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Diagnostic tests

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9 papers 0 to 25 followers
Richard Simon
Molecularly targeted cancer drugs are often developed with companion diagnostics that attempt to identify which patients will have better outcome on the new drug than the control regimen. Such predictive biomarkers are playing an increasingly important role in precision oncology. For diagnostic tests, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive are usually used as performance measures. This paper discusses these indices for predictive biomarkers, provides methods for their calculation with survival or response endpoints, and describes assumptions involved in their use...
August 2015: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
Stacy M Carter, Jane Williams, Lisa Parker, Kristen Pickles, Gemma Jacklyn, Lucie Rychetnik, Alexandra Barratt
Cancer screening is an important component of prevention and early detection in public health and clinical medicine. The evidence for cancer screening, however, is often contentious. A description and explanation of disagreements over the evidence for cervical, breast, and prostate screening may assist physicians, policymakers, and citizens faced with screening decisions and suggest directions for future screening research. There are particular issues to be aware of in the evidence base for each form of screening, which are summarized in this paper...
August 2015: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Pablo Ortega-Deballon, Olivier Facy, Patrick Rat
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2016: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
Douglas J Robertson, Jason A Dominitz
New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 370, Issue 14, Page 1350-1351, April 2014.
April 3, 2014: New England Journal of Medicine
Monique J Roobol, Ries Kranse, Chris H Bangma, Arno G J L H van Leenders, Bert G Blijenberg, Ron H N van Schaik, Wim J Kirkels, Suzie J Otto, Theo H van der Kwast, Harry J de Koning, Fritz H Schröder
BACKGROUND: Evidence from randomized trials on the effects of screening for prostate cancer (PCa) on disease-specific mortality accumulates slowly with increasing follow-up. OBJECTIVE: To assess data on PCa-specific mortality in the Rotterdam section of the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC) trial. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A randomized controlled trial with randomization after signed, written informed consent (efficacy trial)...
October 2013: European Urology
Richard P Holm
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2015: South Dakota Medicine: the Journal of the South Dakota State Medical Association
Seyran Bozkurt, Ataman Köse, Semra Erdogan, Gulten Iraoöz Bozali, Cüneyt Ayrik, Rabia Bozdogan Arpaci, Anil Özgur, Güllü Akbaydogan Dündar, Özgür Turkmenoglu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether mean platelet volume can be used as an inflammatory marker for the diagnosis of acute appendicitis, and to determine the role, if any, of white blood cell count, C-reactive protein and neutrophil count in this regard. METHODS: The retrospective study was conducted at Mersin University (MEU) Health Research and Application Center, Emergency Department, Mersin, Turkey, and included medical record of patients having gone appendectomy between April 2012 to July 2013...
June 2015: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Chen-Hua Liu, Shih-Jer Hsu, Cheng-Chao Liang, Feng-Chiao Tsai, Jou-Wei Lin, Chun-Jen Liu, Pei-Ming Yang, Ming-Yang Lai, Pei-Jer Chen, Jun-Herng Chen, Jia-Horng Kao, Ding-Shinn Chen
PURPOSE: To prospectively develop and evaluate the accuracy of a duplex Doppler ultrasonographic (US) index for predicting the presence or absence of esophageal varices in patients with compensated cirrhosis (Child-Pugh class A) by using endoscopy as the reference standard. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study had institutional review board approval; all participants gave informed consent. Data in a total of 383 prospectively enrolled patients who underwent duplex Doppler US and screening endoscopy were divided into training (n = 240) and validation (n = 143) sets...
July 2008: Radiology
Bing Xiong, Baishu Zhong, Zhenwei Li, Feng Zhou, Ruying Hu, Zhan Feng, Shunliang Xu, Feng Chen
The aim of the study is to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of noncontrast CT in detecting acute appendicitis. Prospective studies in which noncontrast CT was performed to evaluate acute appendicitis were found on PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library. Pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio, and diagnostic odds ratio were assessed. The summary receiver-operating characteristic curve was conducted and the area under the curve was calculated. Seven original studies investigating a total of 845 patients were included in this meta-analysis...
June 2015: American Surgeon
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