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Shan Shan, Fuqian Cui, Jidong Jia
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is an enormous economic and social burden. Asian countries such as Vietnam, Mongolia, Laos, China, the Philippines, South Korea, Singapore and Cambodia have high or high-intermediate HBsAg prevalence. Most of the chronic HBV carriers in this region acquire their infection during early childhood or through mother-to-child transmission (MTCT). Asia has been highly successful in controlling HBV in the last 2 decades. For example, China has adopted a comprehensive strategy to control HBV and has offered universal HBV vaccination to infants since 1992...
February 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
Bridget M Kuehn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 27, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Chiaho Shih, Ching-Chun Yang, Gansukh Choijilsuren, Chih-Hsu Chang, An-Ting Liou
This infographic about hepatitis B virus explores its replication cycle, natural history of infection and pathogenesis, and how this can be controlled and treated. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a common worldwide blood-borne pathogen. Chronic hepatitis B can progress to an inactive carrier state, and then, in some patients, give rise to cirrhosis and cancer of the liver, leading to death. An HBV surface-antigen vaccine is effective, but treatments are currently not curative. HBV replicates via reverse transcription...
February 27, 2018: Trends in Microbiology
Kristina Tzartzeva, Joseph Obi, Nicole E Rich, Neehar D Parikh, Jorge A Marrero, Adam Yopp, Akbar Waljee, Amit G Singal
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Society guidelines differ in their recommendations for surveillance to detect early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with cirrhosis. We compared the performance of surveillance imaging, with or without alpha fetoprotein (AFP), for early detection of HCC in patients with cirrhosis METHODS: Two reviewers searched MEDLINE and SCOPUS from January 1990 through August 2016 to identify published sensitivity and specificity of surveillance strategies for overall and early detection of HCC...
February 6, 2018: Gastroenterology
Jia-Feng Wu, Shih-Hsi Song, Chee-Seng Lee, Huey-Ling Chen, Yen-Hsuan Ni, Hong-Yuan Hsu, Tzee-Chung Wu, Mei-Hwei Chang
Background: This study aimed to elucidate predictors of liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected subjects. Methods: Transient elastography was performed to define liver fibrosis in 533 chronic HBV-infected patients at 30.72 ± 0.57 years of age. Protein array was performed on serum samples and lysates of Huh7 cells transfected with HBV mutants; the results were confirmed by ELISA. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the interleukin-1β gene were examined chronic HBV-infected patients with and without liver fibrosis...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Ashwani K Singal, Ramon Bataller, Joseph Ahn, Patrick S Kamath, Vijay H Shah
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) comprises a clinical-histologic spectrum including fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis (AH), and cirrhosis with its complications. Most patients are diagnosed at advanced stages and data on the prevalence and profile of patients with early disease are limited. Diagnosis of ALD requires documentation of chronic heavy alcohol use and exclusion of other causes of liver disease. Prolonged abstinence is the most effective strategy to prevent disease progression. AH presents with rapid onset or worsening of jaundice, and in severe cases may transition to acute on chronic liver failure when the risk for mortality, depending on the number of extra-hepatic organ failures, may be as high as 20-50% at 1 month...
January 16, 2018: American Journal of Gastroenterology
Dexin Wang, Ping Zhang, Min Zhang
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the predictors for advanced liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection with persistently normal alanine aminotransferase (PNALT), or persistently or intermittently mildly elevated ALT (PIEALT). A total of 305 patients were included in the present study. Liver biopsies were evaluated using the METAVIR scoring system. Liver stiffness (LS) was measured using Fibroscan. Multivariate logistic regression and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) were used to examine the diagnostic value of the predictors for advanced liver fibrosis...
December 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Ayako Iida-Ueno, Masaru Enomoto, Akihiro Tamori, Norifumi Kawada
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of primary liver cancer, and the second most common cause of cancer deaths worldwide. The top three causes of HCC are hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and alcoholic liver disease. Owing to recent advances in direct-acting antiviral agents, HCV can now be eradicated in almost all patients. HBV infection and alcoholic liver disease are expected, therefore, to become the leading causes of HCC in the future. However, the association between alcohol consumption and chronic hepatitis B in the progression of liver disease is less well understood than with chronic hepatitis C...
April 21, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Byung Seok Kim, Yeon Seok Seo, Young Seok Kim, Chang Hyeong Lee, Han Ah Lee, Soon Ho Um, Jeong-Ju Yoo, Sang Gyune Kim, Sang Jun Suh, Young Kul Jung, Sang Hoon Ahn, Kwang-Hyub Han, Hyung Joon Yim, Seung Up Kim
BACKGROUND AND AIM: A subcirrhotic range of liver stiffness (sc-LS), assessed by transient elastography, is associated with better outcomes in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). We investigated whether the achievement of sc-LS by antiviral therapy (AVT) reduced the risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with CHB-related advanced fibrosis or cirrhosis. METHODS: In total, 209 patients with CHB-related advanced fibrosis or cirrhosis, who received paired transient elastography examinations during AVT between 2007 and 2012, were enrolled...
