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Osteoporosis

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95 papers 0 to 25 followers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606219/dietary-calcium-intake-and-rate-of-bone-loss-in-men
#1
Sarah M Bristow, Gregory D Gamble, Anne M Horne, Ian R Reid
A high Ca intake has been recommended for osteoporosis prevention; however, little research has examined the relationship between dietary Ca and bone health in men. We examined associations between dietary Ca intake, bone mineral density (BMD) and change in BMD at the total body, hip and spine over 2 years in a cohort of men (mean age 57 years, BMI 26 kg/m2) from a trial. Data from the total cohort (n 323) were used in the analysis of Ca intake and BMD at baseline, and data from the placebo group (n 99) were used in the longitudinal analysis of Ca intake and change in BMD...
June 13, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608571/effects-of-denosumab-and-teriparatide-transitions-on-bone-microarchitecture-and-estimated-strength-the-data-switch-hr-pqct-study
#2
Tsai J N, Nishiyama K K, Lin D, Yuan A, Lee H, Bouxsein M L, Leder B Z
In postmenopausal osteoporosis, switching from teriparatide to denosumab results in continued bone mineral density (BMD) gains whereas switching from denosumab to teriparatide results in BMD loss. To assess the effects of these transitions on bone microarchitecture and strength, we performed high-resolution peripheral QCT (HR-pQCT) at the distal tibia and radius in postmenopausal osteoporotic women who received 24-months of teriparatide 20-mcg daily followed by 24-months of denosumab 60-mg every 6 months, 24-months of denosumab followed by 24-months of teriparatide, or 24-months of both medications followed by 24-months of denosumab...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602783/patient-reported-reasons-for-nonadherence-to-recommended-osteoporosis-pharmacotherapy
#3
Sylvie F Hall, Stephanie W Edmonds, Yiyue Lou, Peter Cram, Douglas W Roblin, Kenneth G Saag, Nicole C Wright, Michael P Jones, Fredric D Wolinsky
OBJECTIVES: As many as one-half of patients recommended for osteoporosis pharmacotherapy do not take their medications. To identify intervention targets, we examined patient characteristics associated with nonadherence to recommended pharmacotherapy and their reasons for nonadherence. METHODS: Data come from the Patient Activation after DXA Result Notification (PAADRN) study, a randomized controlled trial of 7749 patients aged 50 years or older presenting for dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at 3 health centers in the United States...
June 8, 2017: Journal of the American Pharmacists Association: JAPhA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529724/recent-advances-in-the-management-of-osteoporosis
#4
REVIEW
Seiji Fukumoto, Toshio Matsumoto
There has been substantial progress in the management of patients with osteoporosis and the prevention of osteoporotic fractures. Currently available strong anti-resorptive agents are bisphosphonates and an anti-receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL) antibody, denosumab. Although bisphosphonates and denosumab both inhibit bone resorption and prevent vertebral and non-vertebral fractures, their mechanisms of action are different. Whereas bisphosphonates' effects on bone mineral density and fracture peak around 3 to 5 years and become plateaued, those of denosumab are maintained for up to 10 years...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449657/influence-of-subject-discontinuation-on-long-term-nonvertebral-fracture-rate-in-the-denosumab-freedom-extension-study
#5
Jonathan D Adachi, Henry G Bone, Nadia S Daizadeh, Paula Dakin, Socrates Papapoulos, Peyman Hadji, Chris Recknor, Michael A Bolognese, Andrea Wang, Celia J F Lin, Rachel B Wagman, Serge Ferrari
BACKGROUND: Denosumab treatment for up to 8 years in the FREEDOM study and Extension was associated with low fracture incidence. It was not clear whether subjects who discontinued during the study conduct had a higher risk of fracture than those who remained enrolled, thereby underestimating the true fracture risk for the entire trial cohort. Thus, we explored the influence of early withdrawals on nonvertebral fracture incidence during the Extension study. METHODS: To understand the potential effect of depletion of susceptible subjects on fracture incidence, we first evaluated subject characteristics in patients who were enrolled in the Extension vs those who were not...
