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Tamar Ringel-Kulka, Chang Hwan Choi, Daniel Temas, Ari Kim, Daniele M Maier, Karen Scott, Joseph A Galanko, Yehuda Ringel
OBJECTIVES: Dysbiosis leading to abnormal intestinal fermentation has been suggested as a possible etiological mechanism in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We aimed to investigate the location and magnitude of altered intestinal bacterial fermentation in IBS and its clinical subtypes. METHODS: IBS patients who satisfied the Rome III criteria (114) and 33 healthy controls (HC) were investigated. Intestinal fermentation was assessed using two surrogate measures: intestinal intraluminal pH and fecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs)...
September 2015: American Journal of Gastroenterology
Shayan Irani, Todd H Baron, Ian S Grimm, Mouen A Khashab
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Nonsurgical techniques for gallbladder drainage are percutaneous, and endoscopic. EUS-guided transmural gallbladder drainage (EUS-GBD) is a relatively new approach, although data are limited. Our aim was to describe the outcome after EUS-GBD with a lumen-apposing metal stent (LAMS). PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective review of prospectively collected data on 15 nonsurgical patients who underwent EUS-GBD for various indications. Procedures were performed at 3 tertiary care centers with expertise in the management of complex biliary problems...
December 2015: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
Sonia A Melo, Linda B Luecke, Christoph Kahlert, Agustin F Fernandez, Seth T Gammon, Judith Kaye, Valerie S LeBleu, Elizabeth A Mittendorf, Juergen Weitz, Nuh Rahbari, Christoph Reissfelder, Christian Pilarsky, Mario F Fraga, David Piwnica-Worms, Raghu Kalluri
Exosomes are lipid-bilayer-enclosed extracellular vesicles that contain proteins and nucleic acids. They are secreted by all cells and circulate in the blood. Specific detection and isolation of cancer-cell-derived exosomes in the circulation is currently lacking. Using mass spectrometry analyses, we identify a cell surface proteoglycan, glypican-1 (GPC1), specifically enriched on cancer-cell-derived exosomes. GPC1(+) circulating exosomes (crExos) were monitored and isolated using flow cytometry from the serum of patients and mice with cancer...
July 9, 2015: Nature
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