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Hepatology

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127 papers 100 to 500 followers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870397/eradicating-hepatitis-b-virus-the-critical-role-of-preventing-perinatal-transmission
#1
REVIEW
Cladd E Stevens, Pearl Toy, Saleem Kamili, Patricia E Taylor, Myron J Tong, Guo-Liang Xia, Girish N Vyas
Prevention of hepatitis B virus (HBV) transmission from infected mothers to their newborns is critical to HBV control and eventual eradication. Mother-to-child perinatal transmission causes the highest chronic carrier rate (>85%) with a high rate of subsequent chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma. This risk is reduced by 90% with HBV vaccine given along with hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG) starting at birth. New analyses of our data from US trials of HBIG and HBV vaccine in high-risk infants revealed better efficacy with yeast-recombinant vaccine than plasma-derived vaccine, especially in preventing late onset infections, with evidence that vaccine prevented transmission of maternal HBV infection with the glycine to arginine mutation in surface antigen codon 145 (sG145R)...
September 1, 2017: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778687/hepatitis-b-cure-from-discovery-to-regulatory-approval
#2
REVIEW
Anna S Lok, Fabien Zoulim, Geoffrey Dusheiko, Marc G Ghany
The majority of persons currently treated for chronic hepatitis B require long-term or lifelong therapy. New inhibitors of hepatitis B virus entry, replication, assembly, or secretion and immune modulatory therapies are in development. The introduction of these novel compounds for chronic hepatitis B necessitates a standardised appraisal of the efficacy and safety of these treatments and definitions of new or additional endpoints to inform clinical trials. To move the field forward and to expedite the pathway from discovery to regulatory approval, a workshop with key stakeholders was held in September 2016 to develop a consensus on treatment endpoints to guide the design of clinical trials aimed at hepatitis B cure...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856257/effect-of-hepatitis-b-virus-hbv-infection-on-the-course-of-pregnancy-and-newborns-health-status
#3
Tadeusz Wojciech Łapiński, Julita Stepaniuk, Krzysztof Tomasiewicz, Dariusz Lebensztejn, Marek Kulikowski, Robert Flisiak
INTRODUCTION: The effect of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection on pregnancy is not clear. Hepatitis B virus infection of newborns in the case of natural delivery occurs in 70-90% of cases. Risk factors of infection are the presence of serum HBeAg and HBV DNA level above 10(7) IU/ml. Active and passive prevention protect more than 95% of neonates born to mothers infected with HBV. The aim of the study was to determine the course of pregnancy in HBV-infected women, the mode of delivery, efficacy of prophylaxis against HBV infection in newborns, and health condition of newborns within the first years of life...
November 2015: Clin Exp Hepatol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875955/efficacy-of-real-world-entecavir-therapy-in-treatment-na%C3%A3-ve-chronic-hepatitis-b-patients
#4
Yan-Di Xie, Hui Ma, Bo Feng, Lai Wei
Background: Entecavir (ETV) has been shown to be effective in randomized controlled trials in highly selected patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of ETV in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients in the real-world setting. Methods: A total of 233 treatment-naïve, CHB patients who received at least 12 months of ETV treatment were included in this retrospective study. Rates of virological response (VR), hepatitis B s antigen (HBsAg) loss, hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) clearance/seroconversion, virological breakthrough, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma were evaluated...
September 20, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729734/circulating-predictive-and-diagnostic-biomarkers-for-hepatitis-b-virus-associated-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#5
REVIEW
Stijn Van Hees, Peter Michielsen, Thomas Vanwolleghem
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infected patients have an almost 100-fold increased risk to develop hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HCC is the fifth most common and third most deadly cancer worldwide. Up to 50% of newly diagnosed HCC cases are attributed to HBV infection. Early detection improves survival and can be achieved through regular screening. Six-monthly abdominal ultrasound, either alone or in combination with alpha-fetoprotein serum levels, has been widely endorsed for this purpose. Both techniques however yield limited diagnostic accuracy, which is not improved when they are combined...
October 7, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759808/platelet-to-lymphocyte-ratio-plr-and-neutrophil-to-lymphocyte-ratio-nlr-are-associated-with-chronic-hepatitis-b-virus-hbv-infection
#6
Zhidan Zhao, Jianhua Liu, Jiaxin Wang, Tinyan Xie, Qiuhuan Zhang, Sisi Feng, Hui Deng, Baiyun Zhong
OBJECTIVE: This retrospective study aimed to investigate the associations between the platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and disease severity in patients with chronic HBV infection-related liver disease (CHB). METHODS: Patients with CHB were retrospectively identified. Clinical data for 172 HBV-infected patients and 40 healthy controls were collected from the electronic patient medical record system database of our hospital...