April 27, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458516/profile-of-romosozumab-and-its-potential-in-the-management-of-osteoporosis
#6
REVIEW
Sian Yik Lim, Marcy B Bolster
Increased understanding of bone biology has led to the discovery of several unique signaling pathways that regulate bone formation and resorption. The Wnt signaling pathway plays a significant role in skeletal development, adult skeletal homeostasis, and bone remodeling. Sclerostin is an inhibitor of the Wnt signaling pathway. Romosozumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to sclerostin, prevents sclerostin from exerting this inhibitory effect. Therefore, in the presence of romosozumab, the Wnt signaling pathway is activated leading to bone formation and bone mineral density gain...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432596/exploiting-the-wnt-signaling-pathway-for-clinical-purposes
#7
REVIEW
Mark L Johnson, Robert R Recker
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of this paper is to evaluate critically the literature published over the past 3 years regarding the Wnt signaling pathway. The Wnt pathway was found to be involved in bone biology in 2001-2002 with the discovery of a (G171V) mutation in the lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) that resulted in high bone mass and another mutation that completely inactivated Lrp5 function and resulted in osteoporosis pseudoglioma syndrome (OPPG). The molecular biology has been complex, and very interesting...
April 21, 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379394/serum-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-insufficiency-in-search-of-a-bone-disease
#8
Sonali Shah, Cherie Chiang, Ken Sikaris, Zhong Lu, Minh Bui, Roger Zebaze, Ego Seeman
Introduction: Vitamin D 'insufficiency' and 'deficiency' are defined as a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) below 75 and 30 nmol/L respectively. We aimed to determine whether these values signal hypocalcaemia and hypophosphatemia, secondary hyperparathyroidism, high bone remodeling, low areal bone mineral density (aBMD), microstructural deterioration, or reduced matric mineralization density (MMD), and so suggest whether bone fragility is present. Method: Concentrations of 25(OH)D, calcium, phosphate, creatinine and parathyroid hormone (PTH) were measured in 11,855 subjects...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416991/can-denosumab-be-a-substitute-competitor-or-complement-to-bisphosphonates
#9
REVIEW
Su Young Kim, Hwoe Gyeong Ok, Christof Birkenmaier, Kyung Hoon Kim
Osteoblasts, originating from mesenchymal cells, make the receptor activator of the nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) in order to control differentiation of activated osteoclasts, originating from hematopoietic stem cells. When the RANKL binds to the RANK of the pre-osteoclasts or mature osteoclasts, bone resorption increases. On the contrary, when OPG binds to the RANK, bone resorption decreases. Denosumab (AMG 162), like OPG (a decoy receptor), binds to the RANKL, and reduces binding between the RANK and the RANKL resulting in inhibition of osteoclastogenesis and reduction of bone resorption...
April 2017: Korean Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359721/western-osteoporosis-alliance-clinical-practice-series-evaluating-the-balance-of-benefits-and-risks-of-long-term-osteoporosis-therapies
#10
REVIEW
David A Hanley, Michael R McClung, K Shawn Davison, Larry Dian, Steve T Harris, Paul D Miller, E Michael Lewiecki, David L Kendler
Osteoporosis is a chronic disease that requires life-long strategies to reduce fracture risk. Few trials have investigated the balance of benefits and risk with long-term use of osteoporosis therapies, and fewer still have investigated the consequences of treatment discontinuation. The best available evidence suggests that up to 10 years of treatment with an oral bisphosphonate maintains the degree of fracture risk reduction observed in the 3-year registration trials. With denosumab, 10 years of therapy appears to provide fracture risk reduction similar to or better than that observed in the 3-year registration trial...
March 27, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283938/seasonal-variation-in-internet-searches-for-vitamin-d
#11
Rebecca J Moon, Elizabeth M Curtis, Justin H Davies, Cyrus Cooper, Nicholas C Harvey
Internet search rates for "vitamin D" were explored using Google Trends. Search rates increased from 2004 until 2010 and thereafter displayed a seasonal pattern peaking in late winter. This knowledge could help guide the timing of public health interventions aimed at managing vitamin D deficiency. PURPOSE: The Internet is an important source of health information. Analysis of Internet search activity rates can provide information on disease epidemiology, health related behaviors and public interest...
