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Altitude Training

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By Nathan Cashion Chiropractic & Sports Medicine Student
Jaime Morrison, Chris McLellan, Clare Minahan
The present study compared the performance (peak speed, distance, and acceleration) of ten amateur team-sport athletes during a clustered (i.e., multiple sets) repeated-sprint protocol, (4 sets of 4, 4-s running sprints; i.e., RSR444) in normobaric normoxia (FiO2 = 0.209; i.e., RSN) with normobaric hypoxia (FiO2 = 0.140; i.e., RSH). Subjects completed two separate trials (i. RSN, ii. RSH; randomised order) between 48 h and 72 h apart on a non-motorized treadmill. In addition to performance, we examined blood lactate concentration [La(-)] and arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2) before, during, and after the RSR444...
December 2015: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
A Ribon, V Pialoux, J J Saugy, T Rupp, R Faiss, T Debevec, G P Millet
Sixteen healthy exercise trained participants underwent the following three, 10-h exposures in a randomized manner: (1) Hypobaric hypoxia (HH; 3450m terrestrial altitude) (2) Normobaric hypoxia (NH; 3450m simulated altitude) and (3) Normobaric normoxia (NN). Plasma oxidative stress (malondialdehyde, MDA; advanced oxidation protein products, AOPP) and antioxidant markers (superoxide dismutase, SOD; glutathione peroxidase, GPX; catalase; ferric reducing antioxidant power, FRAP) were measured before and after each exposure...
March 2016: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Chul-Ho Kim, Edward J Ryan, Yongsuk Seo, Corey Peacock, John Gunstad, Matthew D Muller, Angela L Ridgel, Ellen L Glickman
Exposure to hypoxia is associated with cognitive impairment, mediated by cerebral deoxygenation. This can be problematic for individuals who perform mental tasks at high altitude. Eight healthy men completed two experimental trials consisting of 5h of exposure to normobaric hypoxia (12.5% O2). In one of the experimental trials (Hypoxia) subjects remained resting in a seated position the entire 5h; in the other experimental trial (Hypoxia and Exercise) subjects rested 2h, cycled for 1h at constant wattage (workload equivalent to 50% of altitude adjusted VO2max), then rested the last 2h...
November 1, 2015: Physiology & Behavior
Anwar J Almzaiel, Richard Billington, Gary Smerdon, A John Moody
Neutrophil apoptosis and clearance by macrophages are essential for wound healing. Evidence suggests that hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) exposure may enhance neutrophil apoptosis, but HBO effects leading to neutrophil clearance by macrophages are still unclear. In the current study, bovine neutrophils and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMΦ) were co-cultured under HBO (97.9% O2, 2.1% CO2 at 2.4 atm absolute (ATA)) (1 atm = 101.325 kPa), hyperbaric normoxia (8.8% O2 at 2.4 ATA), normobaric hyperoxia (95% O2, 5% CO2), normoxia (air), and normobaric hypoxia (5% O2, 5% CO2)...
August 2015: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
Yongsuk Seo, Keith Burns, Curtis Fennell, Jung-Hyun Kim, John Gunstad, Ellen Glickman, John McDaniel
Although previous reports indicate that exercise improves cognitive function in normoxia, the influence of exercise on cognitive function in hypoxia is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine if the impaired cognitive function in hypoxia can be restored by low to moderate intensity exercise. Sixteen young healthy men completed the ANAM versions of the Go/No-Go task (GNT) and Running Memory Continuous Performance Task (RMCPT) in normoxia to serve as baseline (B-Norm) (21% O2). Following 60 minutes of exposure to normobaric hypoxia (B-Hypo) (12...
December 2015: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
Tadej Debevec, Vincent Pialoux, Jonas Saugy, Laurent Schmitt, Roberto Cejuela, Pauline Mury, Sabine Ehrström, Raphael Faiss, Grégoire P Millet
"Live High-Train Low" (LHTL) training can alter oxidative status of athletes. This study compared prooxidant/antioxidant balance responses following two LHTL protocols of the same duration and at the same living altitude of 2250 m in either normobaric (NH) or hypobaric (HH) hypoxia. Twenty-four well-trained triathletes underwent the following two 18-day LHTL protocols in a cross-over and randomized manner: Living altitude (PIO2 = 111.9 ± 0.6 vs. 111.6 ± 0.6 mmHg in NH and HH, respectively); training "natural" altitude (~1000-1100 m) and training loads were precisely matched between both LHTL protocols...
2015: PloS One
Martin J MacInnis, Eric A Carter, Joseph Donnelly, Michael S Koehle
BACKGROUND: The effect of hypoxia on the exhaled nitric oxide (NO) of humans is unresolved. Many studies have measured the fraction of exhaled NO (FENO) or the partial pressure of exhaled NO (PENO) in normobaric and hypobaric hypoxia, with differing results. METHODS: To better understand NO physiology and altitude acclimatization, we employed a random effects meta-analysis to determine the effect of acute normobaric hypoxia on the PENO of humans. A total of 93 subjects from 7 published studies (with 9 groups) were included...
