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Addiction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27194378/a-preliminary-study-of-dbh-encoding-dopamine-beta-hydroxylase-genetic-variation-and-neural-correlates-of-emotional-and-motivational-processing-in-individuals-with-and-without-pathological-gambling
#1
Bao-Zhu Yang, Iris M Balodis, Cheryl M Lacadie, Jiansong Xu, Marc N Potenza
Background and aims Corticostriatal-limbic neurocircuitry, emotional and motivational processing, dopaminergic and noradrenergic systems and genetic factors have all been implicated in pathological gambling (PG). However, allelic variants of genes influencing dopaminergic and noradrenergic neurotransmitters have not been investigated with respect to the neural correlates of emotional and motivational states in PG. Dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) converts dopamine to norepinephrine; the T allele of a functional single-nucleotide polymorphism rs1611115 (C-1021T) in the DBH gene is associated with less DBH activity and has been linked to emotional processes and addiction...
June 2016: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27195247/comparing-the-spiritual-health-and-quality-of-life-in-addicted-and-non-addicted-patients-in-the-city-of-birjand-iran
#2
Mojtaba Salmabadi, Mohammad Faroogh Sadeghbojd, Mohammad Reza Farshad, Shadi Zolfaghari
BACKGROUND: Substance abuse is a chronic phenomenon that affects many physical, psychological, social, familial and economic elements. Abusers are left with severely reduced interaction both with other individuals and society. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare the spiritual health of addicts and people with a normal quality of life in the city of Birjand, Iran. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The sample consisted of 100 non-addicted subjects and 100 patients who were drug addicts in treatment centers and rehabilitation facilities both public and private in Birjand...
March 2016: International Journal of High Risk Behaviors & Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27203162/-investigation-of-the-medical-and-social-situation-of-patients-managed-by-opiate-replacement-regimens-for-over-10-years-by-their-gp
#3
Nassir Messaadi, Jonathan Favre, Benjamin Rolland, Olivier Cottencin, Matthieu Calafiore, Bertrand Stalnikiewicz, Christophe Berkhout
OBJECTIVE: Management with opiate replacement regimens (ORRs) of patients presenting to primary care settings with opiate addiction has become a long-term follow-up. The aim of this survey study was to describe patients who had been prescribed ORRs for at least 10 years by their general practitioner (GP). METHOD: In 2011, two questionnaires were sent to a sample of 38 GPs prescribing ORRs in Northern France. Doctors' questionnaires collected their typology and opinions on their patients receiving opiate substitution treatments for over 10 years...
April 11, 2016: Thérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27207916/dissociated-accumbens-and-hippocampal-structural-abnormalities-across-obesity-and-alcohol-dependence
#4
Tom B Mole, Elijah Mak, Yee Chien, Valerie Voon
BACKGROUND: Processing of food and drug rewards involves specific neurocircuitry, and emerging evidence implicates subcortical abnormalities, particularly the nucleus accumbens and hippocampus. We specifically hypothesized that these 2 established regions in addiction neurocircuitry are associated with distinctive in vivo structural abnormalities in obesity and alcohol dependence. METHODS: To specifically investigate anatomically discrete volumetric changes associated with overconsumption of different rewards, we acquired T1 MRI data from 118 subjects in 3 groups comprising obesity (n=42), alcohol dependence (n=32), and healthy volunteer controls (n=44)...
September 2016: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26610386/reduced-activity-in-functional-networks-during-reward-processing-is-modulated-by-abstinence-in-cocaine-addicts
#5
Víctor Costumero, Juan Carlos Bustamante, Patricia Rosell-Negre, Paola Fuentes, Juan José Llopis, César Ávila, Alfonso Barrós-Loscertales
Cocaine addiction is characterized by alterations in motivational and cognitive processes. Recent studies have shown that some alterations present in cocaine users may be related to the activity of large functional networks. The aim of this study was to investigate how these functional networks are modulated by non-drug rewarding stimuli in cocaine-dependent individuals. Twenty abstinent cocaine-dependent and 21 healthy matched male controls viewed erotic and neutral pictures while undergoing a functional magnetic resonance imaging scan...
November 27, 2015: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26615370/poppy-the-elegant-flower-or-a-lethal-weapon-of-addiction
#6
EDITORIAL
Zahid Hussain Khan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2015: Acta Medica Iranica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26250442/possible-role-of-a-dysregulation-of-the-endogenous-opioid-system-in-antisocial-personality-disorder
#7
REVIEW
Borwin Bandelow, Dirk Wedekind
Around half the inmates in prison institutions have antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). A recent theory has proposed that a dysfunction of the endogenous opioid system (EOS) underlies the neurobiology of borderline personality disorder (BPD). In the present theoretical paper, based on a comprehensive database and hand search of the relevant literature, this hypothesis is extended to ASPD, which may be the predominant expression of EOS dysfunction in men, while the same pathology underlies BPD in women. According to evidence from human and animal studies, the problematic behaviours of persons with antisocial, callous, or psychopathic traits may be seen as desperate, unconscious attempts to stimulate their deficient EOS, which plays a key role in brain reward circuits...
