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Infectious Disease

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18 papers 25 to 100 followers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27076965/corticosteroids-in-the-adjunctive-therapy-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-an-appraisal-of-recent-meta-analyses-of-clinical-trials
#1
REVIEW
Charles Feldman, Ronald Anderson
Improving the outcome of patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is an ongoing challenge, even in the setting of significant advances in antimicrobial chemotherapy and critical care. Recognition of the underlying involvement of inflammation-mediated organ dysfunction as a determinant of adverse outcomes in CAP has aroused intense interest in the protective potential of adjunctive anti-inflammatory therapies in CAP, particularly the role of corticosteroids (CS). This is the primary topic of the current review which is focused on an evaluation of the latest meta-analyses encompassing both recent and earlier clinical trials, with particular emphasis on the stringent meta-analysis undertaken by Siemieniuk and colleagues (Ann Intern Med 2015;163:519-528)...
March 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26620376/spectrum-and-treatment-of-anaerobic-infections
#2
REVIEW
Itzhak Brook
Anaerobes are the most predominant components of the normal human skin and mucous membranes bacterial flora, and are a frequent cause of endogenous bacterial infections. Anaerobic infections can occur in all body locations: the central nervous system, oral cavity, head and neck, chest, abdomen, pelvis, skin, and soft tissues. Treatment of anaerobic infection is complicated by their slow growth in culture, by their polymicrobial nature and by their growing resistance to antimicrobials. Antimicrobial therapy is frequently the only form of therapy needed, whereas in others it is an important adjunct to drainage and surgery...
January 2016: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26761185/zika-virus-in-the-americas-yet-another-arbovirus-threat
#3
Anthony S Fauci, David M Morens
The explosive pandemic of Zika virus infection occurring throughout South America, Central America, and the Caribbean (see map) and potentially threatening the United States is the most recent of four unexpected arrivals of important arthropod-borne viral diseases in the Western Hemisphere over the..
February 18, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26341945/infective-endocarditis
#4
REVIEW
Thomas J Cahill, Bernard D Prendergast
Infective endocarditis occurs worldwide, and is defined by infection of a native or prosthetic heart valve, the endocardial surface, or an indwelling cardiac device. The causes and epidemiology of the disease have evolved in recent decades with a doubling of the average patient age and an increased prevalence in patients with indwelling cardiac devices. The microbiology of the disease has also changed, and staphylococci, most often associated with health-care contact and invasive procedures, have overtaken streptococci as the most common cause of the disease...
February 27, 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26436631/in-the-clinic-community-acquired-pneumonia
#5
REVIEW
Michael S Niederman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 6, 2015: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26216176/cdc-updates-guidelines-for-treating-sexually-transmitted-diseases
#6
EDITORIAL
Roberto Romero, Ingrid Nygaard
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2015: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26377143/tuberculosis
#7
REVIEW
Keertan Dheda, Clifton E Barry, Gary Maartens
Although the worldwide incidence of tuberculosis has been slowly decreasing, the global disease burden remains substantial (∼9 million cases and ∼1·5 million deaths in 2013), and tuberculosis incidence and drug resistance are rising in some parts of the world such as Africa. The modest gains achieved thus far are threatened by high prevalence of HIV, persisting global poverty, and emergence of highly drug-resistant forms of tuberculosis. Tuberculosis is also a major problem in health-care workers in both low-burden and high-burden settings...
March 19, 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26277247/community-acquired-pneumonia
#8
REVIEW
Elena Prina, Otavio T Ranzani, Antoni Torres
Community-acquired pneumonia causes great mortality and morbidity and high costs worldwide. Empirical selection of antibiotic treatment is the cornerstone of management of patients with pneumonia. To reduce the misuse of antibiotics, antibiotic resistance, and side-effects, an empirical, effective, and individualised antibiotic treatment is needed. Follow-up after the start of antibiotic treatment is also important, and management should include early shifts to oral antibiotics, stewardship according to the microbiological results, and short-duration antibiotic treatment that accounts for the clinical stability criteria...
September 12, 2015: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25913272/efficacy-and-safety-of-rts-s-as01-malaria-vaccine-with-or-without-a-booster-dose-in-infants-and-children-in-africa-final-results-of-a-phase-3-individually-randomised-controlled-trial
#9
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: The efficacy and safety of the RTS,S/AS01 candidate malaria vaccine during 18 months of follow-up have been published previously. Herein, we report the final results from the same trial, including the efficacy of a booster dose. METHODS: From March 27, 2009, until Jan 31, 2011, children (age 5-17 months) and young infants (age 6-12 weeks) were enrolled at 11 centres in seven countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1:1) at first vaccination by block randomisation with minimisation by centre to receive three doses of RTS,S/AS01 at months 0, 1, and 2 and a booster dose at month 20 (R3R group); three doses of RTS,S/AS01 and a dose of comparator vaccine at month 20 (R3C group); or a comparator vaccine at months 0, 1, 2, and 20 (C3C [control group])...
July 4, 2015: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26198113/tuberculosis-a-disease-without-boundaries
#10
REVIEW
Nicole Fogel
Tuberculosis (TB) is an airborne disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) that usually affects the lungs leading to severe coughing, fever, and chest pains. Although current research in the past four years has provided valuable insight into TB transmission, diagnosis, and treatment, much remains to be discovered to effectively decrease the incidence of and eventually eradicate TB. The disease still puts a strain on public health, being only second to HIV/AIDS in causing high mortality rates. This review will highlight the history of TB as well as provide an overview of the current literature on epidemiology, pathogenesis and the immune response, treatment, and control of TB...
