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Osteoporosis

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75 papers 0 to 25 followers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888287/wnt-signaling-and-cellular-metabolism-in-osteoblasts
#1
REVIEW
Courtney M Karner, Fanxin Long
The adult human skeleton is a multifunctional organ undergoing continuous remodeling. Homeostasis of bone mass in a healthy adult requires an exquisite balance between bone resorption by osteoclasts and bone formation by osteoblasts; disturbance of such balance is the root cause for various bone disorders including osteoporosis. To develop effective and safe therapeutics to modulate bone formation, it is essential to elucidate the molecular mechanisms governing osteoblast differentiation and activity. Due to their specialized function in collagen synthesis and secretion, osteoblasts are expected to consume large amounts of nutrients...
November 26, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742498/role-and-mechanism-of-action-of-sclerostin-in-bone
#2
Jesus Delgado-Calle, Amy Y Sato, Teresita Bellido
After discovering that lack of Sost/sclerostin expression is the cause of the high bone mass human syndromes Van Buchem disease and sclerosteosis, extensive animal experimentation and clinical studies demonstrated that sclerostin plays a critical role in bone homeostasis and that its deficiency or pharmacological neutralization increases bone formation. Dysregulation of sclerostin expression also underlies the pathophysiology of skeletal disorders characterized by loss of bone mass, as well as the damaging effects of some cancers in bone...
October 12, 2016: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811938/bone-romosozumab-getting-there-but-not-quite-yet
#3
Socrates E Papapoulos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 4, 2016: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746742/molecular-mechanisms-of-obesity-induced-osteoporosis-and-muscle-atrophy
#4
Bipradas Roy, Mary E Curtis, Letimicia S Fears, Samuel N Nahashon, Hugh M Fentress
Obesity and osteoporosis are two alarming health disorders prominent among middle and old age populations, and the numbers of those affected by these two disorders are increasing. It is estimated that more than 600 million adults are obese and over 200 million people have osteoporosis worldwide. Interestingly, both of these abnormalities share some common features including a genetic predisposition, and a common origin: bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells. Obesity is characterized by the expression of leptin, adiponectin, interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 10 (IL-10), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF), growth hormone (GH), parathyroid hormone (PTH), angiotensin II (Ang II), 5-hydroxy-tryptamine (5-HT), Advance glycation end products (AGE), and myostatin, which exert their effects by modulating the signaling pathways within bone and muscle...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776363/calcium-intake-and-cardiovascular-disease-risk-an-updated-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
Mei Chung, Alice M Tang, Zhuxuan Fu, Ding Ding Wang, Sydne Jennifer Newberry
Background: Conflicting evidence exists regarding potential cardiovascular risks associated with high levels of calcium intake. Purpose: To update and reanalyze 2 systematic reviews to examine the effects of calcium intake on cardiovascular disease (CVD) among generally healthy adults. Data Sources: MEDLINE; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials; Scopus, including EMBASE; and previous evidence reports from English-language publications from 1966 to July 2016...
October 25, 2016: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781192/staged-correction-of-severe-thoracic-kyphosis-in-patients-with-multilevel-osteoporotic-vertebral-compression-fractures
#6
Eyal Behrbalk, Ofir Uri, Yoram Folman, Marcus Rickert, Radek Kaiser, Bronek Maximilian Boszczyk
Study Design Technical report. Objective Multilevel osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures may lead to considerable thoracic deformity and sagittal imbalance, which may necessitate surgical intervention. Correction of advanced thoracic kyphosis in patients with severe osteoporosis remains challenging, with a high rate of failure. This study describes a surgical technique of staged vertebral augmentation with osteotomies for the treatment of advanced thoracic kyphosis in patients with osteoporotic multilevel vertebral compression fractures...