December 2017: Archives of Osteoporosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283537/increased-osteoclastogenesis-in-patients-with-vertebral-fractures-following-discontinuation-of-denosumab-treatment
#12
Athanasios D Anastasilakis, Maria P Yavropoulou, Polyzois Makras, Grigorios T Sakellariou, Fotini Papadopoulou, Spyridon Gerou, Socrates E Papapoulos
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that rebound of bone remodeling is responsible for clinical vertebral fractures reported in a few patients with osteoporosis after cessation of denosumab treatment. DESIGN: In this case-control study we compared clinical and biochemical characteristics of postmenopausal women with clinical vertebral fractures 8-16 months after the last injection of denosumab (Dmab/Fx+, n = 5) with those of treatment-naïve women with such fractures (Fx+, n = 5)...
June 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240371/clinical-features-of-24-patients-with-rebound-associated-vertebral-fractures-after-denosumab-discontinuation-systematic-review-and-additional-cases
#13
Athanasios D Anastasilakis, Stergios A Polyzos, Polyzois Makras, Berengere Aubry-Rozier, Stella Kaouri, Olivier Lamy
We aimed to study the clinical and imaging characteristics of patients sustaining vertebral fractures after denosumab discontinuation. For this purpose, we conducted a computerized advanced literature search that identified 13 published cases, and we additionally included another 11 new cases from our centers. Twenty-four postmenopausal women with vertebral fracture(s) after denosumab discontinuation, experiencing 112 fractures in total, were analyzed. The mean number of fractures per patient was 4.7. The most commonly affected vertebrae were T12 and L1...
June 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193701/osteoblastic-lrp4-promotes-osteoclastogenesis-by-regulating-atp-release-and-adenosine-a2ar-signaling
#14
Lei Xiong, Ji-Ung Jung, Hao-Han Guo, Jin-Xiu Pan, Xiang-Dong Sun, Lin Mei, Wen-Cheng Xiong
Bone homeostasis depends on the functional balance of osteoblasts (OBs) and osteoclasts (OCs). Lrp4 is a transmembrane protein that is mutated in patients with high bone mass. Loss of Lrp4 in OB-lineage cells increases bone mass by elevating bone formation by OBs and reducing bone resorption by OCs. However, it is unclear how Lrp4 deficiency in OBs impairs osteoclastogenesis. Here, we provide evidence that loss of Lrp4 in the OB lineage stabilizes the prorenin receptor (PRR) and increases PRR/V-ATPase-driven ATP release, thereby enhancing the production of the ATP derivative adenosine...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144701/observations-following-discontinuation-of-long-term-denosumab-therapy
#15
M R McClung, R B Wagman, P D Miller, A Wang, E M Lewiecki
Stopping denosumab after 8 years of continued treatment was associated with bone loss during a 1-year observation study in patients who were not prescribed osteoporosis treatment. Bone loss was attenuated in patients who began another osteoporosis therapy. Treatment to prevent bone loss upon stopping denosumab should be considered. INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to understand osteoporosis management strategies during a 1-year observational follow-up after up to 8 years of denosumab treatment in a phase 2 study...
May 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26348019/mutations-in-known-monogenic-high-bone-mass-loci-only-explain-a-small-proportion-of-high-bone-mass-cases
#16
Celia L Gregson, Lawrie Wheeler, Sarah A Hardcastle, Louise H Appleton, Kathryn A Addison, Marieke Brugmans, Graeme R Clark, Kate A Ward, Margaret Paggiosi, Mike Stone, Joegi Thomas, Rohan Agarwal, Kenneth E S Poole, Eugene McCloskey, William D Fraser, Eleanor Williams, Alex N Bullock, George Davey Smith, Matthew A Brown, Jon H Tobias, Emma L Duncan
High bone mass (HBM) can be an incidental clinical finding; however, monogenic HBM disorders (eg, LRP5 or SOST mutations) are rare. We aimed to determine to what extent HBM is explained by mutations in known HBM genes. A total of 258 unrelated HBM cases were identified from a review of 335,115 DXA scans from 13 UK centers. Cases were assessed clinically and underwent sequencing of known anabolic HBM loci: LRP5 (exons 2, 3, 4), LRP4 (exons 25, 26), SOST (exons 1, 2, and the van Buchem's disease [VBD] 52-kb intronic deletion 3')...
