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Linguistic processing

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14 papers 0 to 25 followers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26290678/learning-to-read-what-we-know-and-what-we-need-to-understand-better
#1
Charles Hulme, Margaret J Snowling
The authors review current knowledge about the cognitive processes underlying the early stages of word reading development. Recent findings in a variety of alphabetic languages converge on the conclusion that there are 3 "cognitive foundations" for learning to read: letter-sound knowledge, phonemic awareness, and rapid automatized naming skills. Deficits in each of these skills appear causally related to problems in learning to read, and deficits in letter-sound knowledge and phonemic awareness appear to be remediable by suitable teaching...
March 1, 2015: Child Development Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26232551/phonological-short-term-memory-in-logopenic-variant-primary-progressive-aphasia-and-mild-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Aaron M Meyer, Sarah F Snider, Rachael E Campbell, Rhonda B Friedman
It has been argued that individuals with logopenic variant primary progressive aphasia (lvPPA) have an impairment of the phonological loop, which is a component of the short-term memory (STM) system. In contrast, this type of impairment is not thought to be present in mild typical Alzheimer's disease (AD). Thus, one would predict that people with lvPPA would score significantly lower than a matched AD group on tasks that require phonological STM. In the current study, an lvPPA group was compared with a mild AD group that was matched on age, education, and general cognitive functioning...
October 2015: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26121500/syntactic-processing-in-the-absence-of-awareness-and-semantics
#3
Shao-Min Hung, Po-Jang Hsieh
The classical view that multistep rule-based operations require consciousness has recently been challenged by findings that both multiword semantic processing and multistep arithmetic equations can be processed unconsciously. It remains unclear, however, whether pure rule-based cognitive processes can occur unconsciously in the absence of semantics. Here, after presenting 2 words consciously, we suppressed the third with continuous flash suppression. First, we showed that the third word in the subject-verb-verb format (syntactically incongruent) broke suppression significantly faster than the third word in the subject-verb-object format (syntactically congruent)...
October 2015: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26124540/a-proposed-neurological-interpretation-of-language-evolution
#4
REVIEW
Alfredo Ardila
Since the very beginning of the aphasia history it has been well established that there are two major aphasic syndromes (Wernicke's-type and Broca's-type aphasia); each one of them is related to the disturbance at a specific linguistic level (lexical/semantic and grammatical) and associated with a particular brain damage localization (temporal and frontal-subcortical). It is proposed that three stages in language evolution could be distinguished: (a) primitive communication systems similar to those observed in other animals, including nonhuman primates; (b) initial communication systems using sound combinations (lexicon) but without relationships among the elements (grammar); and (c) advanced communication systems including word-combinations (grammar)...
2015: Behavioural Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26025265/how-children-learn-their-mother-tongue-they-don-t
#5
Mark Halpern
A new solution is offered to the Infant Language Acquisition Problem, rejecting both of Chomsky's alternatives. It proposes that the infant does not acquire his mother tongue by mastering its grammar, whether by inference from personal experience or via an innate Language Acquisition Device such as the UG, but that the language he hears is all saved in his extremely plastic and capacious brain, where it is stored in such a way as to organize it while populating it. The brain is thus transformed into a mind by language...
October 2016: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26074199/rapid-and-automatic-speech-specific-learning-mechanism-in-human-neocortex
#6
Lilli Kimppa, Teija Kujala, Alina Leminen, Martti Vainio, Yury Shtyrov
A unique feature of human communication system is our ability to rapidly acquire new words and build large vocabularies. However, its neurobiological foundations remain largely unknown. In an electrophysiological study optimally designed to probe this rapid formation of new word memory circuits, we employed acoustically controlled novel word-forms incorporating native and non-native speech sounds, while manipulating the subjects' attention on the input. We found a robust index of neurolexical memory-trace formation: a rapid enhancement of the brain's activation elicited by novel words during a short (~30min) perceptual exposure, underpinned by fronto-temporal cortical networks, and, importantly, correlated with behavioural learning outcomes...
September 2015: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26079319/conditional-discriminations-symmetry-and-semantic-priming
#7
Manish Vaidya, Caleb D Hudgins, Daniele Ortu
Psychologists interested in the study of symbolic behavior have found that people are faster at reporting that two words are related to one another than they are in reporting that two words are not related - an effect called semantic priming. This phenomenon has largely been documented in the context of natural languages using real words as stimuli. The current study asked whether laboratory-generated stimulus-stimulus relations established between arbitrary geometrical shapes would also show the semantic priming effect...