November 2015: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26152173/-surgical-strategy-to-rescue-the-addicts
#8
REVIEW
Yann Pelloux, Christelle Baunez
Since its successful application for the treatment of neurological disorders, deep brain stimulation (DBS) is currently also applied for the treatment of psychiatric disorders such as obsessive compulsive disorders or depression. DBS is being considered, or even applied, as a treatment for certain forms of addiction. We review here the cerebral structures aimed for such a strategy and discuss their respective positive and negative aspects.
June 2015: Médecine Sciences: M/S
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26160290/promoter-methylation-and-bdnf-and-dat1-gene-expression-profiles-in-patients-with-drug-addiction
#9
Dor Mohammad Kordi-Tamandani, Shahrad Tajoddini, Farzaneh Salimi
BACKGROUND: Drug addiction is a brain disorder that has negative consequences for individuals and society. Addictions are chronic relapsing diseases of the brain that are caused by direct drug-induced effects and persevering neuroadaptations at the epigenetic, neuropeptide and neurotransmitter levels. Because the dopaminergic system has a significant role in drug abuse, the purpose of this study was to analyze the methylation and expression profile of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and dopamine transporter (DAT1) genes in individuals with drug addiction...
2015: Pathobiology: Journal of Immunopathology, Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26161279/alcohol-and-substance-use-in-the-jewish-community-a-pilot-study
#10
Melanie Baruch, Abraham Benarroch, Gary E Rockman
Awareness of addictions in the Jewish community is becoming increasingly prevalent, and yet, a gap exists in the literature regarding addictions in this community. Knowledge about the prevalence of addictions within Jewish communities is limited; some believe that Jews cannot be affected by addictions. To address this gap, a pilot study was conducted to gather preliminary evidence relating to addictions and substance use in the Jewish community. Results indicate that a significant portion of the Jewish community knows someone affected by an addiction and that over 20% have a family history of addiction...
2015: Journal of Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26147003/decreased-3h-naloxone-binding-in-the-dentate-gyrus-of-cloninger-type-1-anxiety-prone-alcoholics-a-postmortem-whole-hemisphere-autoradiography-study
#11
Virpi Laukkanen, Olli Kärkkäinen, Hannu Kautiainen, Jari Tiihonen, Markus Storvik
BACKGROUND: The opioid system of the central nervous system plays an essential role in the regulation of the rewarding effects of alcohol. Alcohol affects mu-opioid receptor (MOR) function. Enhanced MOR function inhibits the GABAergic inhibition of the nucleus accumbens (Nac), which leads to a release of dopamine in the Nac. Of the few pharmaceutical treatments for alcoholism, the MOR antagonists naltrexone and nalmefene benefit most a subset of alcoholics who are characterized with early onset and impulsivity...
August 2015: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26142224/targeting-opioid-induced-hyperalgesia-in-clinical-treatment-neurobiological-considerations
#12
REVIEW
Caroline A Arout, Ellen Edens, Ismene L Petrakis, Mehmet Sofuoglu
Opioid analgesics have become a cornerstone in the treatment of moderate to severe pain, resulting in a steady rise of opioid prescriptions. Subsequently, there has been a striking increase in the number of opioid-dependent individuals, opioid-related overdoses, and fatalities. Clinical use of opioids is further complicated by an increasingly deleterious profile of side effects beyond addiction, including tolerance and opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH), where OIH is defined as an increased sensitivity to already painful stimuli...
June 2015: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26146874/addiction-pharmacogenetics-a-systematic-review-of-the-genetic-variation-of-the-dopaminergic-system
#13
REVIEW
Michelle A Patriquin, Isabelle E Bauer, Jair C Soares, David P Graham, David A Nielsen
Substance use disorders have significant personal, familial, and societal consequences. Despite the serious consequences of substance use, only a few therapies are effective in treating substance use disorders, thus highlighting a need for improved treatment practices. Substance use treatment response depends on multiple factors such as genetic, biological, and social factors. It is essential that each component is represented in treatment plans. The dopaminergic system plays a critical role in the pharmacotherapy for addictions, and an understanding of the role of variation of genes involved in this system is essential for its success...
October 2015: Psychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22935630/l-theanine-attenuates-abstinence-signs-in-morphine-dependent-rhesus-monkeys-and-elicits-anxiolytic-like-activity-in-mice
#14
Laura E Wise, Ishani D Premaratne, Thomas F Gamage, Aron H Lichtman, Larry D Hughes, Louis S Harris, Mario D Aceto
l-theanine, 2-amino-4-(ethylcarbamoyl) butyric acid, an amino acid found in green tea (Camellia sinensis), is sold in the United States as a dietary supplement to reduce stress and improve cognition and mood. The observations that l-theanine has been shown to inhibit caffeine's stimulatory effects and that caffeine produces precipitated withdrawal signs in opioid-addicted monkeys and some opioid withdrawal signs in some normal monkeys, suggest that l-theanine may suppress opioid withdrawal signs. Additionally, l-theanine produces anxiolytic effects in humans indicating that it has anti-anxiety properties...
