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Health policy

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Aaron S Kesselheim, Jerry Avorn, Ameet Sarpatwari
IMPORTANCE: The increasing cost of prescription drugs in the United States has become a source of concern for patients, prescribers, payers, and policy makers. OBJECTIVES: To review the origins and effects of high drug prices in the US market and to consider policy options that could contain the cost of prescription drugs. EVIDENCE: We reviewed the peer-reviewed medical and health policy literature from January 2005 to July 2016 for articles addressing the sources of drug prices in the United States, the justifications and consequences of high prices, and possible solutions...
August 23, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Kalipso Chalkidou, Amanda Glassman, Robert Marten, Jeanette Vega, Yot Teerawattananon, Nattha Tritasavit, Martha Gyansa-Lutterodt, Andreas Seiter, Marie Paule Kieny, Karen Hofman, Anthony J Culyer
Governments in low- and middle-income countries are legitimizing the implementation of universal health coverage (UHC), following a United Nation's resolution on UHC in 2012 and its reinforcement in the sustainable development goals set in 2015. UHC will differ in each country depending on country contexts and needs, as well as demand and supply in health care. Therefore, fundamental issues such as objectives, users and cost-effectiveness of UHC have been raised by policy-makers and stakeholders. While priority-setting is done on a daily basis by health authorities - implicitly or explicitly - it has not been made clear how priority-setting for UHC should be conducted...
June 1, 2016: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
Chao Wang, Qing Li, Arthur Sweetman, Jeremiah Hurley
This paper examines the impacts of a mandatory, universal prescription drug insurance program on health care utilization and health outcomes in a public health care system with free physician and hospital services. Using the Canadian National Population Health Survey from 1994 to 2003 and implementing a difference-in-differences estimation strategy, we find that the mandatory program substantially increased drug coverage among the general population. The program also increased medication use and general practitioner visits but had little effect on specialist visits and hospitalization...
December 2015: Journal of Health Economics
Robert S Kaplan, Derek A Haas
Health care providers in much of the world are trying to respond to the tremendous pressure to reduce costs--but evidence suggests that many of their attempts are counterproductive, raising costs and sometimes decreasing the quality of care. Kaplan and Haas reached this conclusion after conducting field research with more than 50 health care provider organizations. Administrators looking for cuts typically work from the line-item expense categories on their P&Ls, they found. This may appear to generate immediate results, but it usually does not reflect the optimal mix of resources needed to efficiently deliver excellent care...
November 2014: Harvard Business Review
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 1, 2015: Lancet
K Srinath Reddy
How does one rate a health system that attracts medical tourism for its high-quality, low-cost advanced care, even as it lags behind many developing countries on key health indicators? What can we make of a country that's become the global pharmacy for myriad inexpensive drugs but allows 63 million..
July 2, 2015: New England Journal of Medicine
Harald Schmidt, Lawrence O Gostin, Ezekiel J Emanuel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 29, 2015: Lancet
Christopher J L Murray, Alan D Lopez
It is difficult to deliver effective and high-quality care to patients without knowing their diagnoses; likewise, for health systems to be effective, it is necessary to understand the key challenges in efforts to improve population health and how these challenges are changing. Before the early..
August 1, 2013: New England Journal of Medicine
Sarah Glazer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2015: Hastings Center Report
Carlos Dora, Andy Haines, John Balbus, Elaine Fletcher, Heather Adair-Rohani, Graham Alabaster, Rifat Hossain, Mercedes de Onis, Francesco Branca, Maria Neira
The UN-led discussion about the post-2015 sustainable development agenda provides an opportunity to develop indicators and targets that show the importance of health as a precondition for and an outcome of policies to promote sustainable development. Health as a precondition for development has received considerable attention in terms of achievement of health-related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), addressing growing challenges of non-communicable diseases, and ensuring universal health coverage. Much less attention has been devoted to health as an outcome of sustainable development and to indicators that show both changes in exposure to health-related risks and progress towards environmental sustainability...
January 24, 2015: Lancet
Elliot Marseille, Bruce Larson, Dhruv S Kazi, James G Kahn, Sydney Rosen
Many countries use the cost-effectiveness thresholds recommended by the World Health Organization's Choosing Interventions that are Cost-Effective project (WHO-CHOICE) when evaluating health interventions. This project sets the threshold for cost-effectiveness as the cost of the intervention per disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) averted less than three times the country's annual gross domestic product (GDP) per capita. Highly cost-effective interventions are defined as meeting a threshold per DALY averted of once the annual GDP per capita...
February 1, 2015: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
Dina Balabanova, Anne Mills, Lesong Conteh, Baktygul Akkazieva, Hailom Banteyerga, Umakant Dash, Lucy Gilson, Andrew Harmer, Ainura Ibraimova, Ziaul Islam, Aklilu Kidanu, Tracey P Koehlmoos, Supon Limwattananon, V R Muraleedharan, Gulgun Murzalieva, Benjamin Palafox, Warisa Panichkriangkrai, Walaiporn Patcharanarumol, Loveday Penn-Kekana, Timothy Powell-Jackson, Viroj Tangcharoensathien, Martin McKee
In 1985, the Rockefeller Foundation published Good health at low cost to discuss why some countries or regions achieve better health and social outcomes than do others at a similar level of income and to show the role of political will and socially progressive policies. 25 years on, the Good Health at Low Cost project revisited these places but looked anew at Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Kyrgyzstan, Thailand, and the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, which have all either achieved substantial improvements in health or access to services or implemented innovative health policies relative to their neighbours...