October 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711626/influence-of-metabolic-risk-factors-on-risk-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-and-liver-related-death-in-men-with-chronic-hepatitis-b-a-large-cohort-study
#7
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Ming-Whei Yu, Chih-Lin Lin, Chun-Jen Liu, Shu-Han Yang, Yu-Lin Tseng, Chih-Feng Wu
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Little is known about the absolute risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and liver-disease related death, in association with metabolic risk factors, for patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. METHODS: We collected data from 5373 male Taiwanese civil servants who visited Taiwan's Government Employees' Central Clinics and received routine free physical examinations from 1989 through 1992. We obtained information on liver-related morbidity and mortality in HBV carriers, 40-65 years of age (n=1690), with different metabolic risk factors...
October 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321877/pharmacological-interventions-for-acute-hepatitis-b-infection-an-attempted-network-meta-analysis
#8
REVIEW
Konstantinos Mantzoukis, Manuel Rodríguez-Perálvarez, Elena Buzzetti, Douglas Thorburn, Brian R Davidson, Emmanuel Tsochatzis, Kurinchi Selvan Gurusamy
BACKGROUND: Infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) can be symptomatic or asymptomatic. Apart from chronic HBV infection, the complications related to acute HBV infection are severe acute viral hepatitis and fulminant hepatitis characterised by liver failure. The optimal pharmacological treatment of acute HBV infection remains controversial. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of pharmacological interventions in the treatment of acute HBV infection through a network meta-analysis and to generate rankings of the available treatments according to their safety and efficacy...
March 21, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523578/prevalence-and-predictors-of-significant-fibrosis-among-subjects-with-transient-elastography-defined-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#9
Hye Won Lee, Beom Kyung Kim, Seung Up Kim, Jun Yong Park, Do Young Kim, Sang Hoon Ahn, Kwang Joon Kim, Kwang-Hyub Han
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Transient elastography (TE) can be used to assess the degree of liver fibrosis and steatosis. We investigated the prevalence and predictors of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) with or without significant liver fibrosis in the general population. METHODS: A total of 3033 subjects without alcoholic or chronic viral liver diseases who underwent a medical health check-up including TE were recruited from April 2013 to August 2014. TE-defined NAFLD was defined as a controlled attenuation parameter of ≥250 dB/m, and significant liver fibrosis was defined as a liver stiffness (LS) value of ≥8 kPa...
August 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501536/multicenter-external-validation-of-risk-stratification-criteria-for-patients-with-variceal-bleeding
#10
Irene Conejo, Maria Anna Guardascione, Puneeta Tandon, Alba Cachero, Josep Castellote, Juan G Abraldes, Lucio Amitrano, Joan Genescà, Salvador Augustin
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Early placement of a transjugular intrahepatic porto-systemic shunts (TIPS) is considered the treatment of choice for patients with acute variceal bleeding (AVB) and cirrhosis who have a high risk of death (Child-Pugh class B with active bleeding at endoscopy or Child-Pugh class C). It has been proposed that patients of Child-Pugh class B, even with active bleeding, should not be considered high risk. Alternative criteria have been proposed for identification of high-risk patients, such as Child-Pugh class C with plasma level of creatinine of 1 mg/dl or more (ChildC-C1) and a model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score of 19 or more...
May 10, 2017: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602971/new-developments-in-hepatorenal-syndrome
#11
Ayse L Mindikoglu, Stephen C Pappas
Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) continues to be one of the major complications of decompensated cirrhosis, leading to death in the absence of liver transplantation. Challenges in precisely evaluating renal function in the patient with cirrhosis remain because of the limitations of serum creatinine (Cr) alone in estimating glomerular filtration rate (GFR); current GFR estimating models appear to underestimate renal function. Newer models incorporating renal biomarkers, such as the Cr-Cystatin C GFR Equation for Cirrhosis appear to estimate true GFR more accurately...
June 7, 2017: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980231/a-novel-model-for-predicting-hepatocellular-carcinoma-development-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-b-and-normal-alanine-aminotransferase-levels
#12
Dong Hyun Sinn, Jeong-Hoon Lee, Kyunga Kim, Joong Hyun Ahn, Ji Hyeon Lee, Jung Hee Kim, Dong Hyeon Lee, Jung-Hwan Yoon, Wonseok Kang, Geum-Youn Gwak, Yong-Han Paik, Moon Seok Choi, Joon Hyeok Lee, Kwang Cheol Koh, Seung Woon Paik
Background/Aims: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) can develop in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients with normal alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels. Therefore, methods that can stratify an individual's HCC risk are needed. Methods: A simple HCC risk score was developed from 971 patients with CHB who had elevated hepatitis B virus DNA levels (>2,000 IU/mL) with normal or mildly elevated ALT levels (<80 U/L). The score was validated from an independent cohort of 507 patients...