March 2016: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742500/sclerostin-deficiency-in-humans
#17
Antoon H van Lierop, Natasha M Appelman-Dijkstra, Socrates E Papapoulos
Sclerosteosis and van Buchem disease are two rare bone sclerosing dysplasias caused by genetic defects in the synthesis of sclerostin. In this article we review the demographic, clinical, biochemical, radiological, and histological characteristics of patients with sclerosteosis and van Buchem disease that led to a better understanding of the role of sclerostin in bone metabolism in humans and we discuss the relevance of these findings for the development of new therapeutics for the treatment of patients with osteoporosis...
March 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079119/interleukin-32-gamma-stimulates-bone-formation-by-increasing-mir-29a-in-osteoblastic-cells-and-prevents-the-development-of-osteoporosis
#18
Eun-Jin Lee, Sang-Min Kim, Bongkun Choi, Eun-Young Kim, Yeon-Ho Chung, Eun-Ju Lee, Bin Yoo, Chang-Keun Lee, Seokchan Hong, Beom-Jun Kim, Jung-Min Koh, Soo-Hyun Kim, Yong-Gil Kim, Eun-Ju Chang
Interleukin-32 gamma (IL-32γ) is a recently discovered cytokine that is elevated in inflamed tissues and contributes to pathogenic features of bone in human inflammatory rheumatic diseases. Nevertheless, the role of IL-32γ and its direct involvement in bone metabolism is unclear. We investigated the molecular mechanism of IL-32γ in bone remodeling and the hypothetical correlation between IL-32γ and disease activity in osteoporosis patients. Transgenic (TG) mice overexpressing human IL-32γ showed reduced bone loss with advancing age, increased bone formation, and high osteogenic capacity of osteoblast compared to wild-type (WT) mice through the upregulation of miR-29a, which caused a reduction of Dickkopf-1 (DKK1) expression...
January 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23074140/van-buchem-disease-clinical-biochemical-and-densitometric-features-of-patients-and-disease-carriers
#19
Antoon H van Lierop, Neveen A T Hamdy, Martje E van Egmond, Egbert Bakker, Freek G Dikkers, Socrates E Papapoulos
Van Buchem disease (VBD) is a rare bone sclerosing dysplasia caused by the lack of a regulatory element of the SOST gene, which encodes for sclerostin, an osteocyte-derived negative regulator of bone formation. We studied the demographic, clinical, biochemical, and densitometric features of 15 patients with VBD (12 adults and 3 children) and 28 related carriers of the gene mutation. The most common clinical findings in patients were facial palsy (100%) and various degrees of hearing impairment (93%); raised intracranial pressure had been documented in 20%...
April 2013: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980413/high-bone-turnover-elevates-the-risk-of-denosumab-induced-hypocalcemia-in-women-with-postmenopausal-osteoporosis
#20
Koji Ishikawa, Takashi Nagai, Keizo Sakamoto, Kenji Ohara, Takeshi Eguro, Hiroshi Ito, Yoichi Toyoshima, Akatsuki Kokaze, Tomoaki Toyone, Katsunori Inagaki
Hypocalcemia is the most common major adverse event in patients with osteoporosis receiving the bone resorption inhibitor denosumab; however, limited information is available regarding risk factors of hypocalcemia. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the risk factors of hypocalcemia induced by denosumab treatment for osteoporosis. We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients who had received initial denosumab supplemented with activated vitamin D for osteoporosis. Serum levels of the following bone turnover markers (BTMs) were measured at baseline: bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), total N-terminal propeptide of type 1 procollagen (P1NP), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRACP-5b), and urinary cross-linked N-telopeptide of type 1 collagen (NTX)...
2016: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
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