June 15, 2013: Lancet
Hamilton Moses, David H M Matheson, E Ray Dorsey, Benjamin P George, David Sadoff, Satoshi Yoshimura
Health care in the United States includes a vast array of complex interrelationships among those who receive, provide, and finance care. In this article, publicly available data were used to identify trends in health care, principally from 1980 to 2011, in the source and use of funds ("economic anatomy"), the people receiving and organizations providing care, and the resulting value created and health outcomes. In 2011, US health care employed 15.7% of the workforce, with expenditures of $2.7 trillion, doubling since 1980 as a percentage of US gross domestic product (GDP) to 17...
November 13, 2013: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Arvid Steinar Haugen, Eirik Søfteland, Stian K Almeland, Nick Sevdalis, Barthold Vonen, Geir E Eide, Monica W Nortvedt, Stig Harthug
OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized reduction of 30 days' in-hospital morbidity, mortality, and length of stay postimplementation of the World Health Organization's Surgical Safety Checklist (SSC). BACKGROUND: Reductions of morbidity and mortality have been reported after SSC implementation in pre-/postdesigned studies without controls. Here, we report a randomized controlled trial of the SSC. METHODS: A stepped wedge cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted in 2 hospitals...
May 2015: Annals of Surgery
Pamela Doty, Pamela Nadash, Nathalie Racco
UNLABELLED: POLICY POINTS: France's model of third-party coverage for long-term services and supports (LTSS) combines a steeply income-adjusted universal public program for people 60 or older with voluntary supplemental private insurance. French and US policies differ: the former pay cash; premiums are lower; and take-up rates are higher, in part because employer sponsorship, with and without subsidization, is more common-but also because coverage targets higher levels of need and pays a smaller proportion of costs...
June 2015: Milbank Quarterly
Linden Farrer, Claudia Marinetti, Yoline Kuipers Cavaco, Caroline Costongs
UNLABELLED: POLICY POINTS: Many barriers hamper advocacy for health equity, including the contemporary economic zeitgeist, the biomedical health perspective, and difficulties cooperating across policy sectors on the issue. Effective advocacy should include persistent efforts to raise awareness and understanding of the social determinants of health. Education on the social determinants as part of medical training should be encouraged, including professional training within disadvantaged communities...
June 2015: Milbank Quarterly
Beverley M Essue, Merel Kimman, Nina Svenstrup, Katharina Lindevig Kjoege, Tracey Lea Laba, Maree L Hackett, Stephen Jan
OBJECTIVE: To determine the nature, scope and effectiveness of interventions to reduce the household economic burden of illness or injury. METHODS: We systematically reviewed reports published on or before 31 January 2014 that we found in the CENTRAL, CINAHL, Econlit, Embase, MEDLINE, PreMEDLINE and PsycINFO databases. We extracted data from prospective controlled trials and assessed the risk of bias. We narratively synthesized evidence. FINDINGS: Nine of the 4330 studies checked met our inclusion criteria – seven had evaluated changes to existing health-insurance programmes and two had evaluated different modes of delivering information...
February 1, 2015: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
Mithilesh Dronavalli, Sandra C Thompson
BACKGROUND: Those interested in evaluating the effectiveness of community interventions on health and well-being need information about what tools are available and best suited to measure improvements that could be attributed to the intervention.This study evaluated published measurement tools of health and well-being that have the potential to be used before and after an intervention. METHODS: A literature search of health and sociological databases was undertaken for articles that utilised measurement tools in community settings to measure overall health, well-being or quality of life...
August 2015: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Robert Nuscheler, Kerstin Roeder
Health care financing and funding are usually analyzed in isolation. This paper combines the corresponding strands of the literature and thereby advances our understanding of the important interaction between them. We investigate the impact of three modes of health care financing, namely, optimal income taxation, proportional income taxation, and insurance premiums, on optimal provider payment and on the political implementability of optimal policies under majority voting. Considering a standard multi-task agency framework we show that optimal health care policies will generally differ across financing regimes when the health authority has redistributive concerns...
July 2015: Journal of Health Economics
Delos M Cosgrove, Michael Fisher, Patricia Gabow, Gary Gottlieb, George C Halvorson, Brent C James, Gary S Kaplan, Jonathan B Perlin, Robert Petzel, Glenn D Steele, John S Toussaint
Patient-centeredness--the idea that care should be designed around patients' needs, preferences, circumstances, and well-being--is a central tenet of health care delivery. For CEOs of health care organizations, patient-centered care is also quickly becoming a business imperative, with payments tied to performance on measures of patient satisfaction and engagement. In A CEO Checklist for High-Value Health Care, we, as executives of eleven leading health care delivery institutions, outlined ten key strategies for reducing costs and waste while improving outcomes...
February 2013: Health Affairs
2015-06-04 05:50:50
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