November 2016: Global Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27759931/managing-osteoporosis-in-patients-on-long-term-bisphosphonate-treatment-report-of-a-task-force-of-the-american-society-for-bone-and-mineral-research
#7
Robert A Adler, Ghada El-Hajj Fuleihan, Douglas C Bauer, Pauline M Camacho, Bart L Clarke, Gregory A Clines, Juliet E Compston, Matthew T Drake, Beatrice J Edwards, Murray J Favus, Susan L Greenspan, Ross McKinney, Robert J Pignolo, Deborah E Sellmeyer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732325/stress-fractures-concepts-and-therapeutics
#8
Carolina A Moreira, John P Bilezikian
CONTEXT: Stress fractures are repetitive use injuries in which recurrent strains lead to material fatigue and microarchitectural discontinuities. Stress fractures account for up to 20% of athletic injuries, more commonly sustained by women and in those who engage in track-and-field events. The pathogenesis of stress fractures is multifactorial. Although most stress fracture are reported among women who may experience menstrual disturbances, low body mass index, low energy intake and sometimes low bone mass, these individuals do not regularly seek endocrinological attention...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27622692/effect-of-denosumab-on-peripheral-compartmental-bone-density-microarchitecture-and-estimated-bone-strength-in-de-novo-kidney-transplant-recipients
#9
Marco Bonani, Ursina Meyer, Diana Frey, Nicole Graf, Heike A Bischoff-Ferrari, Rudolf P Wüthrich
BACKGROUND/AIMS: In a randomized controlled clinical trial in kidney transplant recipients (NCT01377467) we have recently shown that RANKL inhibition with denosumab significantly improved areal bone mineral density (aBMD) when given during the first year after transplantation. The effect of denosumab on skeletal microstructure and bone strength in kidney transplant recipients is not known. METHODS: The purpose of the present bone microarchitecture ancillary study was to investigate high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HRpQCT) data from the distal tibia and distal radius in 24 study patients that had been randomized to receive either two injections of denosumab 60 mg at baseline and after 6 months (n=10) or no treatment (n=14)...
September 14, 2016: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27641359/building-better-bones-with-biologics-a-new-approach-to-osteoporosis
#10
EDITORIAL
Clifford J Rosen, Julie R Ingelfinger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 20, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27641143/romosozumab-treatment-in-postmenopausal-women-with-osteoporosis
#11
Felicia Cosman, Daria B Crittenden, Jonathan D Adachi, Neil Binkley, Edward Czerwinski, Serge Ferrari, Lorenz C Hofbauer, Edith Lau, E Michael Lewiecki, Akimitsu Miyauchi, Cristiano A F Zerbini, Cassandra E Milmont, Li Chen, Judy Maddox, Paul D Meisner, Cesar Libanati, Andreas Grauer
Background Romosozumab, a monoclonal antibody that binds sclerostin, increases bone formation and decreases bone resorption. Methods We enrolled 7180 postmenopausal women who had a T score of -2.5 to -3.5 at the total hip or femoral neck. Patients were randomly assigned to receive subcutaneous injections of romosozumab (at a dose of 210 mg) or placebo monthly for 12 months; thereafter, patients in each group received denosumab for 12 months, at a dose of 60 mg, administered subcutaneously every 6 months. The coprimary end points were the cumulative incidences of new vertebral fractures at 12 months and 24 months...
October 20, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27631671/reinvigorating-the-osteoporosis-message
#12
Michael R McClung
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 15, 2016: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27559463/selective-estrogen-receptor-modulators
#13
REVIEW
Ki-Chan An
Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) are now being used as a treatment for breast cancer, osteoporosis and postmenopausal symptoms, as these drugs have features that can act as an estrogen agonist and an antagonist, depending on the target tissue. After tamoxifen, raloxifene, lasofoxifene and bazedoxifene SERMs have been developed and used for treatment. The clinically decisive difference among these drugs (i.e., the key difference) is their endometrial safety. Compared to bisphosphonate drug formulations for osteoporosis, SERMs are to be used primarily in postmenopausal women of younger age and are particularly recommended if there is a family history of invasive breast cancer, as their use greatly reduces the incidence of this type of cancer in women...
August 2016: Asian Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27448808/stiffness-and-strength-of-bone-in-osteoporotic-patients-treated-with-varying-durations-of-oral-bisphosphonates
#14
J Ward, C Wood, K Rouch, D Pienkowski, H H Malluche
UNLABELLED: Apparent modulus and failure stress of trabecular bone structure from 45 women with osteoporosis treated with bisphosphonates for varying durations were studied using finite element analyses and statistical modeling. Following adjustments for patient age and bone volume, increasing bisphosphonate treatment duration for up to 7.3 years was associated with treatment-time-dependent increases in bone apparent modulus and failure stress. Treatment durations exceeding 7.3 years were associated with time-dependent decreases in apparent modulus and failure stress from the peak values observed...
September 2016: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27428723/change-in-bone-mineral-density-is-an-indicator-of-treatment-related-antifracture-effect-in-routine-clinical-practice-a-registry-based-cohort-study
#15
William D Leslie, Sumit R Majumdar, Suzanne N Morin, Lisa M Lix
Background: Whether change in bone mineral density (BMD) is an accurate indicator of antifracture effect in clinical practice is unknown. Objective: To evaluate repeated BMD testing as an indicator of treatment-related fracture risk reduction. Design: Registry-based cohort study. Setting: Manitoba, Canada. Patients: 6629 women aged 40 years or older initiating osteoporosis treatment with 2 consecutive dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scans (mean interval, 4...
