guidelines are universal for management of variceal disease in portal hypertension. Classification and grading systems are numerous and differ according to geographical location. In this exhaustive review, the historical aspects of variceal disease, its classification and the grading systems in use are discussed, with self-explanatory tables and timelines. A better and clear understanding of the evolution of portal hypertension and variceal disease is provided...
August 2016: Gastroenterology Report
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