August 2015: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Ilonka Rohm, Josephine Ratka, Rudin Pistulli, Bjoern Goebel, Thomas Gecks, Hans Reiner Figulla, Atilla Yilmaz, Christian Jung
BACKGROUND: Hypoxia has been shown to induce a microvascular inflammation, affect the cell count of different types of immune cells, and influence cytokine production in blood. In the present study, serum levels of different cytokines were investigated to achieve insights into the effect of hypoxia on the balance of inflammation and anti-inflammation. METHODS: Pro- (IL-8) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokines were measured in an experiment exposing 12 healthy subjects (35 ± 9 yr, 176 ± 7 cm, 73 ± 16 kg, BMI 23 ± 4 kg/m2) to systemic, normobaric hypoxia in a hypoxic chamber...
2015: Clinical Laboratory
Marc Schaber, Veronika Leichtfried, Dietmar Fries, Maria Wille, Hannes Gatterer, Martin Faulhaber, Philipp Würtinger, Wolfgang Schobersberger
INTRODUCTION: The aim of the present study was to investigate whether a 12-hour exposure in a normobaric hypoxic chamber would induce changes in the hemostatic system and a procoagulant state in volunteers suffering from acute mountain sickness (AMS) and healthy controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 37 healthy participants were passively exposed to 12.6% FiO2 (simulated altitude hypoxia of 4,500 m). AMS development was investigated by the Lake Louise Score (LLS). Prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, fibrinogen, and platelet count were measured and specific methods (i...
2015: BioMed Research International
Jonas J Saugy, Laurent Schmitt, Roberto Cejuela, Raphael Faiss, Anna Hauser, Jon P Wehrlin, Benjamin Rudaz, Audric Delessert, Neil Robinson, Grégoire P Millet
We investigated the changes in both performance and selected physiological parameters following a Live High-Train Low (LHTL) altitude camp in either normobaric hypoxia (NH) or hypobaric hypoxia (HH) replicating current "real" practices of endurance athletes. Well-trained triathletes were split into two groups (NH, n = 14 and HH, n = 13) and completed an 18-d LHTL camp during which they trained at 1100-1200 m and resided at an altitude of 2250 m (PiO2  = 121.7±1.2 vs. 121.4±0.9 mmHg) under either NH (hypoxic chamber; FiO2 15...
2014: PloS One
Darrell L Bonetti, Will G Hopkins
Adaptation to living or training in hypoxic environments (altitude training) continues to gain interest from sport scientists and endurance athletes. Here we present the first meta-analytic review of the effects on performance and related physiological measures following adaptation to six protocols of natural or artificial hypoxia: live-high train-high (LHTH), live-high train-low (LHTL), artificial LHTL with daily exposure to long (8-18 hours) continuous, brief (1.5-5 hours) continuous or brief (<1.5 hours) intermittent periods of hypoxia, and artificial live-low train-high (LLTH)...
2009: Sports Medicine
Jonny Coppel, Philip Hennis, Edward Gilbert-Kawai, Michael Pw Grocott
Much hypoxia research has been carried out at high altitude in a hypobaric hypoxia (HH) environment. Many research teams seek to replicate high-altitude conditions at lower altitudes in either hypobaric hypoxic conditions or normobaric hypoxic (NH) laboratories. Implicit in this approach is the assumption that the only relevant condition that differs between these settings is the partial pressure of oxygen (PO2), which is commonly presumed to be the principal physiological stimulus to adaptation at high altitude...
2015: Extreme Physiology & Medicine
Beth A Beidleman, Charles S Fulco, Janet E Staab, Sean P Andrew, Stephen R Muza
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine whether cycling time trial (TT) performance differs between hypobaric hypoxia (HH) and normobaric hypoxia (NH) at the same ambient PO2 (93 mmHg, 4,300-m altitude equivalent). METHODS: Two groups of healthy fit men were matched on physical performance and demographic characteristics and completed a 720-kJ time trial on a cycle ergometer at sea level (SL) and following approximately 2 h of resting exposure to either HH (n = 6, 20 ± 2 years, 75...
2014: Extreme Physiology & Medicine
Charles S Fulco, Beth A Beidleman, Stephen R Muza
Acute mountain sickness (AMS) and large decrements in endurance exercise performance occur when unacclimatized individuals rapidly ascend to high altitudes. Six altitude and hypoxia preacclimatization strategies were evaluated to determine their effectiveness for minimizing AMS and improving performance during altitude exposures. Strategies using hypobaric chambers or true altitude were much more effective overall than those using normobaric hypoxia (breathing, <20.9% oxygen).
January 2013: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews
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