September 2015: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26214039/efficacy-and-long-term-safety-of-a-dengue-vaccine-in-regions-of-endemic-disease
#11
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Sri Rezeki Hadinegoro, Jose Luis Arredondo-García, Maria Rosario Capeding, Carmen Deseda, Tawee Chotpitayasunondh, Reynaldo Dietze, H I Hj Muhammad Ismail, Humberto Reynales, Kriengsak Limkittikul, Doris Maribel Rivera-Medina, Huu Ngoc Tran, Alain Bouckenooghe, Danaya Chansinghakul, Margarita Cortés, Karen Fanouillere, Remi Forrat, Carina Frago, Sophia Gailhardou, Nicholas Jackson, Fernando Noriega, Eric Plennevaux, T Anh Wartel, Betzana Zambrano, Melanie Saville
BACKGROUND: A candidate tetravalent dengue vaccine is being assessed in three clinical trials involving more than 35,000 children between the ages of 2 and 16 years in Asian-Pacific and Latin American countries. We report the results of long-term follow-up interim analyses and integrated efficacy analyses. METHODS: We are assessing the incidence of hospitalization for virologically confirmed dengue as a surrogate safety end point during follow-up in years 3 to 6 of two phase 3 trials, CYD14 and CYD15, and a phase 2b trial, CYD23/57...
September 24, 2015: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26214040/a-candidate-dengue-vaccine-walks-a-tightrope
#12
EDITORIAL
Cameron P Simmons
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 24, 2015: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25230594/dengue
#13
REVIEW
Maria G Guzman, Eva Harris
Dengue viruses have spread rapidly within countries and across regions in the past few decades, resulting in an increased frequency of epidemics and severe dengue disease, hyperendemicity of multiple dengue virus serotypes in many tropical countries, and autochthonous transmission in Europe and the USA. Today, dengue is regarded as the most prevalent and rapidly spreading mosquito-borne viral disease of human beings. Importantly, the past decade has also seen an upsurge in research on dengue virology, pathogenesis, and immunology and in development of antivirals, vaccines, and new vector-control strategies that can positively impact dengue control and prevention...
January 31, 2015: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25458731/typhoid-fever
#14
REVIEW
John Wain, Rene S Hendriksen, Matthew L Mikoleit, Karen H Keddy, R Leon Ochiai
Control of typhoid fever relies on clinical information, diagnosis, and an understanding for the epidemiology of the disease. Despite the breadth of work done so far, much is not known about the biology of this human-adapted bacterial pathogen and the complexity of the disease in endemic areas, especially those in Africa. The main barriers to control are vaccines that are not immunogenic in very young children and the development of multidrug resistance, which threatens efficacy of antimicrobial chemotherapy...
March 21, 2015: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26016486/staphylococcus-aureus-infections-epidemiology-pathophysiology-clinical-manifestations-and-management
#15
REVIEW
Steven Y C Tong, Joshua S Davis, Emily Eichenberger, Thomas L Holland, Vance G Fowler
Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen that causes a wide range of clinical infections. It is a leading cause of bacteremia and infective endocarditis as well as osteoarticular, skin and soft tissue, pleuropulmonary, and device-related infections. This review comprehensively covers the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, and management of each of these clinical entities. The past 2 decades have witnessed two clear shifts in the epidemiology of S. aureus infections: first, a growing number of health care-associated infections, particularly seen in infective endocarditis and prosthetic device infections, and second, an epidemic of community-associated skin and soft tissue infections driven by strains with certain virulence factors and resistance to β-lactam antibiotics...
July 2015: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25830421/antibiotic-treatment-strategies-for-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-adults
#16
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Douwe F Postma, Cornelis H van Werkhoven, Leontine J R van Elden, Steven F T Thijsen, Andy I M Hoepelman, Jan A J W Kluytmans, Wim G Boersma, Clara J Compaijen, Eva van der Wall, Jan M Prins, Jan J Oosterheert, Marc J M Bonten
BACKGROUND: The choice of empirical antibiotic treatment for patients with clinically suspected community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) who are admitted to non-intensive care unit (ICU) hospital wards is complicated by the limited availability of evidence. We compared strategies of empirical treatment (allowing deviations for medical reasons) with beta-lactam monotherapy, beta-lactam-macrolide combination therapy, or fluoroquinolone monotherapy. METHODS: In a cluster-randomized, crossover trial with strategies rotated in 4-month periods, we tested the noninferiority of the beta-lactam strategy to the beta-lactam-macrolide and fluoroquinolone strategies with respect to 90-day mortality, in an intention-to-treat analysis, using a noninferiority margin of 3 percentage points and a two-sided 90% confidence interval...
April 2, 2015: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26049252/middle-east-respiratory-syndrome
#17
REVIEW
Alimuddin Zumla, David S Hui, Stanley Perlman
Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) is a highly lethal respiratory disease caused by a novel single-stranded, positive-sense RNA betacoronavirus (MERS-CoV). Dromedary camels, hosts for MERS-CoV, are implicated in direct or indirect transmission to human beings, although the exact mode of transmission is unknown. The virus was first isolated from a patient who died from a severe respiratory illness in June, 2012, in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. As of May 31, 2015, 1180 laboratory-confirmed cases (483 deaths; 40% mortality) have been reported to WHO...
September 5, 2015: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23984731/severe-sepsis-and-septic-shock
#18
REVIEW
Derek C Angus, Tom van der Poll
New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 369, Issue 9, Page 840-851, August 2013.
August 29, 2013: New England Journal of Medicine
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