July 15, 2017: Gut and Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267700/ultrasonography-for-noninvasive-assessment-of-portal-hypertension
#13
REVIEW
Hitoshi Maruyama, Osamu Yokosuka
Portal hypertension is a major pathophysiology in patients with cirrhosis. Portal pressure is the gold standard to evaluate the severity of portal hypertension, and radiological intervention is the only procedure for pressure measurement. Ultrasound (US) is a simple and noninvasive imaging modality available worldwide. B-mode imaging allows broad applications for patients to detect and characterize chronic liver diseases and focal hepatic lesions. The Doppler technique offers real-time observation of blood flow with qualitative and quantitative assessments, and the application of microbubble-based contrast agents has improved the detectability of peripheral blood flow...
July 15, 2017: Gut and Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494575/combination-therapy-for-chronic-hepatitis-b-current-updates-and-perspectives
#14
REVIEW
Tung-Hung Su, Chun-Jen Liu
Nucleos(t)ide analogues (NUCs) and interferon have been used for several decades to treat chronic hepatitis B; however, the therapeutic response remains unsatisfactory. Although NUC therapy exhibits potent on-treatment viral suppression, frequent off-therapy virological relapses suggest an indefinite treatment course. Interferon modulates the innate and adaptive antiviral immune responses and thus increases the chance of viral eradication. Interferon therapy has the advantage of a finite duration, absence of drug resistance, and durable posttreatment responses...
September 15, 2017: Gut and Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331563/%C3%A2-evaluation-of-serum-hbv-viral-load-transaminases-and-histological-features-in-chronic-hbeag-negative-hepatitis-b-patients
#15
Abbas Esmaeelzadeh, Hassan Saadatnia, Bahram Memar, Elham Mokhtari Amirmajdi, Azita Ganji, Ladan Goshayeshi, Zahra Meshkat, Alireza Pasdar, Hassan Vosoughinia, Mohammadreza Farzanehfar, Shahrzad Tehranian, Kamran Ghaffarzadehgan, Farnood Rajabzadeh, Mitra Ahadi
AIM: To evaluate the association between biochemical, virologic and histologic features in patients with HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B (CHB). BACKGROUND: Hepatitis-B e-antigen (HBeAg)-negative is common in Iran, is progressive with poor prognosis. Therefore, it seems necessary to perform a comprehensive evaluation of different spectrum of laboratory measurements accompanying histological findings. METHODS: HBeAg- negative CHB patients referring to two university hospitals during two years were enrolled...
2017: Gastroenterology and Hepatology From Bed to Bench
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316539/percutaneous-liver-biopsy
#16
Maya Gambarin-Gelwan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2006: Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381952/the-treatment-of-hepatic-fibrosis-reversal-of-the-underlying-disease-process
#17
Luis Servin-Abad, Eugene R Schiff
Cirrhosis is considered an irreversible end stage of all liver diseases. Current knowledge indicates that fibrosis is part of the liver repair process, which is dynamic. Understanding this repair process will provide better approaches to halt, ameliorate, or reverse fibrosis. The diagnosis of cirrhosis is currently established by liver biopsy and in most advanced cases can be confirmed by imaging. Liver biopsy remains the gold standard but has several limitations: sampling error, size of the biopsy, and both inter- and intra-observer inconsistencies...
November 2006: Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435411/surveillance-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#18
Sammy Saab
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2014: Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428719/safety-and-efficacy-of-tenofovir-in-chronic-hepatitis-b-related-decompensated-cirrhosis
#19
Soon Kyu Lee, Myeong Jun Song, Seok Hyun Kim, Byung Seok Lee, Tae Hee Lee, Young Woo Kang, Suk Bae Kim, Il Han Song, Hee Bok Chae, Soon Young Ko, Jae Dong Lee
AIM: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) as a first-line therapy in decompensated liver disease. METHODS: We enrolled 174 chronic hepatitis B-related liver cirrhosis patients treated with 300 mg/d TDF at six Korean centers. Of the 174 cirrhosis patients, 57 were assigned to the decompensated cirrhosis group and 117 were assigned to the compensated cirrhosis group. We followed the patients for 12 mo and evaluated clinical outcomes, including biochemical, virological, and serological responses...
April 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774677/the-impact-of-proton-pump-inhibitor-therapy-on-patients-with-liver-disease
#20
H L Cole, S Pennycook, P C Hayes
BACKGROUND: Proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy has been reported to be an independent mortality risk factor in patients with cirrhosis. AIM: To identify the prevalence of PPI prescription, the appropriateness of this therapy and to investigate the relationship between PPI therapy and overall survival in patients with liver disease. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study used patient data for 2012 to 2014 collected from the Scottish Liver Transplant Unit and the Hepatology Ward at the New Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh...
December 2016: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
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