December 2012: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26141509/imaging-the-d3-dopamine-receptor-across-behavioral-and-drug-addictions-positron-emission-tomography-studies-with-11-c-phno
#15
Isabelle Boileau, Shinichiro Nakajima, Doris Payer
Chronic drug use has been associated with dopaminergic abnormalities, detectable in humans with positron emission tomography (PET). Among these, a hallmark feature is low D2 dopamine receptor availability, which has been linked to clinical outcomes, but has not yet translated into a therapeutic strategy. The D3 dopamine receptor on the other hand has gained increasing attention, as, in contrast to D2, chronic exposure to drugs has been shown to up-regulate this receptor subtype in preclinical models of addiction-a phenomenon linked to dopamine system sensitization and drug-seeking...
September 2015: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26137440/peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-alpha-plays-a-crucial-role-in-behavioral-repetition-and-cognitive-flexibility-in-mice
#16
Giuseppe D'Agostino, Claudia Cristiano, David J Lyons, Rita Citraro, Emilio Russo, Carmen Avagliano, Roberto Russo, Giuseppina Mattace Raso, Rosaria Meli, Giovambattista De Sarro, Lora K Heisler, Antonio Calignano
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Nuclear peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-α (PPAR-α) plays a fundamental role in the regulation of lipid homeostasis and is the target of medications used to treat dyslipidemia. However, little is known about the role of PPAR-α in mouse behavior. METHODS: To investigate the function of Ppar-α in cognitive functions, a behavioral phenotype analysis of mice with a targeted genetic disruption of Ppar-α was performed in combination with neuroanatomical, biochemical and pharmacological manipulations...
July 2015: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26135571/heroin-on-trial-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomised-trials-of-diamorphine-prescribing-as-treatment-for-refractory-heroin-addiction%C3%A2
#17
REVIEW
John Strang, Teodora Groshkova, Ambros Uchtenhagen, Wim van den Brink, Christian Haasen, Martin T Schechter, Nick Lintzeris, James Bell, Alessandro Pirona, Eugenia Oviedo-Joekes, Roland Simon, Nicola Metrebian
BACKGROUND: Supervised injectable heroin (SIH) treatment has emerged over the past 15 years as an intensive treatment for entrenched heroin users who have not responded to standard treatments such as oral methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) or residential rehabilitation. AIMS: To synthesise published findings for treatment with SIH for refractory heroin-dependence through systematic review and meta-analysis, and to examine the political and scientific response to these findings...
July 2015: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26138154/association-between-the-traditional-chinese-medicine-pathological-factors-of-opioid-addiction-and-drd2-ankk1-taqia-polymorphisms
#18
Meimei Cai, Zhiyang Su, Hong Zou, Qin Zhang, Jianying Shen, Lingyuan Zhang, Teng Wang, Zhaoyang Yang, Candong Li
BACKGROUND: As we known, Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) helps to prevent the relapse of drug addiction. However, the scientific basis of TCM remains unclear because of limitations of current reductionist approaches. We aimed to explore the possible mechanism of how ANKK1 TaqIA (A1/A2) [rs1800497(T/C)] affects the relapse of opioid addiction on the perspective of Chinese traditional medicine. METHODS: The ANKK1 TaqIA (A1/A2) [rs1800497(T/C)] of the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) polymorphisms were genotyped in a case-control sample consisting of 347 opioid addicts and 155 healthy controls with RT-PCR and the TCM pathological factors were collected by means of Syndrome Elements Differentiation in the case-control sample...
2015: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26129677/withdrawal-from-acute-amphetamine-induces-an-amygdala-driven-attenuation-of-dopamine-neuron-activity-reversal-by-ketamine
#19
Pauline Belujon, Nicole L Jakobowski, Hannah K Dollish, Anthony A Grace
Drug addiction is a chronic disorder characterized by a cycle composed of drug seeking, intoxication with drug taking and withdrawal associated with negative affect. Numerous studies have examined withdrawal/negative affect after chronic use; however, very few have examined the effect of acute administration on the negative affective state after acute drug withdrawal. One dose of amphetamine was injected into Sprague-Dawley rats. Despair behavior using the modified forced swim test (FST) and dopamine (DA) activity in the ventral tegmental area using in vivo electrophysiological recordings were studied 18, 48 and 72 h after injection of amphetamine...
January 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26113433/anti-social-behaviors-associated-with-anabolic-androgenic-steroid-use-among-male-adolescents
#20
Mats Hallgren, Harrison G Pope, Gen Kanayama, James I Hudson, Andreas Lundin, Håkan Källmén
Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) have been linked to a range of problematic behaviors, but AAS use is still sometimes portrayed as more benign than other forms of classical drug abuse. To address this issue, we compared the prevalence of anti-social behaviors among adolescent AAS users, non-AAS illicit drug users, and drug non-users. We examined 3 waves (2004, 2008, and 2012) of self-reported cross-sectional data from a secondary school survey conducted in Stockholm, Sweden (total n = 19,773; response percentage, 79...
2015: European Addiction Research
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