September 2015: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26091756/evolution-cannot-explain-how-minds-work
#8
REVIEW
Johan J Bolhuis
Following Jerry Hogan, I argue that questions of function and evolution, and questions of mechanism should be seen as logically distinct. Evolution is concerned with a historical reconstruction of traits, while the actual underlying mechanisms are the domain of cognitive neuroscience and psychology. Functional and evolutionary considerations may be used to generate hypotheses regarding the underlying mechanisms. But these hypotheses may be false and should always be tested empirically. Many researchers still hold that common descent implies cognitive closeness...
August 2015: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26074814/deficits-in-narrative-discourse-elicited-by-visual-stimuli-are-already-present-in-patients-with-mild-cognitive-impairment
#9
Cláudia Drummond, Gabriel Coutinho, Rochele Paz Fonseca, Naima Assunção, Alina Teldeschi, Ricardo de Oliveira-Souza, Jorge Moll, Fernanda Tovar-Moll, Paulo Mattos
Language batteries used to assess the skills of elderly individuals, such as naming and semantic verbal fluency, present some limitations in differentiating healthy controls from patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (a-MCI). Deficits in narrative discourse occur early in dementia caused by Alzheimer's disease (AD), and the narrative discourse abilities of a-MCI patients are poorly documented. The present study sought to propose and evaluate parameters for investigating narrative discourse in these populations...
2015: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26082701/neurally-dissociable-cognitive-components-of-reading-deficits-in-subacute-stroke
#10
Olga Boukrina, A M Barrett, Edward J Alexander, Bing Yao, William W Graves
According to cognitive models of reading, words are processed by interacting orthographic (spelling), phonological (sound), and semantic (meaning) information. Despite extensive study of the neural basis of reading in healthy participants, little group data exist on patients with reading deficits from focal brain damage pointing to critical neural systems for reading. Here, we report on one such study. We have performed neuropsychological testing and magnetic resonance imaging on 11 patients with left-hemisphere stroke (<=5 weeks post-stroke)...
2015: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25999876/inner-speech-deficits-in-people-with-aphasia
#11
Peter Langland-Hassan, Frank R Faries, Michael J Richardson, Aimee Dietz
Despite the ubiquity of inner speech in our mental lives, methods for objectively assessing inner speech capacities remain underdeveloped. The most common means of assessing inner speech is to present participants with tasks requiring them to silently judge whether two words rhyme. We developed a version of this task to assess the inner speech of a population of patients with aphasia and corresponding language production deficits. Patients' performance on the silent rhyming task was severely impaired relative to controls...
2015: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22723813/chunking-or-not-chunking-how-do-we-find-words-in-artificial-language-learning
#12
Ana Franco, Arnaud Destrebecqz
What is the nature of the representations acquired in implicit statistical learning? Recent results in the field of language learning have shown that adults and infants are able to find the words of an artificial language when exposed to a continuous auditory sequence consisting in a random ordering of these words. Such performance can only be based on processing the transitional probabilities between sequence elements. Two different kinds of mechanisms may account for these data: Participants may either parse the sequence into smaller chunks corresponding to the words of the artificial language, or they may become progressively sensitive to the actual values of the transitional probabilities between syllables...
2012: Advances in Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23704860/sensitivity-to-the-acoustic-correlates-of-lexical-stress-and-their-relationship-to-reading-in-skilled-readers
#13
Gareth J Williams, Clare Wood
The role of suprasegmental information in reading processes is a growing area of interest, and sensitivity to lexical stress has been shown to explain unique variance in reading development. However, less is known about its role in skilled reading. This study aimed to investigate the acoustic features of suprasegmental information using a same/different cross-modal matching task. Sixty-four adult participants completed standardized measures of reading accuracy, reading speed, and comprehension and performed an experimental task...
2012: Advances in Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23717346/early-dynamics-of-the-semantic-priming-shift
#14
Frédéric Lavigne, Lucile Chanquoy, Laurent Dumercy, Françoise Vitu
Semantic processing of sequences of words requires the cognitive system to keep several word meanings simultaneously activated in working memory with limited capacity. The real- time updating of the sequence of word meanings relies on dynamic changes in the associates to the words that are activated. Protocols involving two sequential primes report a semantic priming shift from larger priming of associates to the first prime to larger priming of associates to the second prime, in a range of long SOAs (stimulus-onset asynchronies) between the second prime and the target...
2013: Advances in Cognitive Psychology
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