February 2018: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Jung Wha Chung, Eun Sun Jang, Jaihwan Kim, Sook-Hyang Jeong, Nayoung Kim, Dong Ho Lee, Kyung Ho Lee, Jin-Wook Kim
Current strategy of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) surveillance evaluates individual risks of HCC for defining candidates for surveillance, but estimated risks are not utilized for clinical decision-making during actual screening. We sought to determine whether consideration of individual risks improve the performance of ultrasound (US)-based HCC screening in a real-world chronic hepatitis B (CHB) cohort. This single center retrospective cohort study analyzed 27,722 screening US tests from 4,175 consecutive CHB patients...
December 5, 2017: Oncotarget
Alejandro Forner, María Reig, Jordi Bruix
Hepatocellular carcinoma appears frequently in patients with cirrhosis. Surveillance by biannual ultrasound is recommended for such patients because it allows diagnosis at an early stage, when effective therapies are feasible. The best candidates for resection are patients with a solitary tumour and preserved liver function. Liver transplantation benefits patients who are not good candidates for surgical resection, and the best candidates are those within Milan criteria (solitary tumour ≤5 cm or up to three nodules ≤3 cm)...
January 4, 2018: Lancet
Tai-Chung Tseng, Li-Rung Huang
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a global public health issue. There are >250 million people chronically infected with HBV, and these chronic carriers are at high risk of developing end-stage liver diseases and hepatocellular carcinoma. Patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) usually acquire the virus perinatally, while most patients infected during adulthood develop acute hepatitis B (AHB), which usually results in viral clearance. HBV infection is noncytopathic, and liver injury is mostly contributed by host immune responses...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Jie Li, Matthew S Chang, Tram T Tran, Mindie H Nguyen
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection due to mother-to-child transmission during the perinatal period remains an important global health problem. Despite standard passive-active immunoprophylaxis with hepatitis B immunoglobulin and hepatitis B vaccine in neonates, up to 8.5% of newborns still acquire HBV infection. Thus, management of chronic HBV during pregnancy and strategies to prevent mother-to-child transmission are important steps in eradicating or reducing the global burden of chronic HBV infection...
October 2017: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Anna M Diehl, Christopher Day
New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 377, Issue 21, Page 2063-2072, November 2017.
November 23, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
Yoshio Sumida, Masashi Yoneda
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most prevalent liver disease worldwide, and there is no approved pharmacotherapy. The efficacy of vitamin E and pioglitazone has been established in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), a progressive form of NAFLD. GLP-1RA and SGLT2 inhibitors, which are currently approved for use in diabetes, have shown early efficacy in NASH, and also have beneficial cardiovascular or renal effects. Innovative NASH therapies include four main pathways. The first approach is targeting hepatic fat accumulation...
December 16, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology
Jacob George, Quentin Anstee, Vlad Ratziu, Arun Sanyal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Journal of Hepatology
Cladd E Stevens, Pearl Toy, Saleem Kamili, Patricia E Taylor, Myron J Tong, Guo-Liang Xia, Girish N Vyas
Prevention of hepatitis B virus (HBV) transmission from infected mothers to their newborns is critical to HBV control and eventual eradication. Mother-to-child perinatal transmission causes the highest chronic carrier rate (>85%) with a high rate of subsequent chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma. This risk is reduced by 90% with HBV vaccine given along with hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG) starting at birth. New analyses of our data from US trials of HBIG and HBV vaccine in high-risk infants revealed better efficacy with yeast-recombinant vaccine than plasma-derived vaccine, especially in preventing late onset infections, with evidence that vaccine prevented transmission of maternal HBV infection with the glycine to arginine mutation in surface antigen codon 145 (sG145R)...
November 2017: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
Anna S Lok, Fabien Zoulim, Geoffrey Dusheiko, Marc G Ghany
The majority of persons currently treated for chronic hepatitis B require long-term or lifelong therapy. New inhibitors of hepatitis B virus entry, replication, assembly, or secretion and immune modulatory therapies are in development. The introduction of these novel compounds for chronic hepatitis B necessitates a standardised appraisal of the efficacy and safety of these treatments and definitions of new or additional endpoints to inform clinical trials. To move the field forward and to expedite the pathway from discovery to regulatory approval, a workshop with key stakeholders was held in September 2016 to develop a consensus on treatment endpoints to guide the design of clinical trials aimed at hepatitis B cure...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
Tadeusz Wojciech Łapiński, Julita Stepaniuk, Krzysztof Tomasiewicz, Dariusz Lebensztejn, Marek Kulikowski, Robert Flisiak
INTRODUCTION: The effect of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection on pregnancy is not clear. Hepatitis B virus infection of newborns in the case of natural delivery occurs in 70-90% of cases. Risk factors of infection are the presence of serum HBeAg and HBV DNA level above 10(7) IU/ml. Active and passive prevention protect more than 95% of neonates born to mothers infected with HBV. The aim of the study was to determine the course of pregnancy in HBV-infected women, the mode of delivery, efficacy of prophylaxis against HBV infection in newborns, and health condition of newborns within the first years of life...
November 2015: Clinical and experimental hepatology
Yan-Di Xie, Hui Ma, Bo Feng, Lai Wei
Background: Entecavir (ETV) has been shown to be effective in randomized controlled trials in highly selected patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of ETV in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients in the real-world setting. Methods: A total of 233 treatment-naïve, CHB patients who received at least 12 months of ETV treatment were included in this retrospective study. Rates of virological response (VR), hepatitis B s antigen (HBsAg) loss, hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) clearance/seroconversion, virological breakthrough, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma were evaluated...
September 20, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
2017-09-14 01:15:29
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