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Yuval A Patel, Elizabeth J Gifford, Lisa M Glass, Marsha J Turner, Byungjoo Han, Cynthia A Moylan, Steve Choi, Ayako Suzuki, Dawn Provenzale, Christine M Hunt
BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease. Severe NAFLD with advanced fibrosis results in substantial morbidity and mortality. Associated with metabolic syndrome, NAFLD is often initially clinically silent, yet intensive lifestyle intervention with 7% or greater weight loss can improve or resolve NAFLD. Using a Veterans Health Administration (VHA) liver biopsy cohort, we evaluated simple noninvasive fibrosis scoring systems to identify NAFLD with advanced fibrosis (or severe disease) to assist providers...
September 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Jean-Luc Raoul, Alejandro Forner, Luigi Bolondi, Tan To Cheung, Roman Kloeckner, Thierry de Baere
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver cancer, representing the sixth leading cause of cancer and the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality. Patient stratification and treatment allocation are based on tumor stage, liver function, and performance status. According to the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) staging system, transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is the first-line treatment for patients with intermediate stage HCC, including those with large or multinodular HCC, well-preserved liver function, and no cancer-related symptoms or evidence of vascular invasion or extrahepatic spread...
November 12, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Changjiang Liu, Li Wang, Huizhong Xie, Liyuan Zhang, Bingshu Wang, Chun Luo, Suiqun Wang, Mingliang Tang, Zhongbiao Fu, Hailan Ruan, Zhengjin Liu, Ling Wei, Wenyi Yi, Yunqian Xie
BACKGROUND: There is no consensus regarding the relationship between HBV DNA and liver fibrosis, and the relationship between HBV DNA and the degree of liver cirrhosis has not been reported in patients with chronic HBV infection. METHODS: From January 2011 to December 2016, liver biopsies were performed on 396 patients with chronic hepatitis B and cirrhosis. Assessments of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis were based on the Laennec staging system. RESULTS: Serum levels of HBV DNA were correlated with fibrosis and cirrhosis (KW = 73...
2018: PloS One
Toshihide Shima, Hirofumi Uto, Kohjiro Ueki, Yutaka Kohgo, Kohichiroh Yasui, Naoto Nakamura, Tatsuaki Nakatou, Toshinari Takamura, Sumio Kawata, Kazuo Notsumata, Kyoko Sakai, Ryosuke Tateishi, Takeshi Okanoue
BACKGROUND: We reported a cross-sectional study on causes of liver injury in Japanese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) patients (JG 2013). We assessed overall and cause-specific mortality risk during follow-up of patients enrolled in JG 2013. METHODS: This was a longitudinal, multicenter cohort study. Of the 5642 Japanese T2D patients who visited T2D clinics of nine hospitals in the original study, 3,999 patients were followed up for an average of 4.5 years. Expected deaths in T2D patients were estimated using age-specific mortality rates in the general population (GP) of Japan...
July 13, 2018: Journal of Gastroenterology
Martin C S Wong, Jason L W Huang, Jacob George, Junjie Huang, Colette Leung, Mohammed Eslam, Henry L Y Chan, Siew C Ng
This Review presents current epidemiological trends of the most common liver diseases in Asia-Pacific countries. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) remains the primary cause of cirrhosis; despite declining prevalence in most Asian nations, this virus still poses a severe threat in some territories and regions. Mortality resulting from HBV infection is declining as a result of preventive measures and antiviral treatments. The epidemiological transition of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has varied in the region in the past few decades, but the medical burden of infection and the prevalence of its related cancers are increasing...
August 29, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
(no author information available yet)
A frequent complication in liver cirrhosis is malnutrition, which is associated with the progression of liver failure, and with a higher rate of complications including infections, hepatic encephalopathy and ascites. In recent years, the rising prevalence of obesity has led to an increase in the number of cirrhosis cases related to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Malnutrition, obesity and sarcopenic obesity may worsen the prognosis of patients with liver cirrhosis and lower their survival. Nutritional monitoring and intervention is therefore crucial in chronic liver disease...
August 22, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
Thierry Gustot, Richard Moreau
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 7, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
Emilia Hadziyannis, Andreas Laras
Viral biomarkers are important tools for monitoring chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) hepatitis B early antigen (HBeAg) negative infection, both in its natural course as well as during and after treatment. The biomarkers consist of antibodies against viral epitopes, viral proteins, and molecular surrogate markers of the quantity and transcriptional activity of the stable episomal HBV covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) which is located in the nuclei of the infected hepatocytes. HBV deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) or else viral load measurement in plasma or serum is a marker of HBV replication of major clinical importance...
September 27, 2018: Genes
Patrick G Northup, Lawrence S Friedman, Patrick S Kamath
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 28, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Ji Hyun Kim, Young Don Kim, Minjong Lee, Baek Gyu Jun, Tae Suk Kim, Ki Tae Suk, Seong Hee Kang, Moon Young Kim, Gab Jin Cheon, Dong Joon Kim, Soon Koo Baik, Dae Hee Choi
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Recently, the PAGE-B score and Toronto HCC risk index (THRI) have been developed to predict the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in Caucasian patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). We aimed to validate PAGE-B scores and THRI in Asian patients with CHB and suggested modified PAGE-B scores to improve the predictive performance. METHODS: From 2007 to 2017, we examined 3,001 Asian patients with CHB receiving entecavir/tenofovir therapy...