October 4, 2016: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27462504/once-weekly-teriparatide-improves-glucocorticoid-induced-osteoporosis-in-patients-with-inadequate-response-to-bisphosphonates
#16
Takahiro Seno, Aihiro Yamamoto, Yuji Kukida, Aiko Hirano, Takashi Kida, Amane Nakabayashi, Kazuki Fujioka, Hidetake Nagahara, Wataru Fujii, Ken Murakami, Ryo Oda, Hiroyoshi Fujiwara, Masataka Kohno, Yutaka Kawahito
BACKGROUND: Patients with glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIOP) are at very high risk of fracture, and patients with severe GIOP often experience fractures during treatment with bisphosphonates. Teriparatide (TPTD) is the only currently available anabolic agent expected to be effective for GIOP. Once-weekly TPTD decreased bone resorption marker with primary osteoporosis different from daily TPTD, but it has not yet been tested with GIOP. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of once-weekly TPTD for patients with GIOP and inadequate response to bisphosphonates...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27463808/the-role-of-parathyroid-hormone-related-protein-pthrp-in-osteoblast-response-to-microgravity-mechanistic-implications-for-osteoporosis-development
#17
Anne Camirand, David Goltzman, Ajay Gupta, Mohammadi Kaouass, Dibyendu Panda, Andrew Karaplis
Prolonged skeletal unloading through bedrest results in bone loss similar to that observed in elderly osteoporotic patients, but with an accelerated timeframe. This rapid effect on weight-bearing bones is also observed in astronauts who can lose up to 2% of their bone mass per month spent in Space. Despite the important implications for Spaceflight travelers and bedridden patients, the exact mechanisms involved in disuse osteoporosis have not been elucidated. Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) regulates many physiological processes including skeletal development, and has been proposed as a mechanosensor...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26211824/adjuvant-bisphosphonate-treatment-in-early-breast-cancer-meta-analyses-of-individual-patient-data-from-randomised-trials
#18
R Coleman, T Powles, A Paterson, M Gnant, S Anderson, I Diel, J Gralow, G von Minckwitz, V Moebus, J Bergh, K I Pritchard, J Bliss, D Cameron, V Evans, H Pan, R Peto, R Bradley, R Gray
BACKGROUND: Bisphosphonates have profound effects on bone physiology, and could modify the process of metastasis. We undertook collaborative meta-analyses to clarify the risks and benefits of adjuvant bisphosphonate treatment in breast cancer. METHODS: We sought individual patient data from all unconfounded trials in early breast cancer that randomised between bisphosphonate and control. Primary outcomes were recurrence, distant recurrence, and breast cancer mortality...
October 3, 2015: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27384569/odanacatib-a-cathepsin-k-cysteine-protease-inhibitor-kills-hookworm-in-vivo
#19
Jon J Vermeire, Brian M Suzuki, Conor R Caffrey
Hookworm infection is chief among soil-transmitted helminthiases (STHs) for the chronic morbidly inflicted. Deworming via mass drug administration (MDA) programs most often employs single doses of benzimidazole drugs to which resistance is a constant threat. To discover new drugs, we employ a hamster model of hookworm infection with Ancylostoma ceylanicum and use albendazole (ABZ; 10 mg/kg orally) as the gold standard therapy. We previously showed that a single oral 100 mg/kg dose of the cathepsin cysteine protease (CP) inhibitor, K11777, offers near cure of infection that is associated with a 95% reduction in the parasite's resident CP activity...
2016: Pharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27353596/risk-of-hip-subtrochanteric-and-femoral-shaft-fractures-among-mid-and-long-term-users-of-alendronate-nationwide-cohort-and-nested-case-control-study
#20
Bo Abrahamsen, Pia Eiken, Daniel Prieto-Alhambra, Richard Eastell
OBJECTIVES:  To determine the skeletal safety and efficacy of long term (≥10 years) alendronate use in patients with osteoporosis. DESIGN:  Open register based cohort study containing two nested case control studies. SETTING:  Nationwide study of population of Denmark. PARTICIPANTS:  61 990 men and women aged 50-94 at the start of treatment, who had not previously taken alendronate, 1996-2007. INTERVENTIONS:  Treatment with alendronate...
June 28, 2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
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