November 2018: Journal of Hepatology
Byeong G Song, Dong H Sinn, Sangah Chi, Kyunga Kim, Wonseok Kang, Geum-Youn Gwak, Yong-Han Paik, Moon S Choi, Joon H Lee, Kwang C Koh, Seung W Paik
BACKGROUND: The risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains among patients who are treated with antiviral therapy (AVT). The degree of liver fibrosis has been suggested as an important biomarker to stratify the risk of developing HCC. We tested whether liver stiffness (LS) measured using transient elastography is useful over two noninvasive serum biomarkers of fibrosis [the aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index (APRI) and fibrosis-4 (FIB-4)]. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective cohort of 1014 CHB patients who were under AVT with nucleos(t)ide analogs for at least a year was analyzed...
December 2018: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Elisa Pose, Jonel Trebicka, Rajeshwar P Mookerjee, Paolo Angeli, Pere Ginès
In addition to lowering cholesterol levels, statins have pleiotropic effects, particularly anti-inflammatory, antiangiogenic, and antifibrotic, that may be beneficial in some chronic inflammatory conditions. Statins have only recently been investigated as a potential treatment option in chronic liver diseases because of concerns related to their safety in patients with impaired liver function. A number of experimental studies in animal models of liver diseases have shown that statins decrease hepatic inflammation, fibrogenesis and portal pressure...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
Chathur Acharya, Jasmohan S Bajaj
Hepatic encephalopathy is a state of brain dysfunction resulting from decompensation of cirrhosis. The mortality and morbidity associated with the overt form of hepatic encephalopathy are high, and even the covert form associates with poor outcomes and poor quality of life. We know that the dysfunction is not just an acute insult to the brain but rather results in long-standing cognitive issues that get worse with each episode of HE. Hence, there is an urgency to accurately diagnose these conditions, start appropriate therapy, and to maintain remission...
July 13, 2018: American Journal of Gastroenterology
Danielle Adebayo, Shuet Fong Neong, Florence Wong
Ascites, a common complication of liver cirrhosis, eventually becomes refractory to diuretic therapy and sodium restriction in ~10% of patients. Multiple pathogenetic factors are involved in the development of refractory ascites, which ultimately lead to renal hypoperfusion and avid sodium retention. Therefore, renal dysfunction commonly accompanies refractory ascites. Management includes continuation of sodium restriction, which needs frequent reviews for adherence; and regular large volume paracentesis of 5 L or more with albumin infusions to prevent the development of paracentesis-induced circulatory dysfunction...
July 5, 2018: American Journal of Gastroenterology
Muhammad Ali Khan, Colin W Howden
Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have been in use since the early 1990s and play a crucial role in the management of a number of conditions affecting the upper gastrointestinal tract, including gastroesophageal reflux disease, Barrett esophagus, eosinophilic esophagitis, and dyspepsia. PPIs also play an important role in the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection and in the prevention of upper gastrointestinal tract ulcers and bleeding among patients taking antiplatelet therapy and/or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs...
March 2018: Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Matthias Pinter, Markus Peck-Radosavljevic
BACKGROUND: The approval of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor sorafenib in 2007 marked a milestone in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma, as sorafenib was the first systemic therapy to show a survival benefit in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. Since then many drugs failed in the first- and second-line setting and it took almost another decade until further tyrosine kinase inhibitors succeeded in phase III trials. AIM: To summarise the evolving field of systemic therapy of hepatocellular carcinoma...
September 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Man-Fung Yuen, Ding-Shinn Chen, Geoffrey M Dusheiko, Harry L A Janssen, Daryl T Y Lau, Stephen A Locarnini, Marion G Peters, Ching-Lung Lai
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a hepatotropic virus that can establish a persistent and chronic infection in humans through immune anergy. Currently, 3.5% of the global population is chronically infected with HBV, although the incidence of HBV infections is decreasing owing to vaccination and, to a lesser extent, the use of antiviral therapy to reduce the viral load of chronically infected individuals. The course of chronic HBV infection typically comprises different clinical phases, each of which potentially lasts for decades...
June 7, 2018: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
Salvatore Petta, Giada Sebastiani, Elisabetta Bugianesi, Mauro Viganò, Vincent Wai-Sun Wong, Annalisa Berzigotti, Anna Ludovica Fracanzani, Quentin M Anstee, Fabio Marra, Marco Barbara, Vincenza Calvaruso, Calogero Cammà, Vito Di Marco, Antonio Craxì, Victor de Ledinghen
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Baveno VI and expanded Baveno VI criteria can avoid the need for esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) to screen for varices needing treatment (VNT) in a substantial proportion of compensated patients with viral and/or alcoholic cirrhosis. This multicenter, cross-sectional study aims to validate these criteria in patients with compensated cirrhosis due to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), accounting for possible differences in liver stiffness measurement (LSM) values between M and XL probes...
October 2018: Journal of Hepatology
Xavier Forns, Christoph Sarrazin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2018: Journal of Hepatology
Jasmohan S Bajaj
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Journal of Hepatology
2018-05-29 07:46:25
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